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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY45

2006-7-28 01:05  

  DAY45

  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1 Who was to blame for starting the Cold War? For nearly a generation after World War II, American historians generally agreed that the suspicious and grasping Soviets were almost solely responsible. This is “Orthodox” appraisal fitted comfortably with the traditional view of the United States as a God blessed land with an idealistic foreign policy. But in 1960s another interpretation began to flower, powerfully reinforced by an objection against what Americans were doing in Vietnam. People who held this view attempted to reverse the orthodox view. They argued that the Soviets had understandably defensive intentions at the end of World War II and that the United States had behaved aggressively and irresponsibly. Some of these critics pointed accusing finger at Truman. They declared that he had abandoned Roosevelts conciliatory approach and adopted a bulling attitude, emboldened by Americans atomic monopoly. The more radical of those people like the Kolkos found the roots of American aggression before Trumans time in longstanding policies of economic expansion.

  In the 1970s a “neoorthodox” interpretation emerged. Historians of this school, like John L. Gaddis, still place most of the blame for the Cold War on the Soviet Union, but they admit that American policies helped worsen the conflict. They also note how the constraints of domestic policies of economic expansion.

  This historical debate over the origin of the Cold War has compelled the recognition that the United States did have vital interests at stake in postwar diplomacy, and that policy makers pursued those interests with eagerness. But are selfinterests necessarily immoral? Is security a oneway street? Can the blame ever be exclusively with one side in a complex international dispute?1. People of the “orthodox” view placed the blame for starting the Cold War on the Soviet Union because

  A. They did not want American to take sole responsibility.

  B. They supported America in its foreign policy in Vietnam.

  C. They believe that America is always right in its foreign policy.

  D. They could find peace of mind in such a belief.

  2. By saying that “people who held this view attempted to reverse the orthodox view” (the fifth sentence in paragraph 1), the author means that those people

  A. did not quite agree to the “orthodox” view

  B. held an opposite view to the “orthodox” view

  C. considered the “orthodox” view unworthy of notice

  D. were faithful supporters of the Soviet Union foreign policy

  3. The “neoorthodox” view held that school take responsibility for the Cold War.

  A. the Soviet UnionB. the United States

  C. neither of those two countriesD. both of those two countries

  4. In the last paragraph, the author seems to imply that

  A. the Soviet Union should take the sole responsibility

  B. the United States should take the sole responsibility

  C. the Cold War was not started on one side only

  D. neither side started the Cold War

  5. The underlined word “orthodox” in the first paragraph means

  A. 正统的B. 传统的

  C. 正派的D. 主流的

  Passage 2As the American school term ends, New York is no closer to solving its acute shortage of certified teacher than it was earlier in the year.

  The citys attempt to resolve its education plight is aptly illustrated by the story of Peter DeMarco, formerly an aspiring comedian, who was recruited to teach English in the citys high schools.

  Mr. DeMarco and 300 other people joined the teaching ranks under the New York Teaching Fellows program, an initiative set up to fill numerous “technical vacancies” that are usually filled by teachers lacking full certification.

  The program was aimed at what Harold Levychancellor of the states board of education, which sponsored the initiative — calls “career changers”。 These are people who may once have thought about teaching but were “too late to get certified”, including former Peace Corps volunteers, “people with subject matter expertise and some idealism,” he says.

  Some 2,300 people from as far away as South Africa and Nigeria applied for the scheme. The successful candidates underwent an intensive induction program at the City University of New York during the summer and were sent to classrooms at the beginning of the school year. Most were sent to schools in troubled parts of the city.

  For many, including Mr. DeMarco, becoming a teacher meant a pay cut. “But Im not doing this for some lives,” he says. Now, at 38, after a variety of jobs — including standup comedy and acting roles — he says he is “finally where I want to be”。

  In one of his classes he asked students to discuss Robert Cormiers The Chocolate War, a book about life in a boarding school(寄宿学校), conforming and peer pressure. His 14 — to 16yearold students, who live in one of New Yorks toughest neighborhoods, recounted their own experiences of witnessing stabbings, street fights and even a shooting in a theatre. “And I used to throw eggs when I was a kid,” he told them.

