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中口翻译学习(二)

2006-07-05 09:39

  Literal and Free Translation I

  直译和意译

  一般笔译以直译为主,口译以意译为主。

  直译在笔译中占70%而意译占30%.

  为了尊重句子原意,如果直译正确应当选用直译。但是直译容易出错,一旦出错就要考虑意译。在口语和文化差异的翻译上直译容易出错的。其中文化差异包括在成语、俚语、俗语、名言、格言等。

  1.Sentence Translation

  1)Helen said in her best party manner.

  海伦(Helen)彬彬有礼地说/有礼貌地说/有风度地说/幽默地说。

  2)Didn't she ever swear she would never again believe anything in trousers?in trousers

  难道她不是发过誓再也不相信任何男人了吗?穿着裤子的人根据句子译成“男人”

  3)Beauty is only skin deep.

  美丽只不过是一张皮而已。

  4)Don't do your own thing, or you will met with failure.笔译时如果直译正确的话,应选择直译

  不要只顾做自己的事情,否则你会失败的。直译

  不要一意孤行,否则你会失败的。意译

  5)The elevator girl reads books between passengers.这句意译比较合适

  开电梯的女孩在没有乘客的时候读书。

  6)He was a man of integrity, but unfortunately he had a certain reputation, I believe the reputation was not deserved.

  他是一个正直的人,但不幸的是他有某种坏名声。我认为这种名声是不应该有的。

  7)The flower girl,“Will you pay me for them?”

  这卖花姑娘:“你能把这些花全买了吗?”

  The daughter,“Do nothing of the sort,mother. The idea!”根据上下文推测情景理解、翻译

  女儿说:“别听她的,妈妈。你想得真美啊!”

  2.Idiom Translation

  dark horse 黑马;black sheep 害群之马;lucky dog 幸运儿;old dog 工作卖力的人;

  cold fish 冷漠的人;odd fish 古怪的人;old fish 老头,老家伙;

  hen-pecked husband 妻管严;Justice has long arms 天网恢恢,疏而不漏;

  Face is as important to man as the bark to the tree.人要脸,树要皮。

  One boy is a boy, two boys half a boy, three boys no boy.一个和尚提水喝,两个和尚挑水喝,三个和尚没水喝。

  eat one's words 收回所说的话take back one's words

  make one's hair stand on end 毛骨悚然

  3.Passage Translation

  1) Women don't fall in love as easily as men do.

  女人并不像男人那样容易陷入爱河/爱上对方。

  Men tend to be romantics,often falling in love more quickly than women, who tend to focus on practical considerations in choosing a mate.

  男人倾向于浪漫,经常比女人更快陷入爱河而女人在选择伴侣时倾向于注意考虑实际问题。

  Women are looking for long-term qualities in a partner.

  女人在伴侣身上寻求专一的品质。

  For more than men, they allow their heads to control their hearts.

  比起男人,她更能够让理智控制情感。

  Even though women may ache for love, they carry around an inner evaluator who asks,can I count on this man?

  即便女人渴望爱情,她们会自己问自己:我能指望这个男人吗?

  So any man who hopes to sweep a woman off his feet had better lengthen his timetable, and pay as much attention to characteristics such as kindness and dependability as he does to his hair, his clothes and his savoir-faire.

  因此想要让女人对己倾心的男人最好延长他的追求时间,就像注重自己的发型、服饰和社交方式一样,尽量表现出诸如体贴、可靠等特点来。

  2)老人说:“我们北方人都喜欢睡炕,你也将就点儿吧。俗话说'入乡随俗'嘛。”

  The old man said ,“we northerners like to sleep on our Kangs.You'll have to put with it.As the proverb goes,'do as the Romans do'.”

  乍看之下,这句话没有问题,但是细读之后,发现有点儿奇怪,问题在于“入乡随俗”,do as the Romans do的确是入乡随俗的意思没错,但是根据所在句子的具体语境,由一个东北老人说出来似乎有点儿奇怪。所以这里最好改成“do as local people do”,翻译句子时一定要注意语境。

  3)自从失业后,他是做一天和尚,撞一天钟。

  After his unemployment,he went on tolling the bell as long as one is a monk.

  直译无法表达意思,划线句应为意译:…,he took a passive attitude to his life.

