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英汉翻译原理 4

2006-07-05 09:09

  Unit 4

  I、课外练习参考译文:

  将来水的问题会变得更加尖锐复杂。不断增长的人口将大量增加城市废物,主要是生活污水。另一方面,用水需求的不断增长将使得可用于稀释废水的水量大大减少。快速发展的工业越来越多地采用各种复杂的化学方法,从而使废水大量增多,而很多废水中含有种种有害的化学物质。为了养活迅速增长的人口,农业必须集约化,这就会不断增加农用化学品的用量。由此看来,必须立即采取果断行动研究污染问题的整治措施。

  整治污染问题的方法有两种。第一种是通过废物处理减少污染的危害,包括固体废物排放“之前”的处理和液体废物或污水的处理,从而实现水的循环利用或者尽量降低最终排放前的污染程度。

  第二种方法是开发全部或部分废物的经济利用。农田中施用农家肥补充肥分或有机肥。有些地区使用污水处理厂排放的污水进行灌溉施肥。其他水处理厂排出的废水也可用作补充水源。现在,禽肉加工等许多行业正在把原先废弃的下脚料加工成可供出售的副产品,其他行业也在研究废弃物的经济利用可能途径。

  II、英汉翻译原理第三讲:怎样理解原文?

  「例25」For some people hope dies slowly.

  「译文」对有些人来说,希望不会轻易破灭。

  「例26」In planning my drive to the airport, I will factor in a cushion: to allow for the unexpected, such as heavy traffic or a flat tire.

  「译文」我在安排开车前往机场时,总会考虑留一点时间,以防路上遇到交通堵塞或者轮胎漏气等意外情况。

  「例27」The blue in his fine eyes seemed to preclude his being a Syrian, but there was an encouraging curve in his nostrils.

  「译文」看他那双蓝眼睛,他似乎不可能是叙利亚人,但看他鼻子的曲线,却又使人觉得他很有可能是的。

  「例28」The pace was comfortable, so I decided to stay where I was.

  「译文」我觉得这种步速跑起来轻松,所以我就决定保持这种速度。

  「例29」He always lives ahead of his salary.

  「译文」他总是不到发薪水的日子就把钱花完了。或:他的薪水总是不够花。

  美国语言教学家Wilga M. Rivers 说过理解中要掌握三个层次的意义,即词语意义、语法或结构意义以及社会和文化意义(the three levels of meaning: lexical meaning, structural or grammatical meaning, and social-cultural meaning)。

  「例30」So that's how I became just another kid in school.

  「译文」就这样,我成了学校里一名和其他孩子一样的普通孩子。

  「例31」At first, they were being nice.

  「译文」起初人们只是出于一时的好心。

  「例32」John Major faces severe social and economic problems as well as tough debate over European integration, but his top priority will be to maintain the Tories' long lease on 10 Downing Street.

  「译文」梅杰面临严重的社会和经济问题以及关于欧洲统一的艰苦辩论,但是他的当务之急将是维系保守党的长期执政。

  德国译学教授Wolfram Wilss说:

  Translating requires the syntactic, semantic, stylistic and text-pragmatic comprehen-sion by the translator of the original texts.(翻译过程要求译者在句法、语义、文体和语篇语用各方面对原文的进行理解。)

  一、要理解原文语句的内部关系:

  「例33」Go to hell! You report what I have done to the authorities.

  ×去你的吧!你去向领导汇报我对他们的不敬吧!

  「译文」去你的吧!你去向领导汇报我的所作所为好啦!

  「例34」He ate his savoury, and hurried the maid as she swept the crumbs.

  ×他一边吃着最后的一道消食小吃,一边催促女佣人赶快打扫碎屑。

  「译文」他吃完最后的一道消食小吃,在女佣人打扫碎屑时,催她快一点。

  「例35」Derek fancies himself as a ladies' man, but he spends too much time admiring himself in the mirror for my liking.

  ×德里克自以为是讨女人喜欢的人,可是为了讨我喜欢,他却花很多时间在镜子面前自我欣赏。

  「译文」德里克自以为是个讨女人喜欢的人,可是我不喜欢他花那么多的时间在镜子面前自我欣赏。

  III、课堂练习(以下各句的译文在理解上都有问题。请正确理解以下各句,并指出译文中的理解错误)及参考译文:

  1.My delegation is not satisfied that the case has yet been made for convening such a broad conference.

