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鲍威尔在北京就美中关系发表讲话并回答提问

2006-07-07 18:25

  美国国务卿科林·鲍威尔(Colin Powell)于10月25日在北京中国大饭店(China World Hotel)举行记者会,强调了中美关系的全面性和复杂性。

  中国是鲍威尔此次日、中、韩三国之行的第二站。鲍威尔表示,他同中国领导人进行了广泛的磋商,议题包括向台湾出售武器、北韩核武项目、经济及人权。 鲍威尔在记者会上发表了简短讲话并回答了记者的提问。

  SECRETARY POWELL:

  Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen I'm very pleased to be back in Beijing and in the course of my visit I've had some very excellent conversations with President Hu and Premier Wen, and especially with my friend and colleague Foreign Minister Li. This is the fifth time that Minister Li and I have met this year, and I look forward to seeing him again later in the year at the APEC meeting in Santiago, Chile toward the end of November.

  The range and scope of the issues we discussed today reflect the increasingly global nature of interaction between China and the United States, on a whole host of issues of importance to our nations and to the world, from security threats to bilateral matters. We are showing that we can move forward together. When we disagree, we do so candidly, openly, and in the spirit of trying to find a solution to the disagreements. But, we agreed in so many more areas than that in which we disagree.

  We had a good, open, and candid discussion today with respect to human rights, for example, and I am pleased to report that as a result of our conversations today that we have agreed that we will start talks about resuming our human rights dialogue. I expressed our appreciation with China's leadership in the six-party talks. Together, we are dedicated to a Korean peninsula that is free from the threat of nuclear weapons. I also noted that the president is looking forward to his meeting with President Hu in Chile, at the APEC meeting in November and that we are ready to work together to implement the measures agreed to at last November's APEC meetings in Bangkok.

  The people of the United States mourn the loss of Chinese citizens who are victims of terror. We express our condolences to the family of the Chinese engineer who was killed in the recent hostage-taking event in Pakistan. And to the families of those who were killed in last June's incident in Afghanistan. Terrorism is global, and we welcome China's continued actions in the global war against terrorism. I appreciate the hospitality of my Chinese host on this visit and want to extend on behalf of the people of the United States our best wishes to the people of China. With that brief statement I'm prepared for your questions.

  QUESTION: Do you see Chen Shui-bian's national day speech as a genuine possible opening and, if so, did you try to persuade the Chinese to call Chen's bluff on resuming talks on the 1992 Hong Kong basis? And, with respect to North Korea, did you ask the Chinese to be more of a participant and less of a mediator in resolving the North Korean impasse?

  SECRETARY POWELL: On the second question I think they are a participant. They've been actively participating in the last three rounds, not only convening the rounds, but taking a position, making it clear to the North Koreans that China believed, as we all do, that the denuclearization of the peninsula is what we want to achieve, and that benefits would accrue to the people of North Korea as a result of denuclearization of going forward. So, I see China as a full participant and not just a convener in the talks.

  With respect to President Chen Shui-bian's speech, we thought —— the United States thought —— that there might be some elements that the Chinese could work with in improving cross-straits dialogue. The response I received from the Chinese leadership today was that they are still concerned about President Chen Shui-bian's actions and they did not find his statement to be that forthcoming. Nevertheless, we had a good discussion of the situation with respect to Taiwan. I reinforced to our total commitment to our One China Policy, based on the three communiqu??s, and our responsibilities under the Taiwan Relations Act. We once again said that we felt strongly that both sides should avoid any unilateral actions that might prejudice progress. And, I particularly encouraged the Chinese leaders that I met with today to do everything they could to get into cross-strait dialogues in a more systemic and deliberate way.

  QUESTION: I'm from China News Daily. Four years ago, President Bush called China a strategic competitor. Today what do you think about the biggest change in Sino-US relationship? Second question is what kind of role do you think you play during the process? Thank you.

  SECRETARY POWELL: During what? I'm sorry.

  QUESTION: During the process. What kind of role do you think you play during the process. Thank you.

