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考研英语范文阅读(三十四)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  If you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile,  you must know how to identify shared experiences and problems. Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view. Depending on whom you are addressing, the problems will be different. If you are talking to a group of managers, you may refer to the disorganized methods of their secretaries; alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you may want to comment on their disorganized bosses.

  Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses' convention,  of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. A man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on. Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch, the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself. “Who is that?” the new arrival asked St. Peter. “Oh, that's God,” came the reply, “but sometimes he thinks he's a doctor.”

  If you are part of the group which you are addressing,  you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it'll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman's notorious bad taste in ties. With other audiences you mustn't attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making disparaging remarks about their canteen or their chairman. You will be on safer ground if you stick to scapegoats like the Post Office or the telephone system.

  If you feel awkward being humorous,  you must practice so that it becomes more natural. Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. Often it's the delivery which causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light-hearted remark. Look for the humor. It often comes from the unexpected. A twist on a familiar quote “ If at first you don't succeed, give up” or a play on words or on a situation. Search for exaggeration and understatements. Look at your talk and pick out a few words or sentences which you can turn about and inject with humor.

  41. To make your humor work, you should ________.

  (A)take advantage of different kinds of audience

  (B)make fun of the disorganized people

  (C)address different problems to different people

  (D)show sympathy for your listeners

  42. The joke about doctors implies that, in the eyes of nurses, they are ________.

  (A)impolite to new arrivals

  (B)very conscious of their godlike role

  (C)entitled to some privileges

  (D)very busy even during lunch hours

  43. It can be inferred from the text that public services ________.

  (A)have benefited many people

  (B)are the focus of public attention

  (C)are an inappropriate subject for humor

  (D)have often been the laughing stock

  44. To achieve the desired result, humorous stories should be delivered ________.

  (A)in well-worded language

  (B)as awkwardly as possible

  (C)in exaggerated statements

  (D)as casually as possible

  45. The best title for the text may be ________.

  (A)Use Humor Effectively

  (B)Various Kinds of Humor

  (C)Add Humor to Speech

  (D)Different Humor Strategies

  答案及试题解析

  CBDDA

  41. [C]

  此题较容易,区分度好。

  本题考的是局部信息。考生只要看懂了第一段第三句话“Depending on whom you are addressing,  the problems will be different”以及后面的supporting evidence,就能够准确地回答本题。

  42. [B]

  此题的难度合适,区分度不太理想。

  本题的关键是看学生是否理解第二段结尾St.Peter的话。有42.8%的考生选C项是因为没有理解St.Peter的话,而把注意力放在了医生的所作所为上,即医生把新来的人推到一边,冲到队伍的最前面等等,因而给人一种他享有特权的印象。

  43. [D]

  此题的难度合适,区分度好。

  本题的关键是第三段的最后一句话,意思是:你去开邮局或电话系统(即public services)的玩笑则比较安全,不会有冒犯什么人的危险,同时本句中还出现了一个关键词“scapegoats”,说明public services常常成为人们的笑柄。

  44. [D]

  此题的难度合适,区分度好。

  本题主要考第四段的内容。其中有一些关键词,如:“natural”,“relaxed”,“unforced”,“light-hearted”等。只要考生看懂了这些词的意思,这道题就很容易了。

  45. [A]

  此题的难度合适,区分度好。

  这道题考的是对全文的理解,是一道总括题。答总括题需要利用全文的信息。从全文各段的内容来看,文章主要是讲如何有效地使用幽默。采用排除法很容易确定本题的答案。

  翻译句子

  1、 Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view.

  [参考译文]你的幽默必须和听众相关,而且能够有助于显示你是他们中的一分子,或者你了解他们所处的情形并且同意他们的观点。

  2、You will be on safer ground if you stick to scapegoats like the Post Office or the telephone system.

  [参考译文]如果你选择去评论邮局或电话局这样的替罪羊,那你就会很安全。

  补充难句翻译

  ①Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view. [参考译文]你的幽默必须和听众相关,而且能够有助于显示你是他们中的一分子,或者你了解他们所处的情形并且同意他们的观点。

  [结构剖析]该句是一个复杂单句,句子的主语是your humor,后面有两个平行的谓语must be和should help,它们后面分别有其宾语。其中should help后面的宾语是不定式to show,而它的宾语比较复杂,是两个并列的宾语从句: that you are one of them和 that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view,中间用or连接。

  [阅读重点]本句结构比较简明,只需注意show them后面是两个并列的宾语从句就可以了。后面的宾语从句中有个很有用的词组in sympathy with,表示同情、同意、赞同。

  ②If you are part of the group which you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it'll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman's notorious bad taste in ties. [参考译文]:如果你是你讲话对象中的一员,那么你就身处一种(有利)位置来了解对你们来说都很普遍的经历和问题,而且你对餐厅中难以下咽的食物或老总臭名昭彰的领带品位进行随意评判也是合适的。

  [结构剖析]if引导了一个条件从句,而后面的主句是两个子句构成的并列句。在第一个子句 you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you 中又有一个定语从句which are common to all of you来修饰the experiences and problems,而后面的子句的结构是一个it is adj. for sb. to do sth.的结构。

  [阅读重点]要看懂本句,重点在于要把后面的两个子句断开,并分别理解。

  ③Include a few casual and apparently off-the- cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner.[参考译文]:你应该(在讲话中)还包括几个随意的和似乎是脱日而出的评论,这些评论应该以一种放松自然的方式表达出来。