  Teaching is difficult but satisfying, Mr. DeMarco says. He liked the job a week into it and still likes it now, months later. He plans to teach through the two years required by the program, and possibly even longer.

  “Tough as they are, the kids are clever …… some of their writing and creativity, its just phenomenal.

  People like Mr. DeMarco demonstrated concern for the quality of teaching. New York will need 40,000 to 55,000 more teachers than it expects to get over the next five years. Colleges are not producing enough teachers, he says.

  Teacher shortages are a national problem in the US, an issue highlighted in this years presidential election.

  New York is not the only state to recruit “alternatively certified” teachers, as those without education degrees and states certificates are also called. Thirteen states have adopted legislation allowing similar programs, according to the National Centre for Education Information, a think tank in Washington D.C.

  Critics accuse the program of lowering the requirements for teacher education in New York and being a shortterm quick fix to a longterm problem.

  “As long as New York City teachers make 3040per cent less money each year than their colleagues in the suburbs, were going to have a teacher shortage in the city,” says Ron Davis, a spokesman for the United Federation of Teachers (UFT), the largest teachers union in the city.

  The UFT is in deadlocked negotiations with City Hall over the terms of the teachers expired contract with the city.

  But Mr. DeMarco feels he and his colleagues make up for their lack of education training in life experiences, which a 22yearold education graduate cant do.

  1. According to the passage, what is not true about the New Yorks “Career Changers”?

  A. “Career Changers” may have thought of being a teacher but failed.

  B. “Career Changers” teach without education degrees and state certificates.

  C. “Career Changers” will teach in New York without any training.

  D. It is the sufficiently varied life experience that makes the Career Changers qualified.

  2. How do the education critics think of the New York Teaching Fellows Program?

  A. The program is a fastpaced solution.

  B. The program can only be a shortterm solution to the problem.

  C. The program should be a longterm one.

  D. The program is such a short term that cant solve the problem of certified teachers.

  3. Which following statement is not true?

  A. The Presidential election illuminated the issue of teacher shortages.

  B. The teacher shortages occur not only in New York but also in the whole nation.

  C. Alternatively certified teachers are legal in 13 states.

  D. Teachers in New York earn less money than that in suburbs.

  4. What will happen to the successful candidates of New York Teaching Fellows program except ?

  A. They will be sent to schools at the beginning of the school year.

  B. They will have to take teaching certificates later on.

  C. They will not teach in universities.

  D. They will stay in New York for teaching.

  5. Why did Mr. DeMarco like his job so soon?

  I. Teaching is by no means difficult.

  II. He dreams to influence the young generation by teaching.

  III. He found teaching very much satisfying.

  IV. The creativity of children is remarkable.

  A. I, II.B. III, IV

  C. I, II, III.D. II, III, IV

  Passage 3 Computer scientists are doing just that, and they say the humble insect heralds a revolution in software design.

  Rather than relying on complex, centralized logic systems that mimic(模仿) ant behavior uses many small, independent software agents. Each action on the simplest of rules, these agents together can solve problems that are enormously complex when viewed as a whole. Higherlevel, or “swarm”, intelligence emerges from those rudimentary (简单的,初期的) rules in ways that would be difficult to program into conventional software.

  Such autonomous systems have no single point of failure. Like ants that repair their nest if its disturbed and columns of ants that route around obstructions, these systems adapt to unanticipated problems in a way that ordinary centralized systems cant.

  Today, such systems are typically used for optimization applications such as factory scheduling and vehicle routing(路由选择)。 For example, General Motor Corp.s Saturn subsidiary uses distributed systems to control the flow of part assemblies. Instead of having each factory machines actions preprogrammed and unvarying, Saturns machines can sense the type and state of a part and adapt their actions on the fly.

