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鲍威尔:我们决不回避战争

2006-07-07 21:59

  President Bush warned in his State of the Union address that “the gravest danger facing America and the world is outlaw regimes that seek and possess nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.” Exhibit A is Saddam Hussein's Iraq. As the president said, we need only look at how Saddam has terrorized, oppressed and murdered his own people to understand his methods. And, perhaps most critically, the president confirmed that Iraq has open channels and ties to terrorist organizations, including al Qaeda.

  Last November, the U.N. Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1441, giving Iraq one last chance to disarm peacefully or “face serious consequences.” However, instead of disarming, Iraq has responded to Resolution 1441 with empty claims, empty declarations and empty gestures. Just a week ago, U.N. chief weapons inspector Hans Blix told the Security Council that “Iraq appears not to have come to a genuine acceptance, not even today, of the disarmament that was demanded of it.” Indeed, the Iraqi regime is going to great lengths to conceal its weapons of mass destruction. It has removed material from sites it knew were likely to be inspected. The regime also has an active program of coaching scientists before they talk to inspectors and only permits interviews when minders are present. On top of that, thousands of pages of sensitive weapons-related documents have been found in private homes.

  Resolution 1441 established two key tests: a full and accurate disclosure of Iraq's weaponry and a requirement to cooperate immediately, unconditionally and actively with the inspectors. Iraq has failed both tests. Iraq's declaration of its weapons holdings is incomplete and inaccurate and provides no substantive information on the disposition of its weapons of mass destruction. Not surprisingly, the U.N. inspectors have found it woefully deficient. In his report to the Security Council, Mr. Blix noted that Iraq has failed to account for its production of the deadly nerve agent VX, some 6,500 chemical bombs, and about 1,000 metric tons of chemical agent. Iraq also previously acquired the materials to make much more anthrax than it declared.

  In their inspections, Mr. Blix's team discovered a number of chemical warheads not previously acknowledged by Iraq. Iraq also continues to acquire banned equipment, with proscribed imports arriving as recently as last month. The inspectors also reported that Iraqi activity is severely hampering their work. For example, Iraq has refused the inspectors' request to use a U-2 reconnaissance aircraft, a critical tool for inspections. Inspectors are accompanied everywhere by Iraqi minders, are slandered by Iraqi officials as spies, and face harassment and disturbing protests that would be unlikely to occur without the encouragement of the authorities.

  On Wednesday, I will present to the Security Council U.S. intelligence showing further evidence of Iraq's pattern of deception. Our evidence will reinforce what the inspectors told the Security Council last week — that they are not getting the cooperation they need, that their requests are being blocked, and that their questions are going unanswered. While there will be no “smoking gun,” we will provide evidence concerning the weapons programs that Iraq is working so hard to hide. We will, in sum, offer a straightforward, sober and compelling demonstration that Saddam is concealing the evidence of his weapons of mass destruction, while preserving the weapons themselves. The world must now recognize that Iraq has not complied with the will of the international community as expressed in Resolution 1441. Iraq has failed the resolution's two tests — to disclose and to cooperate — in a manner that constitutes a further material breach of the resolution.

  In response, the U.S. will begin a new round of full and open consultation with our allies about next steps. Much has been made of the friction between the U.S. and some of its traditional partners over how to proceed with Iraq. We will work to bridge our differences, building on the bedrock of our shared values and long history of acting together to meet common challenges. The fruits of our partnership are evident all around the globe, from Western Europe to Japan, Korea, Bosnia and Afghanistan.

  Together we must face the facts brought to us by the U.N. inspectors and reputable intelligence sources. Iraq continues to conceal deadly weapons and their components, and to use denial, deception and subterfuge in order to retain them. Iraq has ties to and has supported terrorist groups. Iraq has had no compunction about using weapons of mass destruction against its own people and against its neighbors.

  President Bush's message has been clear from the beginning. The President eloquently and persuasively set forth the U.S. position at the U.N. on Sept. 12: A peaceful outcome to this situation is possible if Iraq cooperates with the U.N. and disarms. Unfortunately, Saddam seems to be leading his nation down another path. The U.S. seeks Iraq's peaceful disarmament. But we will not shrink from war if that is the only way to rid Iraq of its weapons of mass destruction.

  (Mr. Powell is the U.S. Secretary of State.)