  ×我方代表团对于没有人提出理由说明应召开如此广泛的会议很不满意。

  我方代表团认为,还没有人提出充分理由说明应召开如此广泛的会议。(satisfy 说服,使确信)

  2.The nationalized industries have been spoon-fed for so long that they don't care whether they give value for money, or make a profit or loss.

  ×国有工业长期受到优厚待遇, 他们不在乎钱, 也不在乎盈利或亏损。

  一些国有行业长期受到优厚待遇,他们不在乎钱花得是不是值得,也不在乎盈利或亏损。

  3.I was not quite sure whether they had locked the door; and when I dared move, I got up and went to see. Alas! no jail was ever more secure.

  ×我不敢肯定他们是不是把门锁上了;等到我敢走动的时候,我站起身来走过去看看。天啊!没有一所监狱更加牢固。

  我不敢肯定他们是不是把门锁上了;等到我敢走动的时候,我站起身来走过去看看。天啊!锁得牢牢的好象监狱一般。

  4.Very hesitatingly I selected a tube of blue paint, and with infinite precaution made a mark about as big as a bean on the snow-white field.

  ×我迟疑不决地选了一管蓝色颜料,然后小心翼翼地画了一笔,就像雪白的田野上的一粒蚕豆那么大小。

  我迟疑不决地选了一管蓝色颜料,然后非常小心翼翼地在画布雪白的底色上点了豆子般大小的一点。

  5.I agree with you that many laws are unjust, but if you make every law a matter of conscience you will end up in jail.

  ×我同意你的意见,很多法律是不公正的,但如果你都凭良心来制定每项法律的话,你最终就得坐牢。

  我同意你的意见,很多法律是不公正的,但如果你对待每项法律都要讲良心的话,你最终就得坐牢。

  6.Ring farewell to the century of physics, the one to which we split the atom and turned silicon into computing power,

  ×向物理世纪告别吧,在这个世纪里,我们分裂了原子,把硅变为计算机的动力。

  向物理学的世纪告别吧,在这个世纪里,我们实现了原子的分裂,我们把硅变成了计算能力。

  7.The sun sets regularly on the Union Jack these days, but never on the English language.

  ×现在太阳从英国国旗上有规则地落下,但是英语却不是这种情况。/ 现在英国国旗上照到的阳光日益减少,但英语却不是这种情况。

  现在,英国已不再是个“日不落”的国家了,但是英语却还是在广泛地流行使用。(Union Jack英国国旗)

  8.I hear the Hindoo teaching his favorite pupil the loves, wars, adages, transmitted safely to this day from poets who wrote three thousand years ago.

  ×我听见有三千年前的诗人们书写的、完好无损地流传至今的、有印度教士传授给得意门生的、有关爱情故事、战争和格言。

  我听见印度人在向他的得意门生传授爱情故事、战争和格言,这些都是由三千年前的诗人所写并完好地流传至今。

  IV、课外练习(正确理解下列短文,并将其译成汉语):

  First impressions are often lasting ones. Indeed, if you play your cards right, you can enjoy the benefits of what sociologists call the “halo effect.” This means that if you're viewed positively within the critical first few minutes, the person you've met will likely assume everything you do is positive.

  How you move and gesture will greatly influence an interviewer's first impression of you.  In a landmark study of communications, psychologists discovered that seven percent of any message about our feelings and attitudes comes from the words we use, 38 percent from our voice, and a startling 55 percent from our facial expressions. In fact, when our facial expression or tone of voice conflicts with our words, the listener will typically put more weight on the nonverbal message.

  To make your first encounter a positive one, start with a firm handshake. If the interviewer doesn't initiate the gesture, offer your hand first. Whenever you have a choice of seats, select a chair beside his or her desk, as opposed to one across from it. That way there are no barriers between the two of you and the effect is somewhat less confrontational. If you must sit facing the desk, shift your chair slightly as you sit down, or angle your body in the chair so you're not directly in front of your interviewer.

  Monitor your body language to make sure you don't seem too desperate for the job, or too eager to please. Keep a Poker face in business situations. Inappropriate smiling is the most common example of a nonverbal behavior that undercuts verbal messages —— making you appear weak and unassertive.     Good eye contact is also important. One study found that job applicants who make more eye contact are perceived as more alert, dependable, confident and responsible.       (298 words)

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