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考研英语范文阅读(八)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  Technically, any substance other than food that alters our bodily or mental functioning is a drug. Many people mistakenly believe the term drug refers only to some sort of medicine or an illegal chemical taken by drug addicts. They don't realize that familiar substances such as alcohol and tobacco are also drugs. This is why the more neutral term substance is now used by many physicians and psychologists. The phrase substance abuse is often used instead of drug abuse to make clear that substances such as alcohol and tobacco can be just as harmfully misused as heroin and cocaine.

  We live in a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves. When do these socially acceptable and apparently constructive uses of a substance become misuses? First of all, most substances taken in excess will produce negative effects such as poisoning or intense perceptual distortions. Repeated use of a substance can also lead to physical addiction or substance dependence. Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.

  Drugs (substances) that affect the central nervous system and alter perception, mood, and behavior are known as psychoactive substances. Psychoactive substances are commonly grouped according to whether they are stimulants, depressants, or hallucinogens. Stimulants initially speed up or activate the central nervous system, whereas depressants slow it down. Hallucinogens have their primary effect on perception, distorting and altering it in a variety of ways including producing hallucinations. These are the substances often called psychedelic (from the Greek word meaning mind-manifestation) because they seemed to radically alter one's state of consciousness.

  59. Substances abuse (line 5, paragraph 1) is preferable to drug abuse in that ________.

  (A) substances can alter our bodily or mental functioning if illegally used

  (B) drug abuse is only related to a limited number of drugtakers

  (C) alcohol and tobacco are as fatal as heroin and cocaine

  (D) many substances other than heroin or cocaine can also be poisonous

  60. The word pervasive (line 1, paragraph 2) might mean ________.

  (A) widespread

  (B) overwhelming

  (C) piercing

  (D) fashionable

  61. Physical dependence on certain substances results from ________.

  (A) uncontrolled consumption of them over long periods of time

  (B) exclusive use of them for social purposes

  (C) quantitative application of them to the treatment of diseases

  (D) careless employment of them for unpleasant symptoms

  62. From the last paragraph we can infer that ________.

  (A) stimulants function positively on the mind

  (B) hallucinogens are in themselves harmful to health

  (C) depressants are the worst type of psychoactive substances

  (D) the three types of psychoactive substances are commonly used in groups

  答案及试题解析

  D A A B

  59.(D)意为:除海洛因或可卡因外,许多其他物质也是有害的。

  第一段最后一句指出,许多医生(physician)和心理学家常使用物质滥用而不是药物滥用这一概念,他们想以此说明:滥用像烟酒这样的物质与滥用海洛因和可卡因一样有害。

  A 意为:如果非法使用,物质可能改变我们身体或大脑的功能。第一段第一句对药物这一概念下了一个定义:从专业角度来讲,除食品以外,任何改变我们的身体或大脑功能的物质都是药物。但是,正如第二句所指出的,许多人错误地认为药物这一概念仅指某种医药或嗜毒者用的非法化学药品。

  B 意为:药物滥用仅限指一少部分人的吸毒行为。

  C 意为:烟酒同海洛因和可卡因一样致命。这里,fatal(致命的)一词太夸张了,与原文中所说的有害(harmfully)相去甚远。

  60.(A)该词意为:普通的,广泛的。

  事实上,由第二段第一句的冒号后部分所表达的内容,我们可以推断出该词的意思。该句可译为:在我们生活的社会里,医用或社交用物质(药物)广泛存在,如:用阿斯匹林制止头痛,用酒交际,早晨用咖啡振作一下精神,抽支烟定定神(或:松弛一下)。

  B 意为:压倒一切的,占主流的。

  C 意为:尖锐的,尖的。

  D 意为:时髦的,流行的。

  61.(A)意为:长时间无节制地嗜用它们。

  根据第二段第四、五句,频繁使用(repeated use)某种物质(药物)会使身体对之上瘾或形成依赖。依赖起先表现为耐药量(tolerance)的增加:要达到满足,需要的剂量越来越多;停止服用后,一些不舒服的反应就会出现。可见,用药量和用药时间是造成药物依赖的两个重要因素。