  Other applications draw on different ant behaviors. For example, researchers are working on a way to analyze financial transactions based on the way ants sort and cluster their brood and their dead.

  The technology is a decade old, but its just beginning to blossom, says Doug Currie, president of Flavors Technology Inc., a Londonderry, N.H.based company that sells agentbased systems. “Its a great way to leverage (杠杆)technology, because of the surprise factorit does things you dont expect, but in a way thats natural,” Currie says.

  He adds that antlike systems will increasingly be used to design production lines, not just to control them. He predicts they could also have a use in medicine, where antlike agent could mimic the interactions of simple chemicals in the body and in drugs.

  Individually, ants have primitive brains, yet collectively they run surprisingly sophisticated and efficient operations. With no central direction, they divide responsibilities among themselves, find to their young and respond to attacks.

  Using a few simple rules of logic, ants can find the shortest path to a food source. They lay down chemical scents, called pheromones(信息素), and over time the most successful path — originally by the repeated deposit of pheromones.

  Similarly, multiagent systems can solve routing problems by reinforcing good routing problems by reinforcing good routes with “digital pheromones” and discouraging the choice of poor routes by allowing the pheromones to “evaporate”。 Londonbased British Telecommunications has developed a method for routing data packets around a network that way.

  Tucker Belch, a robotics researcher at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, says the thousands of ants in his laboratory amount to a “library” of logic that can be applied to solving human problems

  “A multiagent system could be the stock market or anything where there are thousands of individuals interacting with one another,” he says.

  Today, most agents have program logic built in form the beginning. But Belch says agents will become much more powerful as computer scientists enable them to learn form their environments. “These agents will empower us,” he says.

  1. What is special about the antlike systems?

  A. They foresee the revolution in software design.

  B. They adopt the complex and centralized logic systems.

  C. They would adapt to unanticipated problems unlike ordinary systems.

  D. They would easily and correctly program the rules ahead.

  2. The distributed systems in General Motors Corp.s Saturn subsidiary

  A. can control part of the assemble lines

  B. are always preprogrammed and unchangeable

  C. can sense the important information of a part.

  D. can carry out its actions while flying

  3. What does Doug Currie mean when he mentions “in a way thats natural”? (Para 6)

  A. The technology is natural.

  B. It can finish a job that the nature itself can accomplish.

  C. The surprise factor of leverage technology is beyond natural.

  D. The system can solve the difficult problems by imitating the ways that ants use.

  4. How does the antlike system solve the complex problem?

  I. It uses many small and independent software agents, each of which acts on simple rules.

  II. It would route around the obstructions when there is failure.

  III. They would carry out surprisingly operation when view as a whole.

  A. I, IIIB. II, III

  C. I, IID. I,II, III

  5. What is false about the “digital pheromones”?

  A. The successful path would be strengthened by the repeated deposit of pheromones.

  B. They imitate the ants pheromones.

  C. They are made of the ants chemical scents.

  D. It leads to the development of routing data packets.

  Passage 4Christmas Island is a dot in the India Ocean, located 2600 km northwest of Perth, Western Australia. Even though it is an Australian territory, its closest neighbor is Java, 360 km away.

  If you love nature, you will love Christmas Island! 63% of it is national park containing species of flora & fauna found nowhere else in the world! Probably the most noticeable local is the Red Crab(红蟹) with over 100 million of these vivid red creatures living on the forest floor.

  For centuries, Christmas Islands isolation and rugged coasts provided natural barriers to settlement. British and Dutch navigators first included the island on their charts starting in the early seventeenth century, and Captain William Mynors of the East India Ship Company vessel, arrived on Christmas Day, 25th December, 1643. He was unable to land, however, and it was not until 1688, when Captain William Dampier on the British Ship Cygnet, landed at the Dales (on the West Coast) that he and two of his crewmen were the first recorded people to set foot on Christmas Island.

