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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY63

2006-7-28 01:05  

  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1

  Man is an aggressive creature, which will hardly be disputed. With the exception of certain animals, no other creature habitually destroys members of his own species. No other animal takes positive pleasure in the exercise of cruelty upon another of his own kind. We generally describe the most repulsive examples of mans cruelty as brutal or bestial, implying by these adjectives that such behavior is characteristic of less highly developed animals than ourselves. In truth, however, the extremes of “brutal” behavior are confined to man; and there is no parallel in nature to our savage treatment of each other. The depressing fact is that we are the cruelest and most ruthless species that has ever walked the earth; and that, although we may recoil in horror when we read in newspaper or history book of the atrocities committed by man upon man, we know in our hearts that each one of us harbors within himself those same savage impulses which lead to murder, to torture and to war.

  To write about human aggression is a difficult task because the term is used in so many different senses. Aggression is one of those words which everyone knows, but which is nevertheless hard to define. As psychologists and psychiatrists use it, it covers a very wide range of human behavior; and so is the judge who awards a thirtyyear sentence for robbery. The guard in a concentration camp who tortures his helpless victim is obviously acting aggressively. Less manifestly, but no less certainly, so is the neglected wife who threatens or attempts suicide in order to regain her husbands affection. When a word becomes so diffusely applied that it is used both of the competitive striving of a footballer and also of the bloody violence of a murderer, it ought either to be dropped or else more closely defined. Aggression is a portmanteau term which is fairly bursting at its steams. Yet, until we can more clearly designate and comprehend the various aspects of human behavior which are sorted to this head, we cannot discard the concept.

  One difficulty is that there is no clear dividing line between those forms of aggression which we all deplore and those which we must not disown if we are to survive. When a child rebels against authority it is being aggressive: but it is also manifesting a drive towards independence which is a necessary and valuable part of growing up. The desire for power has, in extreme form, disastrous aspects which we all acknowledge, but the drive to conquer difficulties, or to gain mastery over the external world underlies the greatest of human achievements. Some writers define aggression as “that response which follows frustration”, or as “an act whose goalresponse is injury to an organism (or organism surrogate)”。 In the authors view these definitions impose limits upon the concept of aggression which are not in accord with the underlying facts of human nature which the word is attempting to express. It is worth noticing, for instance, that the worlds we use to describe intellectual effort are aggressive words.

  1. Man is unique according to the passage in

  A. regularly killing members of the same species.

  B. enjoying reading about atrocities.

  C. enjoying being cruel to members of the same species.

  D. gaining pleasure from watching acts of violence.

  2. The writer implies that people

  A. would be quite incapable of violenceB. are cruel in their everyday lives.

  C. are unmoved by acts of violence.D. possess the potential to commit acts of violence.

  3. The writer says that the word “aggression”

  A. is easy to define because everyone knows it.

  B. can be used to describe a limited range of human behavior.

  C. is so imprecise as to be totally meaningless.

  D. covers an immense variety of human activity.

  4. According to the writer, one problem with the concept of aggression is that

  A. it is such a deplorable characteristic of mankind.

  B. it is hard to say where the negative side ends and the positive begins.

  C. it is difficult to separate from the concept of frustration.

  D. it is very often seen in wholly negative terms.

  5. In the writers view the argument that aggression is the result of frustration

  A. ignores the more positive aspects of aggression.

  B. underlines the harsh realities of human nature.

  C. is supported by evidence from the examination of intellectual efforts.

  D. corresponds very closely to observable human behavior.

  Passage 2

  The study of philosophies should make our own ideas flexible. We are all of us apt to take certain general ideas for granted, and call them common sense. We should learn that other people have held quite different ideas, and that our own have started as very original guesses of philosophers.

  A scientist is apt to think that all the problems of philosophy will ultimately be solved by science. I think this is true for a great many of the questions on which philosophers still argue. For example, Plato thought that when we saw something, one ray of light came to it from the sun, and another from our eyes and that seeing was something like feeling with a stick. We now know that the light comes from the sun, and is reflected into our eyes. We dont know in much detail how the changes in our eyes five rise to sensation. But there is every reason to think that as we learn more about the physiology of the brain, we shall do so, and that the great philosophical problems about knowledge are going to be pretty fully cleared up.

