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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY53

2006-7-28 01:05  

  DAY53

  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1

  Since the Nobel Prizes for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, peace, and literature were first awarded in 1901, only 2 women have won the physics prize, compared with 157 men. Only 3 women have captured the chemistry prize, compared with 129 men. No woman has won the prize in physics since 1963, or in chemistry since 1964, ect.

  “How can we look back a hundred years and say that only nine women have won the prize for literature?” says Ebba WittBrattstrom, professor of literature. She maintains that at least 40 percent of the prizes should have gone to women.

  The discrepancy in the sciences has not gone unnoticed either. When WittBrattstrom attended a Noble dinner two years ago, a Japanese scientist inquired, “Could you tell me why there are no women here? We all know there are lots of them in science.”

  Finding the answer is further complicated by the Nobel Foundations policy of keeping the nomination lists and selection process confidential for 50 years. Elisabeth Crawford, who has spent 20 year studying the Noble archives found that of the 5,000 nominations for the physics and chemistry prizes up until 1949, only 50 were for women. Nobel defenders say that many women may have been nominated since 1950, but few have made the final cut.

  Noble purists say the prizes should not be influenced by gender balance. The history of the prizes however, is full of subtle kinds of influence. In a classic case of oldboynetworking, the wealthy industrialist Armand Hammer decided that he wanted a Nobel peace prize. He spent several years schmoozing influential people but died before he achieved his goal.

  A 1998 New Yorker article detailed the literature committees infighting over whether making a point of giving the prize to new voices or minorities threatened its value. Conservative Swedish literary critic Mats Gellerfelt sarcastically noted in the article that the ideal candidate for a Nobel today would be a lesbian from Asia.

  The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, meanwhile, defends its impartiality on the physics, chemistry, and economic sciences prize and wont discuss the question of women awardees. “There is an attitude that scientists are not influenced by discrimination against women,”says Elisabeth Crawford. What counts is expertise.

  Yet Crawford points out that once the initial pool of candidates is drawn up for the three science prizes, the committee cuts loose on such factors as age, nationality, and connections. And gender? “It is not in their frame of mind to consider women as women to offset this imbalance,”Crawford says, noting that almost all of the women who won science prizes shared them with male colleagues. Most women, though, are ignored, as in the case of Lise Meitner, codiscoverer of nuclear fission 22, who was not included in the 1944 chemistry prize with Otto Hahn.

  If the sciences arent welcoming to women, neither are the institutions that grant the prizes. No women sit on the board of directors of the Nobel Foundation, and though women are well represented in midlevel positions at the secretariat of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science, not one sits on the governing council.

  Robert Marc Friedman, professor of the history of science says, “I think there are some committee members who would be delighted to support women, and others who are on the side of the boys. In the future, the question is this: will they be open to change?”

  1. According to the author, the cause of few womenNobel winners is that .

  A. they are not as excellent as men

  B. they are discriminated and provided with less nominations

  C. they are lacking originality in thought

  D. they scarcely make any achievement in science and other fields

  2. Which of the following best defines the word “expertise” (the last word in paragraph 7)?

  A. expert knowledgeB. enterprise C. enthusiasmD. responsibility

  3. The author uses the example of Lise Meitner to argue that

  A. women are considered to make up the balance.

  B. women have the equal opportunity as men.

  C. they can also do a quite well job.

  D. women are treated pretty unfairly.

  4. It can be inferred from the text that

  A. No one concerns about the fact that there are much less women involved in Nobel Prizes compared with men.

  B. The selection process of Nobel Prizes is quite open to all people.

  C. Members of literature committee do not get along with each other very well.

  D. Nobel Prize is the most genderfriendly prize.

  5. From the text we can see that the author seems .

  A. sensitiveB. satisfied C. optimisticD. critical

  Passage 2

  Stanford University is a privately endowed institution, founded in 1885 by Senator and Mrs. Leland Stanford in memory of their deceased son. The student body is composed of approximately 14,000 students. Of the 6,600 undergraduates (A.B. or B.S.) enrolled last year, about 300 came from outside the United States. There were also 2,000 international students among 7,400 students who were enrolled in graduate programs (M.A., M.S. and Ph.D.)。 Thus we have a substantial community of international students even though the proportion of undergraduate international students is rather low.

