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英汉翻译原理 3

2006-07-05 09:07

  Unit 3

  I. 课外练习参考译文:

  我最初开始散步是作为一种脱身之计。在办公室里忙了一个上午之后,我发现午饭时出去走一走,吸一口新鲜空气,享受一下阳光,十分令人神清气爽。我还发现,在夜间充满寒意的空气中散步也是一种使人心旷神怡的放松办法。

  一个冬夜,经过了医院里好几个小时精疲力竭的工作后我漫步在空旷无人的大街上,那种感觉永远都无法忘却。我一下子发现自己不再感到紧张疲劳。什么病人的病情、个人的烦恼,似乎就像寒夜中呼出的热气,一下子都烟消云散了,

  我把散步纳入了每天的日程,不仅精神振作了,而且体重和血压也逐渐下降了。我开始查阅有关散步的医学文献。通过研究,还通过从事家庭保健医生工作中的临床观察,我发现,无论年龄大小,散步都能健身瘦身,延年益寿。

  散步同游泳、骑车、跑步等一样,是一种有氧运动,能够增加皮肤和肌肉的供氧,从而增进体能和耐力。这种运动可成为预防心血管疾病的主要因素。

  散步是一种最不激烈、最为安全的有氧运动,对绝大多数人都极其合适。以舒适的速度步行能促进心肺活动,从而提高心肺功能,虽然比起其他各种运动方式来散步的作用较为缓慢。

  II. 英汉翻译原理第二讲:什么是好的译文?(续)

  「例14」There is a mix of confrontation and cooperation between them.

  「译文」他们之间既有对抗,又有合作。

  「例15」He died, and was survived by wife and three children.

  「译文」他死了,撇下了妻子和三个孩子。

  「例16」Law enforcement cannot responsibly stand aloof.

  「译文」司法部门如果对此不闻不问,那就是失职。

  「例17」Evidently he had the first quality of an angler, which is not to measure the pleasure by the catch.

  「译文」他显然具备了垂钓者的首要品质,即以钓为乐,钓多钓少无所谓。

  「例18」Nothing out of its place is good, nothing in its place is bad.

  ×身外之物无一是善,身内之物无一是恶。

  「译文」凡事不当无一是好,凡事得当无一是坏。

  「例19」Happiness is like manna; it is to be gathered and enjoyed every day.

  ×幸福似甘露,日日可享用。

  「译文」幸福犹如甘露,要天天采集才能日日享用。

  忠实原文是指译文与原文实质内容上的一致,而不是形式上的一致。译者由于对原文理解不深,不能透过原文的形式掌握其实质内容,仅见其形,未见其神,这样译出的文字形式上似乎与原文一致了,但与原文的意思却相去甚远。这便是犯了翻译上的形式主义。但是灵活出了格,过分强调译文的流畅,而不受原文意思的约束,闹了独立性,在原文的思想内容之外随意添枝加叶,这种译法称之为自由主义。

  「例20」This was one of the secrets of his great popularity, but it was a popularity which was as unsettled as the waves. It swelled, and bubbled, and foamed for a while, only to recede, and be lost to its former possessor.

  ×这是他名噪一时的一个秘密,但这种名声如同波涛一样起伏不定:在短暂的时间内如日中天,盛极一时,炙手可热,但转瞬间又烟消云散,终于在原来有些声望的人身上消失了。

  「译文」这是他名噪一时的一个秘密,但这种名声如同波涛一样起伏不定:一时间奔腾高涨,汹涌澎拜,转瞬间又一落千丈,终于在原来享有这种声望的人身上荡然无存。

  佳译欣赏:

  「例21」A thief is a thief.

  「译文」贼性难改。

  「例22」There was no snow, the leaves were gone, the grass was dead.

  「译文」天未下雪,但叶落草枯。

  「例23」Human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters.

  「译文」人世间,事不由己,变迁灾祸,难以逆料。

  「例24」It was a day as fresh as grass growing up and clouds going over and butterflies coming down can make it. It was a day compounded from silences of bee and flower and ocean and land, which were not silences at all, but motions, stirs, flutters, risings, fallings, each in its own time and matchless rhythm.

  「译文」绿草萋萋,白云冉冉,彩蝶翩翩,这日子是如此清新;蜜蜂无言,春花不语,海波声歇,大地音寂,这日子是如此安静。然而并非安静,因为万物各以其独特的节奏,或动,或摇,或震,或起,或伏。

  III. 课堂练习(努力按照忠实原文和译文流畅两项标准,把下列句子译成汉语,翻译时既要避免拘泥于原文结构的形式主义译法,又要防止偏离原文内容的自由主义译法):

  1.He who idles away the time is nothing but a living death.

  2.No greater misfortune befalls a country than to be governed by a tyrant.

  3.He had a disconcerting habit of expressing contradictory ideas in rapid succession.

  4.The expectation of collision informed British frontier policy in this period.

  5.Every day now, the suppression of truth and the organizing of public ignorance shame journalism.

  6.I walked to the ticket counter. When the ticket-seller saw me, her otherwise attractive face turned sour, violently so.

  7.Accident may put a decisive blunderer in the right, but eternal defeat and miscarriage must attend the man of the best parts, if cursed with indecision.

  8.In their rush, these companies have neglected the hardest part of doing business in China: the people part. The result is that many have jeopardized their performance in the long run.

  IV. 课堂练习参考译文:

  1.虚度年华者,虽生犹死。

  2.国之大难莫过于暴君当道。

  3.他有一种习惯让人受不了,意见反复不定,一会儿一个变化。

  4.英国预计到了将会发生冲突,并据此对这一时期的边境政策作了调整。

  5.现在,天天都在隐瞒真相,愚弄公众,这种做法是新闻界的耻辱。

  6.我走到售票台。女售票员一看见我,她那原本颇为动人的脸刷地一沉,变得怒气冲冲。

  7.出错者若处事果断,仍可意外取得成功;才干出众者若优柔寡断,必然屡屡失误。

  8.这些公司在一拥而入之中忽略了在中国经营最艰巨的问题,即人的问题,结果许多公司严重损害了他们的远期经营业绩。

  V. 课外练习(努力按照忠实原文和译文流畅两项标准,把下列短文译成汉语):

  Water problems in the future will become more intense and more complex. Our increasing population will tremendously increase urban wastes, primarily sewage. On the other hand, increasing demands for water will decrease substantially the amount of water available for diluting wastes. Rapidly expanding industries which involve more and more complex chemical processes will produce larger volumes of liquid wastes, and many of these will contain chemicals which are noxious. To feed our rapidly expanding population, agriculture will have to be intensified. This will involve ever-increasing quantities of agricultural chemicals. From this, it is apparent that drastic steps must be taken immediately to develop corrective measures for the pollution problem.

  There are two ways by which the pollution problem can be dwindled. The first relates to the treatment of wastes to decrease their pollution hazard. This involves the processing of solid wastes “prior to” disposal and the treatment of liquid wastes, or effluents, to permit the reuse of the water or minimize pollution upon final disposal.

  A second approach is to develop an economic use for all or a part of the wastes. Farm manure is spread in fields as a nutrient or organic supplement. Effluents from sewage disposal plants are used in some areas both for irrigation and for the nutrients contained. Effluents from other processing plants may also be used as a supplemental source of water. Many industries, such as meat and poultry processing plants, are currently converting former waste products into marketable byproducts. Other industries are exploring potential economic uses for their waste products.  (256 words)

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