  But if our descendants know the answers to these questions and others that perplex us today, there will still be one field of which they do not know, namely the future. However exact our science, we cannot know it as we know the past. Philosophy may be described as argument about things of which we are ignorant. And where science gives us a hope of knowledge it is often reasonable to suspend judgment. That is one reason why Marx and Engels quite rightly wrote to many philosophical problems that interested their contemporaries.

  But we have got to prepare for the future, and we cannot do so rationally without some philosophy. Some people say we have only got to do the duties revealed in the past and laid down by religion, and god will look after the future. Other say that the world is a machine and the course of future events is certain, whatever efforts we may make. Marxists say that the future depends on ourselves, even though we are part of the historical process. This philosophical view certainly does inspire people to very great achievements. Whether it is true or not, it is powerful guide to action.

  We need a philosophy, then, to help us to tackle the future. Agnosticism easily becomes an excuse for laziness and conservatism. Whether we adopt Marxism or any other philosophy, we cannot understand it without knowing something of how it developed. That is why knowledge of the history of philosophy is important to Marxists, even during the present critical days.

  1. What is the main idea of this passage?

  A. The main idea of this passage is the argument whether philosophy will ultimately be solved by science or not.

  B. The importance of learning philosophies, especially the history of philosophy.

  C. The difference between philosophy and science.

  D. A discuss about how to set a proper attitude towards future.

  2. The example of what Plato thought in the passage shows that

  A. the development of science really can solve a great many of the problems on which philosophers still argue.

  B. plato knew nothing about Physics.

  C. the scientists have achieved a lot in terms of light theory.

  D. different people have different ways of perception.

  3. What field can our descendants know?

  A. The origin of human beings

  B. Some questions that perplex us today.

  C. Many philosophical problems which Marx and Engels wrote rather little.

  D. The future.

  4. How many kinds of ideas are there about the future?

  A. TwoB. ThreeC. FourD. Five

  5. What are the functions of studying philosophies mentioned in the passage?

  A. The study of philosophies would make our own idea flexible.

  B. The study of philosophies would help prepare us for the future and guide our actions.

  C. The study of philosophies would enable us to understand how things develop as to better tackle the future.

  D. All of the above.

  Passage 3

  Cancer is any of a group of more than 100 related diseases characterized by the uncontrolled multiplication of abnormal cells in the body. If this multiplication of cells occurs within a vital organ or tissue, normal function will be impaired or halted, with possible fatal results.

  Cancer is most commonly studied in association with human beings. Cells and tissues are said to be cancerous when, for reasons not clearly understood, they grow more rapidly than normal, assume abnormal shapes and sizes, and cease functioning in a normal manner. The ultimate involvement of a vital organ by cancer, either primary or metastatic, may lead to the death of the patient. Cancer, in contrast to benign neoplasms (tumors), tends to spread, and the extent of its spread is usually related to an individuals chances of surviving the disease. Cancers are generally said to be in one of three stages of growth: early, or localized, when a tumour is still confined to the tissue of origin, or primary site (frequently curable); direct extension, where cancer cells from the tumour have invaded adjacent tissue or have spread only to regional lymph nodes (sometime curable); or metastasis, in which cancer cells have migrated to distant parts of the body from the primary site, via the blood or lymph systems, and have established secondary sites of infection (often incurable)。 Cancer is said to be malignant because of its tendency to cause death if not treated. Benign tumors usually do not cause death, although they may if they interfere with a normal body function by virtue of their location or size.

  In general, cancer cells divide at a higher rate than do normal cells, but the distinction between the growth of cancerous and normal tissues is not so much the rapidity of cell division in the former as it is the partial or complete loss of growth restraint in cancer cells and their failure to differentiate into a useful, limited tissue of the type that characterizes the functional equilibrium of growth of normal tissue.

  Cancer may not be as autonomous as once believed. The lesions probably are influenced by the hosts susceptibility and immunity. Certain cancers of the breast and prostate, for example, are considered dependent on specific hormones for their existence; other cancers are dependent on the presence of specific viruses.