  Christmas Island is the summit of a submarine mountain, rising steeply to a central plateau dominated by stands of rainforest. This plateau reaches heights of up to 361 meters and consists mainly of limestone and layers of volcanic rock.

  Geologists believe that about 60 million years ago the cone of an undersea volcano surfaced, forming a basin on which a coral atoll(环状珊瑚岛) then began to form. More than 20 million years ago, the atoll appears to have sunk slowly and limestone was deposited as the coral began to build up. Ten million years later, this process stopped and island began to emerge from the sea in a series of uplifts. Each of the island terraces was formed by the development of the fringing reef and sea cliff erosion before being uplifted. The lagoon drained and the central plateau was formed. Evidence of these volcanic origins can be seen at the Dales, and Dolly Beach where the basalt rock is exposed, forming the bad of freshwater streams.

  The islands 80 km coastline is an almost continuous sea cliff, of up to 20 meters in height. In a few places, the cliff gives way to shallow bays with small sand and coral shingle beaches. The largest of these bays forms the islands only port: Flying Fish Cove.

  Christmas Island has a unique population with a blend of Chinese, Malay and Caucasians from the Australian mainland. A visit here is a diverse cultural experience with numerous temples, festivals and a variety of cuisines.

  Though English is the official language, there are many residents who generally communicate in Malay or one of the four Chinese dialects. The earliest settlers spoke English & Cocos Malay, a unique version of Bahasa Indonesia which has been isolated from the mainstream language for over 150 years. Early arrivals from China mainly spoke Cantonese(粤语)。 Many early place names around the island are Cantonese words,such as Poon Saan.

  Post war arrival who came from Penang introduced other Chinese languages including Hakka, Hainese, Hokkien and Teochew, whilst those from Singapore introduced Mandarin. Bahasa Malayu is widely spoken by the Malay Community.

  Because English was not a prerequisite for employment, a sizeable proportion of todays community is not fluent in English and many residents still speak in their native tongue. The influx of tourists has had an impact on the islands language. Indonesian is frequently spoken along with many of the Chinese languages. Thai, Japanese, German and a few other European languages are sometimes heard.

  1. What is true about the Christmas Island?

  A. Christmas Island is isolated from the Australian Continent with only two neighbor countries — Australia and Java.

  B. Christmas Island is unknown until the Christmas Day, 25th December, 1643.

  C. Christmas Day is the Island Day of Christmas Island.

  D. Christmas Island belongs to Australia.

  2. No one could set foot on Christmas Island until 1688 because

  A. Captain William Mynors failed to locate it in 1643.

  B. No map had the secluded island on before 1688.

  C. The isolation as well as rugged coastline made it hard to be reached.

  D. Captain William Dampier had arrived at island in1643 but failed to land until 1688.

  3. How is the Christmas Island formed according to the geologists?

  Ⅰ。 The limestone was deposited while the coral built up.

  Ⅱ。 A coral atoll was forded within the cone of volcano.

  Ⅲ。 The plateau was formed in the dry lagoon.

  Ⅳ。 A series uplifts began.

  A. Ⅳ、Ⅲ、Ⅰ、Ⅱ B. Ⅰ、Ⅲ、Ⅱ、Ⅳ

  C. Ⅱ、Ⅰ、Ⅳ、ⅢD. Ⅲ、Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅳ

  4. The population of Christmas Island is from

  A. Australia.B. China.

  C. Caucasian.D. Malaysia.

  5. According to the passage, which language can you speak when you are in Christmas Island?

  A. English & Indonesian.B. Chinese & Malay.

  C. Your own native language.D. All above.

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:Passage 1

  此文主要介绍了不同时期、不同流派的历史学家就发动冷战的责任在苏联还是美国的问题上提出的不同观点。

  1. They argue that the Soviets had understandably defensive intentions at the end of World War II and that the United States had behaved aggressively and irresponsibly. 他们认为在二战末期苏联采取一种防范意图是理所当然的,同时,美国当时表现得野心勃勃和无所顾忌。