  B 意为:仅将它们用于社交目的。文章第二段第一句确实提到了像酒这样的物质可以用于社交目的,但这不等于说只有用于社交目的的物质才可以使人上瘾。

  C 意为:将它们大量地用来治病。量大仅是可能产生药物依赖的原因之一,而频繁使用也是形成药物依赖的重要条件。

  D 意为:粗心使用它们而产生不良症状。

  62.(B)意为:幻觉剂本身就危害健康。

  根据第三段第四、五句,幻觉剂主要影响人的感知觉,以各种方式(包括产生幻觉)将它扭曲、改变。它们被称作引起幻觉的药物,因为它们似乎从根本上改变了人的意识状态。

  A 意为:兴奋剂对心智有积极影响。第三段前三句指出,影响中枢神经系统、改变感知觉和行为的药物属于对神经起显著作用的(psychoactive)物质,它们通常分为兴奋剂、抑制剂或幻觉剂。兴奋剂具有开始加快或激活中枢神经的作用,而抑制剂则具有减缓作用。但是,无论是哪种作用,其影响都是有害的。参阅第一段最后一句。

  C 意为:抑制剂是对神经起显著作用的物质中最坏的一种。第三段提到了三钟影响人的意识与行为的物质(见上文),但并未指出哪种效果最坏。

  D 意为:三种对神经起显著作用的物质经常被一起使用。这一点第三段也未提到。

  翻译句子

  1. We live in a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves.

  [参考译文] 我们生活在一种药品(毒品)的医学用途和社会用途都很广泛的社会里:一片用来止头疼的阿司匹林,一些用来社交的酒,早上自己提提神所喝的咖啡,一支用来定神的香烟。

  [结构剖析] 句子的主干就是 We live in a society…,后面 which 引导定语从句 in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive,修饰 society.冒号后面的部分是并列关系的名词词组,用来举例说明前面提出的观点,开始时可以略去不看。

  [阅读重点] 注意冒号后面列举的前三个名词词组中的动词不定式都相当于定语成分,修饰前面的中心名词,表示其功效。

  2. Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.

  [参考译文] 对药品的依赖性首先表现为不断增长的耐药量,要产生想得到的效果所需要的药品剂量越来越大,然后表现为当停药后,令人不快的停药症状的出现。

  [结构剖析] 句子的主干结构是 Dependence is marked first by…and then by…;逗号隔开的成分 with+n.+过去分词:with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect 作状语,用来进一步解释药物依赖的第一种表现。when the substance is discontinued 是表示时间的状语从句。

  [阅读重点] 注意 and 连接两个 by 开始的介词词组是并列关系,这样就能抓住句子的主干了。另外注意名词在这里的特殊意义:dependence 指对药物的依赖,withdrawal 的意思是停止用药。

  补充难句翻译

  1. The phrase substance abuse is often used instead of drug abuse to make clear that substances such as alcohol and tobacco can be just as harmfully misused as heroin and cocaine.

  [参考译文] 药品滥用这个词经常被用来代替毒品滥用,其目的是为了表明酒精和烟草这样的物质是可能像海洛因和可卡因那样被误用的。

  [结构剖析] 句子的主干是句子的前半部分 The phrase substance abuse is often used…to make clear…;to make clear that…是动词不定式作状语,表示目的。that 后面接的是宾语从句作动词 make clear 的宾语。

  [阅读重点] 注意 make+sth.+adj.:make sth. clear,这里因为 sth. 是一个 that 引导的从句,所以放在了形容词 clear 的后面。另外注意 as…as 的用法。

  2、Psychoactive substances are commonly grouped according to whether they are stimulants, depressants, or hallucinogens.

  [参考译文] 精神刺激性药品通常按照他们是否是兴奋剂,镇静剂或致幻剂来划分。

  [结构剖析] 这是一个简单句。句子的主干部分是 Psychoactive substances are…grouped according to…,使用了被动语态。其中 whether 引导宾语从句 whether they are stimulants, depressants, or hallucinogens 作介词 according to 的宾语。

  [阅读重点] group 这里用作动词,是分类的意思。

  语言点详解

  1. alter 改变

  [大纲词汇] alter v. 改变,变更 alteration n. 改变,变更

  [经典例句] The outstanding performance of the troupe altered their attitude.