  It is estimated that one in three persons in developed countries will get cancer at some point in his life. Until more effective treatments of the common tumors can be developed, success in overcoming cancer will depend on early diagnosis of the disease (by screening those at high risk) and avoidance of known environmental carcinogens such as cigarette smoke, some industrial chemicals, and possibly the rich, fatty, lowfibred foods of modern diets.

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to this passage?

  A. If one gets cancer, it means some abnormal cells have uncontrollably multiplied within his body.

  B. Normal function will be halted if those abnormal cells multiplied within a vital organ or tissue.

  C. Normal cells divide at a higher rate than cancer cells.

  D. The patients susceptibility may influence the degree of cancers harmfulness.

  2. It can be seen from this passage that

  A. primary tumors wont lead to the death of the patient.

  B. benign tumors tend to spread.

  C. cancerous cells generally assume normal shapes and sizes.

  D. benign tumours may cause death if they interfere with a normal body function.

  3. It is informed in the passage that

  A. in the early age, a tumor is anything but abnormal.

  B. in the direct extension age, a malignant tumor is still confined to the primary site.

  C. in the metastasis age, a tumor is rarely curable.

  D. only in the third age is a tumor considered to be malignant.

  4. According to the passage,

  A. the existence of certain cancers may be concerned with specific hormones.

  B. the growth of cancerous tissues results mainly in the division of cancerous cells.

  C. breast cancers are dependent on the presence of specific viruses.

  D. the immunity of a person may promote the growth of cancerous cells.

  5. Which of the following is not mentioned as a way to overcome cancer in the passage?

  A. To diagnose the disease in an early time.

  B. To avoid the contact with those carcinogens such as cigarette smoke.

  C. Keep away from those harmful industrial chemicals.

  D. Eat richfat, lowfibre foods.

  Passage 4

  The American sociologist Talcott Parson believes that the two most important functions of the modern family are the primary socialization of children and the stabilization of adult personalities through marriage and the raising of children. His own concern was particularly with the middleclass American family, but these important aspects of family life are also applicable much more widely. In the present context it is worthwhile to look especially at primary socialization.

  Primary socialization refers to the training of children during their earliest years, whereas secondary socialization refers to later influences on the development of the childs personality and learning activities, such as his involvement with teachers and with other children at school. Primary socialization is in most societies carried out essentially within the family as part of child rearing. In the modern family, parents take responsibility for raising and teaching their children such basic things as language and correct behavior. Toilet training, teaching children how to eat correctly, and encouraging children to get along with others are all aspects of child rearing. However, it is not only these more mundane aspects of behavior that children learn. Children are also implicitly encouraged to develop the values of the parents and of the society in which they live. In American society, which was Parsons main concern, these values include independence, motivation for achievement, and competition. In other societies, different values, such as cooperation and egalitarianism, may be stressed. Yet the principle behind primary socialization in different societies is the same: the development of social values must be achieved in an environment of love and security, as is found in the ideal family anywhere in the world.

  Few families are ideal, however. Studies of the emotionally disturbed children have shown that unsatisfactory relationships between husbands and wives can have detrimental effects on children. Sometimes a child is used as a scapegoat. The parents blame or even physically abuse the child in order to cover up their own difficulties. In such a case, the child often fails to develop the values the parents wish to instill in him, developing instead antisocial habits leading to deviant behavior in later life. Indeed, the cycle may be repeated if such a person in time marries, has a family of his own, and treats his children in the same way. Nonetheless, there is no reason to suppose that all children of unsatisfactory marriages are treated in such a way or fail to overcome the difficulties they have as children.

  Some social scientists have even suggested that the isolated nuclear family, as it exists in western industrialized societies, is to blame for the social ills found in those societies. They claim that in the past more support was offered from the wider kin network and from the community as a whole — as is still the case in less — developed parts of the world. The British psychiatrists R.D. Laing and David Cooper suggested that the modern family is dysfunctional in that, by its very nature, it forces upon children an undue emphasis on obedience to authority. These negative viewpoints aside, most experts as well as most parents agree that the primary socialization process in the modern family offers benefits both to the child and to the parents.