  Stanford operates on a fourquarter system. Autumn, Winter, and Spring Quarters make up the usual academic year and constitute approximately the same amount of time. The fourth, Summer Quarter, is usually smaller in enrollment but offers regular credit.

  Stanford offers undergraduate degrees in over 57 fields. It does not offer undergraduate degrees in business, law, medicine, or education, though many students prepared for careers in these fields by majoring in a related undergraduate discipline. An applicant applies to Stanford through the Office of Undergraduate Admission, or not a particular school and department within the University. All fields of study are equally open to all undergraduates. An applicant is invited to specify a field of interest, but this is not required.

  To qualify for a Stanford degree, the University requires that a minimum of two academic years (at least 90 quarts of academic work) be satisfactorily completed at Stanford. Departmental requirements for the given degree must be fulfilled, as well as University General Education Requirements. It is most possible to attend Stanford for only one year either as a visiting student or to finish an undergraduate degree somewhere else. All students must be enrolled in a course of study leading to a bachelors degree.

  Students from other countries may find that methods of instruction and the structure of the curriculum at Stanford differ in many ways from those offered in their home countries. Stanford believes that every student should have a broad education in addition to specializing in a particular field. Students must take two quarters of Freshman English and a yearlong course emphasizing philosophy and literature. In addition, they must take courses in the humanities, sciences, and natural sciences, regardless of their intended major.

  A nonU.S. citizen accepted for admission needs a Certificate of Eligibility, Form 1-20, to apply for the F-1 Visa (student Visa)。 Stanford issues a Form 1-20 to each enrolling student who is not U.S. citizen or Permanent Resident, but this form is sent only when the adequacy of the students financial support for study at Stanford has been determined.

  1. Which of the following places should a student not hand his application form in to?

  A. The Office of Undergraduate Admission

  B. Not a particular school

  C. Department within the University

  D. Administration building of University

  2. According to the text, who of the following persons is not qualified for a Stanford degree?

  A. Foreign students who have studied 3 years in Stanford

  B. Students who have fulfilled the Department requirements, but missed the University General Education requirements

  C. Students who are in their first year study, but have achieved great success.

  D. Students who refuse to take courses in social sciences and natural sciences.

  3. Which of the following statements is correct according to the text?

  A. In Summer Quarter, classes are also open to students.

  B. If you are an oversea student, your attendance to some field of study is limited.

  C. To specify a field of interest is necessary.

  D. Although undergraduate degrees in business and medicine are offered, many students still major in a related undergraduate discipline.

  4. Which certificate should an oversea student possess if he wants to be enrolled by Stanford?

  A. Certificate of Eligibility, Form 1-20 and F-1 Visa.

  B. General Certificate of Education.

  C. Certificate of good behavior in their native countries.

  D. Certificate of great achievements.

  5. How would you describe the writers style?

  A. Write in an academic style.

  B. Write in a journalistic style.

  C. Write in a personal style.

  D. On the basis of widespread research in the area.

  Passage 3

  The 435 seats in the House of Representatives, plus onethird of the 100 Senate seats, are up for election every two years. For candidates to the House of Representatives, success in the primary may well mean triumph in the general election. This is because many representatives are elected from the oneparty districts — usually defined as areas in which one political party always wins at least 55 percent of the vote and the other never obtains more than 45 percent. A majority of the congressional districts are of this type and victory in the primary normally determines who will be elected to office. “Safe” oneparty Senate seats are relatively rare, however — most states are “competitive”, meaning that the election is a real contest.

  Another factor that plays a major role in the election of members of Congress is incumbency. An incumbency is a person who is already in office. Incumbency is a significant force. In the 1976 election only 13 House incumbents lost their seats. In 1980 the figure was somewhat higher — 31 of the 392 incumbents seeking reelection were defeated.

  Incumbents have certain builtin advantages over their challengers: They are better known in their districts, can send out mail at no charge (a privilege of members of Congress), and have a core of supporters who can be called upon to work during the campaign. As a result, many senators and representatives have long careers serving in Congress.