  2. mental functioning 心理功能

  3. drug addict 吸毒者

  [扩充词汇] addict n. 入迷的人,上瘾的人; v. 使沉溺,使人迷,使上瘾

  4. alcohol 酒精

  [大纲词汇] alcohol n. 酒精,乙醇;含酒精的饮料

  [衍生词汇] alcoholic n.酒鬼;a.酒精的

  [经典例句] His mother told him to keep off alcohol.

  5. illegal 非法的

  [大纲词汇] illegal a.不合法的,非法的

  [经典例句] The state forbids illegal possession of firearms.

  6. neutral 中性的

  [大纲词汇] neutral a.中立的;中性的,中和的

  [经典例句] He tried to keep neutral in the conflicts between his friends.

  7. psychologist 心理学家

  [大纲词汇] psychology n. 心理学

  [衍生词汇] psychologist n.心理学家

  8. phrase 词

  [大纲词汇] phrase n.短语,词语,习语

  [经典例句] This phrase was used wrongly in the sentence.

  9. abuse 滥用

  [大纲词汇] abuse v./n.滥用;虐待;漫骂

  [经典例句] Drug abuse has become a serious social problem nowadays.

  10. instead of 代替

  [大纲词汇] instead ad.代替,顶替 instead of 代替,而不是;不是…(而是)

  [经典例句] Her brought two assistants with her instead of one.

  11. misuse 滥用

  [扩充词汇] misuse v. 错用,误用,滥用

  [构词方法] mis-后缀,表示不当,错,误

  [联想记忆] misunderstand v.误解 miscalculate v.误算

  [经典例句] You should not misuse his kindness and take his advantage.

  12. heroin 海洛因

  [大纲词汇] heroin n.海洛因

  13. cocaine 可卡因

  14. pervasive 普遍的

  [扩充词汇] pervasive a.到处弥漫的;普遍的,流行的

  [经典例句] Pollution is one of the most pervasive problems today.

  15. aspirin 阿斯匹林

  16. sociable 善于交际的

  [扩充词汇] sociable a.好交际的,合群的;社交的

  [经典例句] Although she is nice to everyone, she is not a sociable person.

  17. get going 开始工作

  [扩充词汇] get going 开始,开始谈话(或工作等)

  [经典例句] He suggested we get going with our work.

  18. constructive 有建设性的

  [大纲词汇] construct v.建设,建造,构造;创立

  [衍生词汇] constructive a.建设性的,有积极意义的

  [经典例句] The company gave constructive response to their criticism.

  19. first of all 首先

  [经典例句] First of all, your reaction should be justified.

  20. in excess 过量

  [大纲词汇] excess a.过量的,额外的;n.过量,过剩 in excess of 超过

  [经典例句] The materials you keep in excess will cost you too much money.

  21. negative effects 负面影响

  [大纲词汇] negative a.否定的,消极的,反面的,负的,阴性的;n.负数;(摄影)底片

  22. perceptual 感觉的

  [扩充词汇] perceptual a. 感知的,感觉的;感性的 perceptual response 知觉反应perceptual knowledge 感性知识

  23. physical addiction 身体上瘾

  [扩充词汇] addiction n.人迷,嗜好;瘾 heroin addiction海洛因瘾

  24. withdrawal symptoms 脱瘾的不舒服症状

  [大纲词汇] withdraw v.收回,撤消;缩回,退出;提取(钱)symptom n. 症状,征候,征兆

  [衍生词汇] withdrawal n.收回,取回,撤回;戒毒(脱瘾)的过程

  25. discontinue 停止

  [扩充词汇] discontinue v.停止,中断,终止

  [经典例句] We have to discontinue the projects because of a lack of fund.