  4)知己知彼,百战不殆。

  此句有好几种翻法:

  先是条件句:If you know yourself and the enemy,you will not be defeated in a hundred battles.

  条件句已经把意思翻出来了 ,但是这是一句成语讲了个道理,因此我们在此基础上可以改成祈使句更为好:

  Konw yourself and the enemy and you will not be defeated in a hundred battles.

  祈使句用了两个and,似乎有点儿罗嗦,我们可以用一个词enable把句子改得更漂亮:

  Knowledge of yourself and the enemy will enable you to fight against a hundred battles without defeat.

  5)他只不过是半路出家,对此不太了解。

  根据句子语境,他并不是真的出家,而是“并非专业”的意思,因此可以译成:

  He was a layman/was not a professional/was not formally trained for the job,so he didi not know much about it.

  6)科学与艺术的关系是剃头担子——一头热。

  这个歇后语的意思是“只有一边热”所以我们可以这样意译:

  The tie/relation/relationship between science and art is one-sided emphasis. (ps: one-sided是单边的意思,如one-sided love单相思)

  2.Metaphor and Simile Translation(隐喻与明喻的翻译)

  接下来讲讲隐喻和明喻,之前先归纳下中译英中会碰到的几种成语类型:

  a.叙事类:一般是分析型的,常常是take or learn a lesson from sth.

  b.描写类:一定是要在具体语境里分析翻译,有时可以用某个形容词代替。

  c.比喻类:一般以意译为主,直译为辅。

  d.典故类:也是以意译为主,直译为辅。

  1)简直就是人间地狱。

  人间地狱中西方文化都能接受,可以直译:

  It is simply/almost/nearly a hell on earth.

  2)过去,银行在老百姓的心目中只是一个生出利息的“储钱罐”。

  主语是“银行”,谓语“是”,宾语“储钱罐”,这是暗喻,既然在“老百姓心中”“是”,我们可以用regard被动语态:

  In the past,banks were regarded as the places where money was deposited and interest was paid.

  这里用定语从句既解释了“储钱罐”的意思,又说明能“生出利息”的作用。由此看见我们遇到无法用介词表达的动词短语可以用定语从句表达。

  3)两千三百万台湾同胞都是中国人,都是骨肉同胞,手足兄弟。

  这里“骨肉同胞”和“手足兄弟”是一个意思,在英语中要求句子意思表达明确避免罗嗦,所以两者中只需翻一个:

  The twenty-three million Taiwan compatriots are all Chinese people and are an indispensable part of us.

  r…our flesh and blood.

  4)泰山顶上的茫茫云雾无边无际,犹如汪洋大海。

  The peak of Mount Tai is often shrounded/wreathed in mist and cloud which is like a boundless sea.

  中译英中在文化差异上,例如熟语的翻译,常常通过意译来达到“信、达、雅”,注意意译时要抓关键词!

  1.Translation of Idiomatic Phrases

  1) 塞翁失马,焉知非福

  如果直译的话,是这样的:

  When the old man on the frontier lost his mare, who could have guessed it was a blessing in disguise?

  很明显直译是在讲个故事,但是却无法体现成语要表达的因祸得福的意思。所以我们需要意译:

  A loss may turn out to be gain.

  黄鼠狼给鸡拜年,没安好心

  同样如果直译:

  the weasel goes to pay his respects to the hen without good heart

  这句话前半句可以直译,但是“没安好心”应该意译成“没有好的意图”:

  the weasel goes to pay his respects to the hen without good intentions

  八仙过海,各显神通

  直译:like the eight immortals crossing the sea

  明显无法表达出神通,而且译成英文给外国人看的话,谁知道这个典故呢?

  意译:Each one shows his or her talent/prowess/skills.

  但是如果中西文化都能接受的情况下,能直译就直译。

  以卵击石

  throw an egg against a stone/rock(这里用against最形象)

  杞人忧天

  这里是一个中国典故,如果直译还要解释杞人是谁,为什么要忧天,所以我们选择意译:

  groundless/unnecessary fear/anxiety(这里用短语表示)

  班门弄斧

  这个可以保留短语原本结构直译,但要翻得完整,意译也行:

  直译:show off skills with the axe before Lu Ban,a master carpenter

  意译:show off before experts/specialists 或用短语 teach fish to swim

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