  In presidential election years, another factor — the socalled coattail effect — may influence the outcome of congressional elections in competitive districts and states. A popular presidential candidate may help House and Senate candidates who are running on the same party ballot get elected. The 1980 election illustrates this effect. Reagans triumph in the presidential election helped produce a net gain of 33 Republicans in the House of Representatives and 12 in the Senate. The Republican victories in the Senate were the largest gain by party since 1958 and created the first Republican majority in the Senate since the 1952 election.

  This phenomenon does not occur in every election, however. In 1976, for example, Jimmy Carters narrow victory in the presidential election did not significantly affect the outcome of congressional elections. If congressional candidates believe their partys presidential nominee will not run a strong race, they will base their campaign strategy on other factors — their own achievements or the shortcomings of their opponents, for example — and avoid trying their campaign to that of their partys presidential candidate.

  In an offyear election( i.e., one in which a President is not being elected ),candidates in competitive districts can not ride the coattails of a presidential candidate. Even popular Presidents cannot transfer their popularity when their names are not on the ballot. The candidates must devise different strategies to achieve victory. The character and voting record of a candidate become more important in offyear elections,while national issues tend to become less important. Candidates for the Senate may have to develop programs centered on specific state issues. National issues play a significant role in offyear elections only if they are of great interest to the voters. For example, the Watergate scandal in the 1974 elections.

  1. Incumbents have some advantages over their challengers, which of the following statements is not included?

  A. They can send out mail without concern about the cost.

  B. They have a core of supporters.

  C. They are better known in their districts.

  D. They appear on TV frequently.

  2. In presidential election years, which doesnt play an important role in the election of members of Congress according to the text?

  A. Success in the primary election.B. You are during your incumbency.

  C. Some other people take you up.D. They seem easy to approach.

  3. What will congressional candidates do if they think their partys presidential nominee is not so strong?

  A. Show the nominees achievements and their opponents shortcomings.

  B. Tie their campaign to that of their partys presidential candidate.

  C. Establish a good rapport with other parties.

  D. Persuade people into supporting him.

  4. Which of the following statements is wrong according to the text?

  A. The coattails of a presidential candidate can also work a lot in an offyear election.

  B. Oneparty districts are areas in which one political party always wins at least 55 percent of the vote.

  C. The character and voting record is important in offyear elections.

  D. National issues do not play a significant role in offyear elections if they are of little interest to voters.

  5. What is the authors purpose of writing this article?

  A. Criticizing the system of American election.

  B. Giving readers some information about the American election.

  C. Making American election known universally.

  D. Pointing out the advantages of American election over other elections.

  Passage 4

  In cities all over the United States, workers spend several hours a day in cars crawling along in traffic to get to offices many miles from home. They experience stress, waste time, and pay a lot for gas, car maintenance, and parking. Once they get to work, they make their way through a maze of cubicles, each with its computer, phone, and file cabinet. Nancy Alley, human resources manager at TBWA China/Day, doesnt. She stays at home in her pajamas with a pile of resume, talking with managers over the phone and faxing in paperwork. Instead of walking down the hall to chat with coworkers, she Emails them. Nancy is a telecommuter, someone who works some or all of the time at home, and she is part of a trend. Since 1990, the number of U.S. telecommuters has grown from 4.2 million to 9.2 million, and by the turn of the century, 55 million people worldwide have been telecommuting.

  Highway congestion, the high cost of office space, federal cleanair laws, reduced work forces, and lifestyle needs — all these factors contribute to the growth of telecommuting. What makes it possible is technology. Desktop and laptop personal computers, networking, videoconferencing, fax machines, Email, and multiple phone lines provide the fast and efficient communication required for telecommuting.

  The experiences of many companies suggest that telecommuting can increase workplace flexibility and enhance productivity. At Georgia Power Company, for example, the company decided to triple its number of telecommuters. The company reduced the cost of leased office space by $100,000 a year, increased productivity among the telecommuting employees of its customer service center, and saved the workers a combined 750 commuter miles a day.