  SECRETARY POWELL: With respect to the first question, our relationship with China is very comprehensive and very complex —— too complex to be described by a single term or a single statement. I believe we have progressed a great deal over the last four years in President's Bush's administration. We remember that in early April of 2001 we had a confrontation over the incident that took place between our aircraft, and people thought that would put the relationship in the deep-freeze. We got through that in a matter of two weeks and ever since then we have been improving our relationship.

  We have had good and constructive talks with respect to trade, and with respect to economic issues affecting our two countries. We've seen China accede the WTO. We have worked with China to increase American exports to China while receiving large number of exports from China to the United States. There's still a trade imbalance but we're working on it. We have dealt with difficult issues with respect to market-based flexible currency rates, and we know that the Chinese are working toward that end.

  So, I think if you looked at this four-year period, you would see that this complex relationship that we have with China, has allowed us to move forward by being candid with each other on areas of disagreement and we have areas of agreement building on those areas of agreement. I think that all members of President Bush's administration have played a role in this. We have a large number of delegations that go back and forth, and we receive them at a very high level when Chinese visitors come to the United States. And, our ministers are received at a very high level here. And, I would expect that this practice will continue and the relationship will grow during President Bush's second term.

  QUESTION: Mr. Secretary, could you tell us a little bit more about the significance of the agreement you just announced to discuss human rights? And, perhaps in that context, can you tell us whether you discussed the issue of the arrest of the New York Times research assistant; with whom might you have discussed it; what sort of response you got; and, whether you are at all encouraged by anything you heard today?

  SECRETARY POWELL: On the second question, I did raise it, raised it with Foreign Minister Li, and told him that we were concerned about the arrest of the New York Times researcher. And I asked if he would look into the matter. We hope that it could be resolved quickly and the individual could be released. He took note of my statement, and noted that the individual was a Chinese citizen, and that the matter is being looked into in accordance with Chinese law. So, we did have a pretty candid exchange on the subject.

  With respect to human rights, we have said previously, and I said it again today, that we have seen some improvement in human rights behavior in 2002, but we have seen some moving backwards in 2003, with respect to the detention of journalists, with respect to other individuals who have not been able to move about as freely and participate in civil society as freely as we would like to see. And, we think it would be in the interest of the Chinese people for this to happen. So, things had slowed down with respect to human rights and the dialogue had stopped. We were not talking to each other as openly and candidly as we should. And so, in our luncheon conversation, the Minister and I talked directly to each other about these issues, to include the New York Times researcher, to include some of their concerns about our comments on their human rights behavior. And, we allowed as how it was time to start the dialogue again. So, we will begin the process of putting in place the teams and get ready for formal announcement of the resumption of dialogue in the not too distant future.

  QUESTION: Good afternoon, Secretary Powell. I'm with United Press International. I have a couple questions for you.

  SECRETARY POWELL: One question, please.

  QUESTION: China's oil imports in the first nine months of the year were officially stated to be about 4.3 million tons, most of that probably went to North Korea. With winter fast approaching, did the DPRK's energy needs come up during your discussions with the Chinese officials as a means of leverage to get them back to six-party and what other specific areas does the US believe China can explore to get North Korea to give up its WMD?

  SECRETARY POWELL: It did not come up. We did not talk about oil imports either into China, or what North Korea's needs are. Obviously, China is a major provider of assistance to North Korea, both energy and other forms of assistance, and as a result of that I think China has considerable influence with North Korea. What we agreed on today was the need for the six-party framework to continue, and for it to continue, it has to meet. And, I hope that as a result of our conversations today, both of us will energize the other members of the six-party framework to resolve the outstanding issues that keep us from setting a date for a meeting.

  I'm confident that the Chinese are totally committed to the six-party framework, view that as the way to find a solution, and will be working toward finding that solution. What they might do in the days ahead with respect to conversations with the North Koreans, I will leave up to them to discuss. As you know, senior officials from Pyongyang have visited here recently, and senior officials from Beijing have gone to Pyongyang. So, the Chinese are actively involved, and we reaffirmed our commitment today to the six-party talks and hope that the next round will be held in the not too distant future. All the parties are ready. It is the DPRK that has been showing a reluctance to have the next round. But, it is the only way forward.