  1. What is the main idea of this passage?

  A. The differences between primary socialization and secondary socialization.

  B. The relationship between parents and children in America.

  C. The primary socialization and its functions.

  D. The development of children of unsatisfactory marriage and their attitude toward life.

  2. What will a child do in the process of primary socialization?

  A. They have to be taught such basic things as language and correct behavior to get along with others.

  B. They are also encouraged to develop the values including independence, motivation for achievements, competition, and so on.

  C. They will receive influence on the development of personality and learning activities.

  D. Both A and B.

  3. Which of the following is true according to the passage?

  A. The relationships between husband and wife have no effect on children.

  B. The children living in a family without love and security rarely develop antisocial habits.

  C. In modern family, the child likes to commit deviant behavior against their parents.

  D. Some family fails to provide the children with an environment with love and security.

  4. Which of the following is the possible effect on those children of unsatisfactory marriage?

  A. They may treat their children in the same way as they have been treated after having their own family.

  B. They may still grow as smoothly as other children with no moral detriments.

  C. They will inevitably develop antisocial habit, and have no bright future.

  D. Both A and B.

  5. Why do some social scientists hold the opinion that the isolated nuclear family is to blame for the social ills found in those societies?

  A. Because they fail to carry out primary socialization on children.

  B. Because isolated nuclear family is lack in love and security.

  C. Because less support is offered from isolated family and they are dysfunctional in forcing upon children an emphasis on obedience to authority.

  D. The children often feel lonely in this kind of family and easily to develop psychological problems.

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:

  Passage 1

  本文主要介绍了人类的侵略性,并指出要准确地定义人类的侵略性是很困难的,因为它涉及到人类很大范围内的行为。同时,很难划分我们需要利用的侵略性行为和那些为了生存必须坚决舍弃的侵略性行为。

  We generally describe the most repulsive examples of mans cruelty as brutal or bestial, implying by these adjectives that such behavior is characteristic of less highly developed animals than ourselves. 一般而言,我们把人类令人反感的残酷面描述为兽性的和残忍的,通过这些形容词暗示这些行为是比人类低级的动物的特征。

  1. 「C」在文章第一段中提到,no other creature habitually destroys members of his own species. No other animal takes positive pleasure in the exercise of cruelty upon another of his own kind.由此可知,C项是正确的。A,B,D项都只是一种表现,不符合题意。

  2. 「D」见第一段最后一句话,“我们知道,在我们每个人内心都隐藏这一种野性的冲动,这常常会引发谋杀、折磨他人以及战争。”。 A,B,C 项都不符合原意,不是正确答案。

  3. 「D」可见第二段第一句和第三句。

  4. 「B」由第三段第一句话可知,答案应为B项,我们很难区分其负面和正面。

  5. 「A」由最后一段第五句话可知,答案应为A项。B,C,D项都不符合原意。

  Passage 2

  本文主要从两个方面阐述了学习哲学的重要性。

  But there is every reason to think that as we learn more about the physiology of the brain, we shall do so, and that the great philosophical problems about knowledge are going to be pretty fully cleared up.译文“我们的确有理由相信,当我们对大脑生理机能有了更多的了解,我们也将会这样去做,我们就会明白这一点,而且,我们也相信许多关于知识的哲学问题都会得到更加圆满的解决。”

  1. 「B」文章第一段介绍了我们为什么要学习哲学;第二段和第三段介绍了哲学和科学的联系和差别;第四段说明了学习哲学的必然性;最后一段总结了我们为什么要学习哲学。因此,本文的大意应是学习哲学的必要性,所以选B.

  2. 「A」第二段第一句指出,“科学家都倾向于认为,所有有关哲学的问题最终会由科学来解决。我认为对于许多哲学家仍争论不休的问题,这一点是千真万确的。”因此,A项正确,而B项显然错误。C,D项虽说法正确,但不符合题意。

  3. 「D」由第三段第一句话知,就算我们的子孙知道了这些问题和那些现在仍困扰我们的问题的答案,那么仍然有一个领域是他们无从了解的,那就是将来。所以,选项D是正确的。

  4. 「B」在第四段中,我们知道关于未来有这样几种观点:“some people say…”,“others say that ……”, “Marxists say that ……”。因此,应该是三种观点,选B.