  布什总统在他的国情咨文讲话中警告说,“美国和全世界面临的最严重的危险是谋求获得和拥有核武器的歹徒政权。”其证据之一,是萨达姆·侯赛因的伊拉克政权。正如布什总统所说,我们只要看看萨达姆·侯赛因是如何恐吓、压迫和谋杀自己的人民,便能清楚了解他的手段。也许最重要的是,总统证实,伊拉克同恐怖主义组织有公开的联络渠道和联系,其中包括'基地'组织。

  去年 11月,联合国安理会一致通过第1441号决议,给伊拉克最后一次机会和平解除武器,否则“面临严重后果”。但是,伊拉克对第1441号决议做出的反应不是解除武器,而是空虚的声明、空虚的申报和空虚的姿态。仅在一个星期前,联合国首席武器核查员汉斯·布利克斯告诉安理会说,“甚至在今天,伊拉克看来仍没有真正接受对它的解除武器要求。”确实,伊拉克政权正在竭力隐藏大规模毁灭性武器。它已经将有关材料从它知道可能受到检查的地点转移。伊拉克政权还有一项指示科学家如何接受核查人员面谈的现行计划,而且面谈只有在监视人员在场的情况下才能够进行。除此之外,在私人住宅里发现了数千页与武器有关的机密文件。

  安理会第1441号决议确立了两项主要检验:完整、准确地公开伊拉克的武器并要求其立即、无条件和积极地与核查人员合作。伊拉克在这两项检验中均未过关。伊拉克提出的关于其拥有武器的报告是不完整、不准确的,对其处置大规模毁灭性武器的情况也没有提供实质性的信息。毫不令人意外,联合国核查人员发现伊拉克提供的信息可悲地充满了缺陷。布利克斯先生在向安理会所做的报告中着重指出,伊拉克对其生产的维埃克斯(VX)致命神经毒气以及约6500枚化学炸弹和约 1000公吨化学剂未能做出解释。此外,伊拉克曾经获得的炭疽生产所用物质比它所称的要多得多。

  布利克斯先生的核查小组在核查过程中发现了一些伊拉克原先没有承认的化学武器弹头。伊拉克还继续谋求违禁设备,直至上个月还有违禁进口物到货。核查人员还报告,伊拉克方面的活动严重阻碍了他们的工作。例如,伊拉克拒绝满足核查人员提出的使用作为核查重要手段的U-2侦察机的要求。核查人员无论走到哪里,都有伊拉克看管人员跟随,他们被伊方官员诬蔑为间谍并受到骚扰和抗议活动的干扰,而这类抗议活动若非当局的鼓动是极不可能出现的。

  星期三,我将给安理会提供能进一步证明伊拉克的欺骗模式的美国情报。我们的证据将进一步证实核查人员上周向安理会做出的汇报 ─ 他们没有得到所需的合作,他们的要求遭到拒绝,他们的疑问没有得到解答。尽管没有“冒烟的枪”,但我们将提供有关伊拉克竭力隐藏的武器项目的证据。总之,我们将提供直接了当、实事求是、令人信服的证据,证明萨达姆正在保存他的大规模毁灭性武器的同时,掩盖这些武器的踪迹。全世界现在必须认识到,伊拉克没有遵从第1441号决议所表明的国际社会的意愿。伊拉克没有通过这份决议中要求它公开武器并进行合作的两项检验,从而构成了对这份决议的进一步严重违反。

  为此,美国将同我们的盟国就今后的行动开始进行全面、公开的新一轮磋商。有人已经对美国和美国的某些传统盟友在如何处理伊拉克问题上的分歧大作文章。我们将以共同的价值观和协力应对共同挑战的悠久历史为基础,努力弥合我们的分歧。我们合作的硕果全球可见,从西欧到日本韩国,到波斯尼亚和阿富汗。

  我们必须共同面对联合国核查人员和可靠的情报来源摆在我们面前的事实。伊拉克继续隐藏致命武器及其零部件,并继续使用否认、欺骗和逃避的手段来保存它们。伊拉克同恐怖主义团体有联系,并支持他们。伊拉克对其使用大规模毁灭性武器对付本国人民和邻国的行径,毫无悔改之意。

  布什总统的信息从一开始就是明确的。总统于9月12日在联合国雄辩有力地阐明了美国的立场:如果伊拉克同联合国合作并消除武器,这一局势就可能得到和平解决。但令人遗憾的是,萨达姆似乎正在把他的国家带上另一条道路。美国寻求的是伊拉克和平地消除武器。但如果战争是解除伊拉克大规模毁灭性武器的唯一方式,我们决不会退缩。

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