  Telecommuting, however, is not without its obstacles. At one computer software firm, the information systems manager offered telecommuting as an option to her 100person staff. After three months, the staff members reported that being away from the office was counterproductive to their work. Programmers missed being able to drop by analysts cubicles with questions, and everyone reported they were interrupted at home more often. As part of its costcutting initiative, Nestle required 140 sales employees to telecommute. Facing many technical problems with telephone lines and frustratingly slow computer networking, most of these telecommutes found it an aggravating experience. Telecommuting also makes many employees feel isolated and out of touch, leading to decreased motivation and less, not more productivity. By blurring the barriers between work and family, telecommuting often leads to more work hours and more interference with family life.

  Telecommuting is not universally applicable. Jobs and individuals must be suitable, and staff must be capable of managing telecommuters. In addition, technological improvements, such as highspeed modems, are crucial. Few people expect to conduct business regularly from a tropical island or mountain resort any time soon.

  1. Which of the following statements is not one of the troubles of driving to office everyday, mentioned in this text?

  A. They often come home from work very late.

  B. It wastes a lot of time.

  C. The cost of gas, car maintenance and parking is pretty high.

  D. They bear a heavy burden.

  2. The following statements are factors contributing to the growth of telecommuting, except .

  A. traffic jam and high expense of office space.

  B. the federal cleanair laws and reduced work forces.

  C. the hours staying with their families are too less.

  D. the lifestyle is different from former ones.

  3. Telecommuting is not as perfect as expected, which is not its problems?

  A. Some workers cant work as efficient as when they are at office.

  B. It makes employees feel isolated and out of touch.

  C. It causes the expense of electricity to rise rapidly.

  D. It leads to long work hours and interrupts family life.

  4. Judging from the passage, which of the following is incorrect?

  A. Telecommuting is someone who works some or all of the time at home.

  B. It is technology that makes telecommuting possible.

  C. Technological improvement is one element that can determine whether telecommuting is universally applicable.

  D. It is very convenient to discuss between companions through telecommuting.

  5. What is the authors opinion of telecommuting?

  A. It can soon be applied to everyone.

  B. There are many things to do to make it popular.

  C. It has more advantages than disadvantages.

  D. The use of it doesnt provide us with any good.

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:

  Passage 1

  本文陈述了很少有女性获诺贝尔奖的事实以及造成这种情况的原因:性别歧视。并对将来是否会改变这一现状提出了疑问。

  1. Finding the answer is further complicated by the Nobel Foundations policy of keeping the nomination lists and selection process confidential for 50 years.对提名的名单和选举程序保密50年, 诺贝尔奖基金会的这一规定使得人们找到这一答案更加困难。

  2. A 1998 New Yorker article detailed the literature committees infighting over whether making a point of giving the prize to new voices or minorities threatened its value.1998年《纽约人》上的一篇文章详细介绍了文学评选委员会内部关于决定使奖项向新的声音或少数群体倾斜是否会威胁其价值的一场明争暗斗。

  3. Yet Crawford points out that once the initial pool of candidates is drawn up for the three science prizes, the committee cuts loose on such factors as age, nationality, and connections. Crawford 指出,在草拟候选人的初始名单时, 委员会是不会考虑诸如年龄、国籍及群带关系这些因素的。

  1. 「B」从文章第四段中间可得。

  2. 「A」expertise专业知识。enterprise 进取心。 enthusiasm 热情。responsibility责任心。

  3. 「D」从文章倒数第三段中间可得到正确答案。

  4. 「A」由文章第三段可知A正确。B,C错误。从全文看,Nobel Prize 并不是很公平的,所以D不对。

  5. 「D」通观全文,作者持的是一种不满和批判的态度。

  Passage 2

  本文主要介绍了斯坦福大学的学期设置,入读申请及学位获得,教育方法和非美国公民被录取的资格等一系列具体事项。

  1. An applicant applies to Stanford through the Office of Undergraduate Admission, or not a particular school and department within the University. 入读斯坦福大学要递交申请书给本科生招生办公室,或非特定的学校和校内的系办。

  2. A nonU.S. citizen accepted for admission needs a Certificate of Eligibility, Form 1-20, to apply for the F-1 Visa (student Visa)。被录取的非美国籍学生应具备1-20 类合格证书,申请F-1类签证(学生签证)。