  (Cross-talk)

  QUESTION: It is reported that in 2004 the Chinese students going to the States to study decreased sharply. It is said that only half the students in 2003 have taken the GRE test that is requested by the American graduate schools so my question is, what is your comment on that? Is there any actions planned to deal with it?

  (Cross-talk)

  SECRETARY POWELL: We encourage students from around the world to come and obtain an education in our universities. I think there are something like 64,000, if memory serves me correctly, Chinese students at our universities now. We would like to see that number go up. After 9/11, we had to put in place new visa procedures and other procedures to have a better understanding of who was coming to our country, for what purpose, and when they were leaving. That slowed down the issuance of visas, it made it more difficult. But over the last year, we have improved the process significantly, making it easier to get visas, reducing the time that you have to spend waiting for a visa.

  And we are going to do everything we can, and the Ambassador is committed to doing everything he can, both here in Beijing and at all of our Consulates, to speed up visa processing. It is in our interest to have foreigners come to our institutions, come to our medical facilities, come to our entertainment facilities, visit the United States as tourists to get a better understanding of who we are, what we are as a nation and people, how we can reach out to other nations. And so, we are doing everything we can to make it easier to get a visa for those who should be coming to our country and mean us no harm. We want to be seen as an open country, with open doors welcoming people as we have in the past. So, I hope we will see these numbers reversed and get back up to the higher levels.

  QUESTION: Taiwan President Chen Shui-bian said yesterday that next year will be the best year for Taiwan and China to resume dialogue. After you met with the Chinese leader Hu Jintao this morning, did you see any possibility? And also when you met with him, do you feel any pressure from him on the issue of US arms sales to Taiwan? Thanks.

  SECRETARY POWELL: We didn't have a conversation specifically about what President Chen Shui-bian might have said yesterday. I just encouraged all of my interlocutors today to keep an open mind with respect to dialogue and to take every opportunity that comes along to increase cross-strait dialogue.

  With respect to arms sales to Taiwan: yes, it did come up. The Chinese side expressed their opposition to such sales and I reiterated that our policy was based on one China, the three communiqu??s, but also the responsibility that we have under our law —— the Taiwan Relations Act —— to make sure that Taiwan was able to defend itself —— not to have an offensive capability, but to defend itself. All of our arms sales are for that purpose and are carefully examined and the arms sales items that are up for consideration now are the same items that have been known to the parties for the last three years. The Taiwanese have not yet made a firm commitment to what it is they wish to buy off that list.

  But, we believe that we will continue to meet our responsibilities under the Taiwan Relations Act and do it in a way that in no way undercuts our basic policy, which is the one China policy based on the three communiqu??s. We very carefully balance the responsibilities that we have to China and the responsibilities that we have to Taiwan under our own domestic law.

  Okay, thank you very much, ladies and gentlemen.

  鲍威尔国务卿:女士们、先生们,下午好。非常高兴再次来到北京。我在本次访问过程中与胡主席和温总理进行了非常好的交谈,也与我的朋友及同仁外交部李部长进行了特别好的交谈。这是我今年第五次同李部长见面,我期待着11月下旬在智利圣地亚哥举行的亚太经合组织(APEC)会议上再次同他见面。

  我们今天所讨论的问题的深度和广度反映出中国与美国的交往日益全球化,我们就涉及我们两国和全世界的各种问题进行接触,从安全威胁直至双边事务。我们正在显示我们能够共同前进。当遇到分歧时,我们开诚布公,本着努力寻找解决途径的精神对待分歧。不过,我们已取得共识的领域比存在分歧的领域要多得多。

  例如,我们今天就人权问题进行了良好、公开、坦诚的交谈。我高兴地在此宣布,我们在今天的会谈中同意开始就恢复我们两国间的人权对话进行磋商。我对中国在六方会谈中发挥的主导作用表示了感谢。我们共同致力于建设一个不受核武器威胁的朝鲜半岛。我还提到,(布什)总统期待着于11月在智利举行的APEC会议上同胡主席会晤,我们准备共同努力落实去年 11月在曼谷APEC会议上同意采取的措施。