  [结构剖析]该句是一个祈使句。谓语是include,宾语是remarks,后面有一个定语从句修饰它。

  [阅读重点]注意该句的特性。另外注意off-the-cuff的意思。

  ④Often it's the delivery which causes the audience to smile,  so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light -hearted remark.[参考译文]:经常出现的情况是表达方式会使听众发笑,因此要讲得慢一点,而且记住抬抬眉毛或做出一个不相信的表情都能有助于显示你是在讲笑话。

  [结构剖析]整句可以看成是由so连接的并列句,前后有一定的因果关系。前面的子句是一个强调结构,而后面又是一个祈使句,其谓语动词是speak和remember.而remember后面又是一个很长的宾语从句。

  [阅读重点]要理解前后的因果关系。

  语言点详解

  1.identify认出;识别[大纲词汇]identify v.认出;识别[衍生词汇]identification n.认明;识别; 身份证明,简写为ID[经典例句] A reasonable man can identify the best method of solving the problem.

  2.sympathy同情[大纲词汇]sympathy n.同情;体谅;[衍生词汇]词缀sym-表示“同,相同的” sympathetic adj……同情的;表示同情的;感到同情的antipathy n.憎恶,反感[经典例句] Thomas Hardy shows his great sympathy towards his characters.

  3.alternatively作为选择,或者[大纲词汇]alternative adj.& n.随便一个的;二者择一;选择[用法解析]alternatively可以用在写作中,用来引导另外一个平行的观点或意见。

  4.St.Peter圣彼得[用法解析]St.是Saint的缩写,是人们对耶酥基督的门徒的尊称。

  5.accommodation住处,住所[大纲词汇] accommodation n.住处,住所[衍生词汇] accommodate vt.供应,供给,使适应,调节[经典例句] The university doesn't provide accommodation for the first-years students.

  6.inedible不可食用的[大纲词汇]edible adj.适合食用的;可食用的[经典例句]Although those mushrooms look very appetizing, they are really inedible.

  7.canteen食堂,员工餐厅[大纲词汇]canteen n.食堂,餐厅[记忆方法]这个词很好记,它的发音与汉语的餐厅差不多。

  8.appropriate正确的;适当的[大纲词汇]appropriate adj.正确的;合适的;适当的[经典例句] To attend the dinner party, you should choose the appropriate dressing.

  9.notorious声名狼藉的;臭名昭彰的[大纲词汇] notorious adj.臭名远扬的,臭名昭彰的[联想记忆]  notorious一词是个不折不扣的贬义词,和它意思相近,表示“名气很大的”的英文词很多,比如:famous, well-known,  renowned, celebrated都是褒义,而贬义的只有infamous一词。

  10.resent愤恨,怨恨[大纲词汇]resent v.愤恨,怨恨,愤慨[经典例句]The Chairman resents all the unfair comments imposed on him.

  11 .disparaging蔑视的,轻视的[大纲词汇]disparaging adj.蔑视的,毁谤的,轻视的[经典例句]

  please don't make any disparaging remarks.

  12.scapegoat替罪羊,代人受过者[联想记忆]记住goat这个词。在英文中与“羊”有关的还有black Sheep,表示败类,害群之马。

  13 off-the-cuff未经准备的;即席的;随意的[经典例句]In order to show your humor, your must make some off-the-cuff humorous remarks.

  14 .exaggeration夸张;夸大[大纲词汇]exaggerate v.夸张;夸大[经典例句] The manager exaggerate the difficulties of the situation to get additional financial support from the board.

  15.understatement(一种修辞方法)故意的轻描淡写

  全文翻译

  如果你想在谈话中用幽默来使人发笑,你就必须知道如何识别共同的经历和共同的问题。你的幽默必须与听众有关,能够向他们显示你是他们的一员,或者你了解他们的情况,同情他们的观点。根据与你谈话的不同对象,问题也有所不同。如果你在和一群经理谈话,你就可以评论他们秘书的工作方法紊乱;相反,如果你在和一群秘书谈话,你就可以评论她们老板的工作方法紊乱。

  下面举一个例子,它是我在一个护士大会上听到的。这个故事效果很好,因为听众对医生都有同样的看法。一个人到了天堂,由圣彼得带着他参观。他看到了豪华的住宅、美丽的花园、晴朗的天气等等。所有人都很安静、礼貌和友善,然而当这位新来的人在排队等候午餐时,突然被一位穿白大褂的人推到一旁。只见这人挤到了队伍的前头,抓起他的食物,噔噔地旁若无人地走到一张餐桌旁。“这是谁啊?”新来的人问圣彼得,“哦,那是上帝,”他回答说,“但有时也认为自己是一名医生。”

  如果你是你谈话对象集体中的一员,你就能够了解你们所共有的经历和问题,你就可对餐厅极难吃的食物或者总裁在选择领带方面差劲的品味进行评头论足。而对于其他听众,你就不能试图贸然地讲这种幽默,因为他们也许不喜欢外人对他们的餐厅或总裁有如此微词。如果你选择去评论邮局或电话局这样的替罪羊,那你就会很安全。

  如果你在幽默时感到很别扭,你应该进行练习使它变得更自然。包括一些很随便的、看上去是即兴的话,你可以用轻松的、不做作的方式把它们说出来。常常是你说话的方式使听众发笑,因此说慢一些,并且记住扬扬眉毛或者做出一种不相信的表情都会向人们显示你正在说笑话。

  留意幽默,它常常是在出其不意的时候出现。它可以是一句常言的歪曲如“你要是一开始不成功,就放弃”,或者是玩弄语言和情景。留意夸张和打折扣的话。考虑一下你的谈话,选出一些词汇和句子,颠倒它们的秩序,并注入一些幽默。

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