• 站内搜索:

考研英语核心词汇速成胜经 Unit 11

2006-7-14 22:47  

  真题文章(2004年完型)

  Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency  (crimes committed by young people) focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence. Theories centering on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior because they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through interaction with others. Theories focusing on the role of society suggest that children commit crimes in response to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status, or as a rejection of middle-class values.

  Most theories of juvenile delinquency have focused on children from disadvantaged families, ignoring the fact that children from wealthy homes also commit crimes. The latter may commit crimes for lack of adequate parental control. All theories, however, are tentative and are subject to criticism. Changes in the social structure may indirectly affect juvenile crime rates. For example, changes in the economy that lead to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment in general make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. The resulting discontent may in turn lead more youths into criminal behavior.

  Families have also experienced changes these years. More families consist of one parent households or two working parents; consequently, children are likely to have less supervision at home than was common in the traditional family structure. This lack of parental supervision is thought to be an influence on juvenile crime rates. Other identifiable causes of offensive acts include frustration or failure in school, the increased availability of drugs and alcohol, and the growing incidence of child abuse and child neglect. All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act, although a direct causal relationship has not yet been established.

  考研核心词汇

  juvenile / 5dVu:vinail /  adj. 青少年的, 幼稚的  n. 青少年, 少年读物

  [例] The problem of juvenile delinquency presented itself for the attention from the whole society.   少年犯罪的这个问题引起了全社会的注意。

  [同义] young , youthful

  [反义] adult  / E5dQlt, 5AdQlt /  n. 成人, 成年人  adj. 成人的, 成熟的

  [派生] juvenility  / 7dVu:vi5niliti /  n. 年轻, 不成熟

  delinquency  / di5liNkwEnsi /  n.  行为不良, 错失

  [例] delinquency problems      青少年犯罪的问题

  [派生] delinquent  / di5liNkwEnt /  n. 失职者, 违法者  adj. 失职的, 有过失的, 违法的, 拖欠债务的

  [固定搭配]  juvenile delinquency 少年犯罪;

  penalize / 5pi:nElaiz / v. 处罚

  [例] Their team was penalized for intentionally wasting time.

  他们的球队因故意拖延时间而受罚。

  [同义] castigate , chastise , discipline,  punish

  [反义] reward  / ri5wC:d /  n. 报酬, 奖金  vt. 酬劳, 奖赏

  [派生] penalty  / 5penlti / n. 处罚, 罚款

  misdeed / 5mis5di:d /  n.  罪行, 犯罪

  [例] A misdeed means a wrong or illegal deed .

  misdeed的意思是错误的或非法的行为 .

  interaction  / 7intEr5AkFEn /  n.  交互作用, 交感

  [例] interaction of electrons    「物」电子的相互作用

  [派生] interact / 7intEr5Akt /  vi. 互相作用, 互相影响

  latter  / 5lAtE / adj. 后面的, (两者中)后者的, 较后的, 近来的

  [例] Of the two the latter is far better than the former.

  两者中后者比前者好得多。

  [同义] later

  [反义] former / 5fC:mE / adj. 从前的, 以前的 n. 形成者, 创造者, 模型, 样板

  parental / pE5rentl /  adj. 父母亲的, 做双亲的

  [例] parental care    父母(般)的照料

  [派生] parent  / 5pZErEnt /  n.  双亲, 父亲(或母亲)

  tentative / 5tentEtiv /  n. 试验, 假设  adj. 试验性的, 试探的, 尝试的, 暂定的

  [例] a tentative suggestion    试探性建议

  [同义] experimental, trial

  [反义] definite / 5definit /  adj.  明确的, 一定的

  [派生] tentatively/ 5tentEtivli /  adv.  试验性地, 暂时地

  unemployment  / 5Qnim5plCimEnt /  n. 失业, 失业人数

  [例] unemployment pay    失业补贴

  [反义] employment / im5plCimEnt /  n. 雇用, 使用, 利用, 工作, 职业

  [派生] unemployed  / 5Qnim5plCid /  adj.  失业的, 未被利用的

  discontent / 5diskEn5tent /  n. 不满

  [例] Sometimes discontent turned into action.

  不满有时导致行动。

  [反义] content / kEn5tent /  n. 内容, 容量, 目录, 满足adj.  满足的, 满意的, 愿意  vt.  使满足

  [派生] discontented  / 5diskEn5tentid /  adj.  不满意的

  supervision  / 7sju:pE5viVEn /  n. 监督, 管理

  [例] The house was built under the careful supervision of an architect.

  这房子是在一位建筑师的细心监督下建造的。

  [派生] supervise  / 5sju:pEvaiz / v. 监督, 管理, 指导

  offensive / E5fensiv /  adj. 讨厌的, 无礼的, 攻击性的  n. 进攻, 攻势

  [例] offensive formation    进攻队形

  [同义] insulting , annoying ,disgusting , disagreeable

  [反义] inoffensive  / 7inE5fensiv / adj. 无害的, 不伤人的, 不触犯人的, 让人不讨

  厌的

  [派生] offense / E5fens /  n. 进攻

  abuse  / E5bju:z /  n . 滥用, 虐待, 辱骂, 陋习, 弊端  v.  滥用, 虐待, 辱骂

  [例] A stream of abuse came from his lips.    他说了一些粗话。

  [同义] damage, ill-use, injure , mistreat

  [反义] respect / ris5pekt/  n.  尊敬, 敬重, 注意, 考虑, 尊重, 关系, 有关, 敬意 vt. 尊敬, 尊重, 不防碍

  [派生] abusive  / E5bju:siv / adj.  辱骂的, 滥用的

  neglect  / ni5^lekt /  vt.  忽视, 疏忽, 漏做  n.  忽视, 疏忽, 漏做

  [例] Don't neglect to lock the door.    别忘了锁门。

  [同义] disregard , ignore,  omit , overlook,  pass over,  slight

  [反义] endeavor  / in5devE /  n. 努力, 尽力  vi. 尽力, 努力

  [派生] neglected  / nI`^lektId /  adj.  被忽视的

  neglectable  / ni5^lektEbl / adj.  可忽视的

栏目相关课程表