  3. Stanford issues a Form 1-20 to each enrolling student who is not U.S. citizen or Permanent Resident, but this form is sent only when the adequacy of the students financial support for study at Stanford has been determined.斯坦福大学会给每个被录取的非美国籍或非美国永久居民的学生发放1-20类合格证书,但只有当学生在斯坦福学习的经济担保被核实无误后,才会发放该类证书。

  1. 「D」该题可以根据文章第三段得到正确答案。

  2. 「A」该题可以根据文章第四段得到正确答案。该段中规定了一些具体的标准。

  3. 「A」文中说,虽然夏季上课的人要少些,但也开设正常课程。

  4. 「A」文章最后一段第一句话明确回答了该问题。

  5. 「C」作者完全是按照自己的想法来写的,介绍Stanford 的一些情况,而不是学术或新闻写作。

  Passage 3

  本文主要介绍了美国的竞选情况,以及在总统选举年和非总统选举年影响选举结果的一系列主要因素。

  1. The 435 seats in the House of Representatives, plus onethird of the 100 Senate seats, are up for election every two years.众议院的435个席位,加上参议院的100个席位中的三分之一,便为每两年举行一次的众议员竞选作好了准备。

  2. In presidential election years, another factor — the socalled coattail effect — may influence the outcome of congressional elections in competitive districts and states.在总统竞选年,另一因素(即所谓的提携作用)可能在竞争激烈的地区和州影响国会选举的结果。

  3. If congressional candidates believe their partys presidential nominee will not run a strong race, they will base their campaign strategy on other factors — their own achievements or the shortcomings of their opponents, for example — and avoid trying their campaign to that of their partys presidential candidate.如果国会候选人认为他们党的总统提名人没有很强的竞选能力,他们就把竞选运动的策略建立在其他因素上,比如他们本身的成就或对手的弱点,以避免竞选局限于本党的总统候选人。

  4. The character and voting record of a candidate become more important in offyear elections, while national issues tend to become less important.候选人的名声及投票结果在非大选年更为重要,而国内问题往往不那么重要。

  1. 「D」文中第三段对每一条优势都列举得很清楚。

  2. 「D」从文章第一段第二句可知A错误。从文章第三段第一句可知B错误。从文章第四段第一句可知C错误。只有D正确。

  3. 「A」从文章倒数第二段中间可得到正确答案。

  4. 「A」从文章最后一段第一句可知A错误。B,C,D都可以在原文中找到。

  5. 「B」作者对美国选举进行的是客观描述。

  Passage 4

  随着交通拥挤,空间费用上涨,劳动力的缩减及技术的发展,电讯家庭办公成为众望所归。人们在享受它提供的便利外,也面临着一些困扰。

  1. Once they get to work, they make their way through a maze of cubicles, each with its computer, phone, and file cabinet.上班后,他们穿行在迷宫般的办公室中,每个办公室配有电脑、电话和文件柜。

  2. Highway congestion, the high cost of office space, federal cleanair laws, reduced work forces, and lifestyle needs — all these factors contribute to the growth of telecommuting.公路交通的拥挤,办公室空间的高额费用, 联邦政府的洁净空气法, 劳动大军的缩减以及生活方式的需要——所有这些因素促成了电讯家庭办公人数的增加。

  3. Programmers missed being able to drop by analysts cubicles with questions, and everyone reported they were interrupted at home more often. 程序员无法带着问题到分析员的办公室里请教, 同时大家都感到在家办公更是经常被打扰。

  4. Facing many technical problems with telephone lines and frustratingly slow computer networking, most of these telecommutes found it an aggravating experience.面临着电话线路及烦人的电脑网络“塞车”等许多技术性问题,他们大都感到这是个令人恼火的经历。

  1. 「A」本题可以在文章第一段第二句话中找到答案: 他们承受紧张压力, 浪费时间, 还要为汽油、汽车维修和泊车花一大笔钱。

  2. 「C」本题可以从文章第二段第一句话中找到答案。

  3. 「C」答案在文章第四段。

  4. 「D」从文章第一段可知A错误。从文章第二段可知B错误。从最后一段可知C错误。

  5. 「B」从第四段可知,电讯家庭办公还存在许多问题,还需要许多改进工作才可使之普及。因此,选项B符合题意。

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