  美国人民向遭到恐怖分子杀害的中国公民表示哀悼。我们向最近在巴基斯坦发生的劫持人质事件中遇害的中国工程师的家属表示慰唁,并向今年六月在阿富汗发生的恐怖事件遇害者的家属表示慰唁。恐怖主义是全球性的,我们欢迎中国在全球反恐之战中继续采取行动。我感谢中国方面在本次访问中对我的热情款待,并代表美国人民向中国人民致以最美好的祝愿。我的简短讲话到此为止,请各位提问。

  问:您是否认为陈水扁的双十国庆讲话真正有可能带来突破,如果是这样的话,您是否曾试图说服中国方面对陈水扁以1992年香港会谈为基础恢复对话的态度做出回应?还有,在北韩问题上,您是否要求中国方面进一步作为参与者,而不仅是调解者,解决同北韩的僵持局面?

  鲍威尔国务卿:关于第二个问题,我认为他们是一个参与方。他们在最近三轮会谈中一直积极参与,不仅召集会谈,而且表明立场,向北韩方面表明中国像我们所有人一样,相信我们希望实现的目标是朝鲜半岛无核化,并且相信推进无核化将给北韩人民带来好处。因此,我认为中国是一个全面的参与者,而不仅仅是会谈的召集人。

  关于陈水扁的讲话,我们认为──美国认为── 其中有些内容也许可供中国方面用以改善海峡两岸的对话。我今天从中国领导人那里听到的反应是,他们仍对陈水扁总统的行动感到忧虑,他们认为他的讲话那么坦率。不过,我们就台湾局势进行了良好的交谈。我重申了我们坚持信守建立在三个联合公报基础上的“一个中国”的政策,以及我们根据《台湾关系法》所承担的责任。我们再次表示,我们坚决认为双方都应当避免单方面采取任何可能威胁进程的行动。此外,我还特别敦促今天与我会晤的中国领导人尽一切努力,更加系统地、有计划地开展海峡两岸的对话。

  问:我是China News Daily的记者。四年前,布什总统称中国是一个战略竞争对手。今天,您对中美关系发生的最大变化有何看法?第二个问题是您认为您在这个过程中发挥了什么作用?谢谢。

  鲍威尔国务卿:对不起,在什么之中?

  问:在这一过程中。您认为您在这一过程中发挥了什么作用?谢谢。

  鲍威尔国务卿:关于第一个问题,我们同中国的关系是全方位的、非常复杂的,难以用一个词或一句话来概括。我认为在布什总统执政的四年中,我们取得了重大进展。我们都记得在2001年4月初两国因撞机事件发生对峙时,人们以为这一事件将使两国关系跌入深谷。但我们在两个星期内就度过了难关,而且两国关系从那以后持续改善。

  我们围绕着影响我们两国贸易和经济的问题进行了良好的、有建设性的对话。我们看到中国正式加入世界贸易组织(WTO)。我们在接受中国向美国大量出口的同时,同中国共同努力增加美国对中国的出口。贸易不平衡的问题仍然存在,但我们正在解决这个问题。我们围绕着允许汇率随市场自由浮动的一系列困难问题进行了努力,而且知道中国方面正致力于解决有关问题。

  因此,我认为从这四年中可以看到我们同中国的这种复杂的关系使我们能够通过在有分歧的领域坦诚相待向前推进,我们还加强了取得共识的领域。我认为布什总统所领导的本届政府的所有成员都为此发挥了作用。进行互访的代表团非常多,我们还以很高的规格在美国接待来访的中国代表团。此外,美国各部部长也在这里受到规格极高的接待。我相信在布什总统的第二个任期内,这种接触将继续下去,这种关系将继续发展。

  问:国务卿先生,您能否再谈一谈您刚才宣布的有关讨论人权问题的协议有何意义?在这一背景下,您能否告诉我们您是否谈到了《纽约时报》助理研究员被捕的问题;您是同谁讨论这个问题的;您得到什么样的答复;您今天是否得到令人鼓舞的消息?