  26. nervous system 神经系统

  [大纲词汇] nerve n.神经;勇气,胆量 nervous a.神经的;神经过敏的,紧张不安的

  27. perception 感知

  [大纲词汇] perceive v.察觉,感知;理解,领悟

  [衍生词汇] perception n.察觉,感觉,感知;认识,看法

  [经典例句] His perception of the change came in a flash.

  28. peychoactive 作用于精神的,影响(或改变)心理状态的

  [构词方法] psycho-前缀,表示精神:心理

  [联想记忆] psychoanalysis n. 精神分析 psychobiology n.精神生物学

  29. stimulant 兴奋剂

  [扩充词汇] stimulant n.引起兴奋的食品(或饮料等);兴奋剂;刺激物,影响力

  [经典例句] Coffee and tea are stimulants.

  30. depressant 镇静剂

  [大纲词汇] depress v.压抑,降低;使沮丧,压下

  [衍生词汇] depressant n.镇静剂

  31. hallucinogen 幻觉剂

  32. speed up 使加速

  [大纲词汇] speed up 使加速

  [经典例句] You have to speed up your rate of work.

  33. activate 启动

  [大纲词汇] activate v.使活动,启动

  [经典例句] He ordered the workers to activate the engine.

  34. slow down 降低(速度)

  [大纲词汇] slow down(使)放慢,减速

  [经典例句] She asked her son to slow down the car because she felt dizzy.

  35. primary effect 最初的作用

  36. hallucination 幻觉

  [扩充词汇] hallucination n.幻觉;妄想

  [经典例句] He was undergoing some perceptive hallucination.

  37. psychedelic 迷幻药的

  [扩充词汇] psychedelic a.迷幻药的;引起幻觉的 a psychedelic indulgence 迷幻沉洒psychedelic art 迷幻艺

  35. mind manifesting 显示内心想法的

  [大纲词汇] manifest v.表明,证明,显示;a.明白的,明了的

  [联想记忆] mind-altering a.麻痹神经的

  39. radically 极度地

  [大纲词汇] radical a. 基本的,重要的;激进的,极端的;根本的

  [经典例句] Attitudes towards education will have to change radically.

  40. fatal 致命的

  [大纲词汇] fatal a. 致命的,毁灭性的

  [经典例句] He collapsed at the fatal blow on his head.

  41. piercing 刺穿的

  [大纲词汇] pierce v刺破,刺穿

  [经典例句] They pursued their way in the piercing coldness.

  全文翻译

  从专业角度说,除食品外,任何能改变我们生理和心理机能的物质都是药物。很多人错误地认为药物这个词仅仅指某些药品或是吸毒者服用的违禁化学品。他们没有意识到诸如酒精、烟草这些我们熟悉的物质也是药物。这也是现在许多内科医生和心理学家使用物质这个更加中性的词的原因。他们常用物质滥用而不用药物滥用来清楚表明滥用酒精、烟草这样的物质如同滥用海洛因和可卡因一样有害。

  我们生活在一个物质(药物)在医疗和社交方面的使用都很广泛的社会里:用来缓解头痛的阿斯匹林,用来应酬的酒,早晨用来提神的咖啡,还有定神用的香烟。使用这些物质得到了社会认可,且显然具有积极的作用,但什么时候就变成滥用了呢?首先,大多数物质的过量使用都会产生负面影响,如中毒或严重的感知错乱。反复使用一种物质可以导致成瘾或对该物质的依赖。依赖的最初表现是不断增长的耐药量,要产生预期的效果需要的药剂量越来越大,而一旦中断使用就会出现难受的停药症状。

  影响中枢神经系统、改变感知觉和行为的药物(物质)属于对神经起显著作用的物质,它们通常分为兴奋剂、镇静剂和幻觉剂。兴奋剂主要起到加速或激活中枢神经系统的作用,而镇静剂则相反:减缓它的活动。幻觉剂主要影响人的感知,通过多种方式对感知加以扭曲或改变,其中包括产生幻觉。这些物质常被认为能引起幻觉(psychedelic一词源于希腊语,意为心灵显现),因为它们似乎能改变人的意识状态。

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