  5. 「D」本题问的是学习哲学的作用。A项在第一段开头就已提到。第四段第一句话说道,“但是我们得为将来做准备,没有一些哲学知识,我们是无法理性地做到这一点的。”因此,B项应该是符合题意的。而C项在最后一段也有谈到。所以,答案应选 D.

  Passage 3

  本文介绍了癌症的特征和三个发展时期,以及不同时期治愈的可能性,并指出人体自身的免疫力也会影响癌症的损害程度。

  第三段可译为:一般说来,癌细胞分裂的速度要比正常细胞快。但是,癌组织的增长与正常组织的增长之间的区别与其说在于前者中细胞分裂的速度快,倒不如说癌组织中的癌细胞的增长部分失控或完全失控。这些癌组织不能转化为那种具有正常组织均衡功能特征的、有用的、大小限定的组织。

  1. 「C」从第三段的第一句明显看出,C项颠倒了作者的原意,是不对的。第一段第一、二句分别证明了A,B项的正确性,从最后一段的第一句也可看出D项是正确的。

  2. 「D」 由第二段第三句,“The ultimate involvement of a vital organ by cancer, either primary or metastatic, may lead to the death of the patient”可知,A项不正确。而B项与接下来一句矛盾,所以也不对。从第二段第一句可知,C项应为“cancerous cells usually assume abnormal shapes and sizes.” D项与第二段最后一句意思相符,是正确的。

  3. 「C」 由文中第二段知,癌症分三期,第一期early age, frequently curable,第二期direct extension age, sometimes curable, 第三期metastasis age, often incurable, 所以C项正确。A,B,D项都不符合原意。

  4. 「A」可见最后一段最后一句,C, D项不正确。B项与原文意思不符。

  5. 「D」第五段最后一句意思是“在研究出更好的癌症治疗方法之前,治疗癌症要依靠早期诊断,还应避免接触环境中的那些已知的致癌物质,如:香烟、某些工业化学物质,并且尽量避免吃那些可能致癌的高脂肪、低纤维的食物。”所以,D是不正确的。

  Passage 4

  本文主题是儿童的初级社会化,主要概括介绍儿童的社会初级化的功能,婚姻不幸家庭的孩子在成长中的困难,现代家庭和儿童的初级社会化。

  Yet the principle behind primary socialization in different societies is the same: the development of social values must be achieved in an environment of love and security, as is found in the ideal family anywhere in the world. 然而,在不同社会,初级社会化背后的准则却是一样的:社会价值观的培养必须在一个充满爱和安全感的环境中进行,世界上任何一个完美的家庭都创造了这样的一种环境。

  1. 「C」从第一段最后一句可知,选项C符合题意。而A,B,D都只是文章具体分析的某一方面,不是主旨,因此不选。

  2. 「D」在第二段有一句转折句,起承上启下的作用,“However, it is not only these more mundane aspects of behavior that children learn. Children are also implicitly encouraged to develop the values of the parents and of the society in which they live.”A,B项分别概括了这句的上一句和下一句的内容,都符合题意,所以选D.而C项涉及的是secondary socialization 的事情,不符合题意,不是答案。

  3. 「D」第二段最后一句话阐明,一个完美的家庭应该是充满爱和安全感的,而第三段开头的第一句话说“Few families are ideal”,这说明许多家庭没能做到这一点,所以D项正确。A,B,C项都不符合原文意思,不是正确答案。

  4. 「D」第三段最后两句话意思是“假如一个人在结了婚,有了自己的小孩之后,又以同样的方式对待他的孩子,这就意味着一个循环的开始。然而,我们没有理由设想所有不幸的婚姻家庭中的孩子都会受到这样的对待,或者,他们将来不能克服孩提时代拥有的心理问题。”由此可看出,C项太绝对了,不是正确答案。应选D.

  5. 「C」第四段第二、三句告诉我们,过去,广泛的血缘关系和整个社区能提供更多的帮助。同时,我们从这句话“the modern family is dysfunctional in that, by its very nature, it forces upon children an undue emphasis on obedience to authority.”可知,C项是科学家们得出此结论的理由,为正确答案。

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