  2. This historical debate over the origin of the Cold War has compelled the recognition that the United States did have vital interests at stake in postwar diplomacy, and that policy makers pursued those interests with eagerness. 有关冷战起源的历史争议也使人不得不承认:在战后外交中,美国要维护其切身利益,政策制定者在谋求这些利益时表现得过急。

  3. But are selfinterests necessarily immoral? Is security a oneway street? Can the blame ever be exclusively with one side in a complex international dispute? 追求自身利益是不是不道德的呢?安全的维护是单方面的(one way street意思是:单行道)吗?在复杂的国际争端中,是否受责备的仅是一方呢?

  1. 「C」第一段第二三句指出,在五十年代中期,美国历史学家继承了美国的传统观点,认为美国是受到上帝庇护之地。因此,他们认为在外交政策上永远都是正确的。

  2. 「B」本句中“reverse”意思是“颠倒”。第一段第四句指出,在六十年代,另一种观点开始流行。从第一段第四句(意思见难句讲解)可知,这群人将冷战的责任归之于美国,这与正统的观点是截然相反的。C的意思是:认为对正统观点的不屑一顾。

  3. 「D」第二段说明了“新正统”观点。第二段阐述了“新正统”的观点,认为冷战责任应由苏联和美国两者共同承担。由此,答案选D.

  4. 「C」最后一段意思难句解释。很明显答案应该是C.

  5. 「A」Passage 2

  本文提到纽约市的持证教师奇缺,政府部门因此开展了一个旨在解决这个棘手问题的“纽约教学之友”运动,招聘一些富有专业知识的“改行者”当老师。

  1. The citys attempt to resolve its education plight is aptly illustrated by the story of Peter DeMarco, formerly an aspiring comedian, who was recruited to teach English in the citys high schools. 要说明该市试图摆脱它在教育上的困境的努力,彼得德马科的经历是一个很恰当的例子。他以前是很有抱负的喜剧演员,现在被招聘到该市中学教英语。

  2. Mr. DeMarco and 300 other people joined the teaching ranks under the New York Teaching Fellows program, an initiative set up to fill numerous “technical vacancies” that are usually filled by teachers lacking full certification. 在“纽约教学之友”计划之下,德马科先生和其他大约300 人加入了教师队伍。筹划这一解困行动的目的是填补大量的“技术性空缺”,而这些空缺通常是由缺乏正式认定资格的人士填补的。

  3. Critics accuse the program of lowering the requirements for teacher education in New York and being a shortterm quick fix to a longterm problem. 评论家指责这个计划降低师资培训要求,对一个长期问题来说是个并不完善的权宜之计。

  4. The UFT is in deadlocked negotiations with City Hall over the terms of the teachers expired contract with the city. 纽约市UFT所属教师同市政府签订的合同已经到期。UFT就合同条款和市政府进行的谈判现在陷入了僵局。

  1. 「C」文章第四段提到的这些改行者也许曾考虑过教书,但为时已晚,无法取得资格证书。最后一段又说到改行者在教育培训方面的不足可以用生活经验弥补,所以A,B,D都正确。第四段提到成功的应聘者(改行者)夏季要经过上岗强化课程的严格培训,所以C错误。

  2. 「B」文章第十三段。见难句解释5.

  3. 「A」highlight 意为强调,不要望文生义地认为是“照亮”。其他选项在十二、十四段找到答案。

  4. 「B」见文章第五段。School 是指中小学,不包括大学。

  5. 「D」见文章第六、八、九段。 Make an impact on some lives: 对一些人的人生道路产生影响。

  Passage 3

  本文主要介绍了类蚂蚁软件系统的原理、优势和应用。它能对随时出现的问题做出适当的处理,并很好地解决路由问题。

  1. Like ants that repair their nest if its disturbed and columns of ants that route around obstructions, these systems adapt to unanticipated problems in a way that ordinary centralized systems cant. 像在蚁巢受到破坏时修复蚁巢的蚂蚁和绕过障碍进行的蚁队一样,这些系统能以普通集中式系统所不能的方式自适应地解决没有预见到的问题。

  2. They lay down chemical scents, called pheromones, and over time the most successful path — originally by the repeated deposit of pheromones. 它们(蚂蚁)释放被称为“信息素”的化学气味,随着时间的推移,原先通过探试法找到的最成功的通路因重复注入信息素而得到强化。

  3. Similarly, multiagent systems can solve routing problems by reinforcing good routing problems by reinforcing good routes with “digital pheromones” and discouraging the choice of poor routes by allowing the pheromones to “evaporate”。 与此类似,多代理系统可以通过增加“数字信息素”强化好路由和使信息素“蒸发”抑制差路由的方式解决路由选择。

  1. 「C」文章第一段提到蚂蚁将带来软件设计的革命。Herald 在这里不仅仅是foresee的意思。文章第二、三、四段提到类蚂蚁系统不以复杂的集中式逻辑,随时自适应地解决没有预见到的问题。

  2. 「C」part assemblies:零件配置流水线。On the fly:在忙碌之中。文章第四段提到机器可感知零件的类型和状态(important information of a part),随时适应地采取动作。

  3. 「D」类蚂蚁系统技术是模仿蚂蚁而产生作用的,这句话实际上就指出了类蚂蚁技术的自然本质。

  4. 「D」见文章第二、六段。

  5. 「C」见文章第九、十段。“数字信息素”以蚂蚁释放的信息素为原理来解决问题,具有类似的功能。但它并不具有蚂蚁的化学气味。

  Passage 4

  本文主要围绕着地理位置、地质构造和当地的人口、语言这三方面来介绍印度洋上的圣诞岛。它与众不同, 别具特色,是热爱自然者的天堂。

  1. Geologists believe that about 60 million years ago the cone of an undersea volcano surfaced, forming a basin on which a coral atoll then began to form. 地理学家们认为,大约六千万年以前, 一座海底火山的顶端浮出了海面并形成了盆地, 然后一座环状珊瑚岛开始在此形成了。

  2. Each of the island terraces was formed by the development of the fringing reef and sea cliff erosion before being uplifted. 在提升之前,岛屿的每一层都是经过珊瑚礁的累积和海崖的腐蚀才形成的。

  3. The lagoon drained and the central plateau was formed. Evidence of these volcanic origins can be seen at the Dales, and Dolly Beach where the basalt rock is exposed, forming the bad of freshwater streams. 礁湖的海水慢慢地排尽之后,便形成了中心高原。这些远古火山如今在戴尔和多利海滩仍有迹可寻,在此随处可见玄武岩构成的内河河床。

  4. Post war arrival who came from Penang introduced other Chinese languages including Hakka, Hainese, Hokkien and Teochew, whilst those from Singapore introduced Mandarin. 战后,槟榔屿的来客引进了其他的汉语方言,如客家语,海南语,福建语和潮州话,而新加坡的来访者又引入了普通话。

  1. 「D」文章第三段提到在17世纪早期,英国和荷兰的航海家已经在航海图上标出圣诞岛的位置。1643年只是威廉麦诺斯船长到达圣诞岛的时间。

  2. 「C」文章第三段提到圣诞岛的与世隔绝和其蜿蜒的海岸线成为了外界接近的天然屏障。因此1643年威廉麦诺斯船长虽然到达那里却无法登陆。直至1688年威廉丹姆皮埃尔才首次登陆成功。

  3. 「C」文章第五段介绍了地理学家们认为的圣诞岛的形成过程。

  4. 「A」文章第七段第一句提到,圣诞岛的人口有来自澳大利亚内陆的中国人,马来人和高加索人混合组成。

  5. 「D」见文章第八、九、十段有关圣诞岛的语言特点。

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