  鲍威尔国务卿:关于第二个问题,我的确提到了,是向李部长提出的。我对他说,我们对《纽约时报》研究员被捕一事感到关切。我问他能否过问此事。我们希望此事能尽快解决,此人能被释放。他注意到我说的话,并强调这个人是中国公民,对此事正在根据中国法律进行调查。因此,有关这个问题,我们确实进行了非常坦诚的交流。

  关于人权问题,我们以前曾经说过──今天再一次重复──我们在2002年看到(中国)在人权问题上的表现有一些改善,但是,我们看到在2003年又有一些倒退,新闻记者被拘押,另一些人不能像我们所希望看到的那样自由行动,那样自由地参与公民社会。而能够那样做是符合中国人民的利益的。所以,在人权问题上,步伐放慢了,对话也停止了。我们没有像应该做到的那样进行公开、坦率的讨论。因此,在我们的午餐交谈中,(李)部长和我对这些问题进行了直接的讨论,其中包括《纽约时报》研究员的问题,包括他们对我们评论他们人权表现的言论的某些关切。我们都认为现在是重启对话的时候了。我们将开始组建对话小组,准备在不太远的将来正式宣布恢复对话。

  问:下午好,鲍威尔国务卿。我是合众国际社的记者,我想问几个问题。

  鲍威尔国务卿:请您问一个问题。

  问:据官方的说法,中国今年前九个月的石油进口约为430万吨,其中大部份可能运往北韩了。鉴于冬天即将来临,您在和中国官员的讨论中是否谈到了可将朝鲜民主主义人民共和国的能源需求当作促使他们重新回到六方谈判框架的手段的问题?美国认为中国还可探索哪些具体领域以促使北韩放弃大规模毁灭性武器?

  鲍威尔国务卿:这个问题没有谈到。我们没有谈到中国石油进口问题,也没有谈到北韩有哪些需求。很明显,中国是向北韩提供援助的一个主要国家,无论是能源还是其他形式的援助,因此,我认为中国对北韩有相当大的影响力。我们今天取得的一致意见是,有必要保持六方框架,为了保持该框架,六方必须举行会谈。

  我希望,经过我们今天的交谈,我们双方都将努力推动六方框架的其他成员,共同解决使我们无法确定会谈日期的问题。

  我相信,中方无保留地致力于保持六方框架,将此当作找出解决方案的途径,并将为找到解决方案而努力。至于他们在未来的日子里将与北韩方面谈些什么,这将由他们自己去讨论。您知道,平壤的高级官员最近来此进行了访问,北京的高级官员也去过平壤。由此可见,中方积极参与此事,我们今天也重申了对六方会谈的承诺,并希望下一轮会谈能在不太久的将来举行。各方都已做好准备。只有朝鲜民主主义人民共和国在举行下一轮会谈问题上表现消极。但是,会谈是取得进展的惟一途径。

  问:据报导,2004年前往美国留学的中国学生人数锐减。据说,参加美国研究生院要求的GRE考试的学生人数只及2003年的一半。我的问题是,您对此有何评论?是否打算采取行动来解决这个问题?

  鲍威尔国务卿:我们鼓励世界各地的学生来美国,来美国的大学受教育。如果我没记错的话,我想目前在我国大学学习的中国学生大概是64000人。我们希望这个数字能增加。在9.11事件发生后,我们不得不采用新的签证程序和其他程序,以更好地了解来我国的是什么样的人,为什么目的而来,什么时候走。这就减慢了发签证的速度,增加了获得签证的难度。但是,在过去一年中,我们大大改进了签证程序,使之较为简便,并缩短了等候领取签证的时间。

  我们将尽一切努力,驻华大使将尽一切努力,无论在北京,还是在所有的总领事馆,加快签证的签发。外国人访问我国的各类机构和医疗设施、享用我国的娱乐设施、来我国旅游,以更好地了解美国人民,了解我们的国家与民族,了解我们如何与其他国家广交朋友,这是符合我们的利益的。因此,我们正在千方百计地使那些应当来我国访问、对我们不怀恶意的人更方便地获得签证。我们希望人们认为我们是一个开放的国家,像过去那样敞开国门,欢迎来访者。因此,我希望看到这些数字回升,回到较高的水平。

  问:台湾总统陈水扁昨天说,明年将是台湾与中国恢复对话的最好年份。在您今天上午会见中国领导人胡锦涛后,您觉得有恢复对话的可能吗?此外,您同他会晤时,是否在美国售台武器问题上感受到压力?谢谢。

  鲍威尔国务卿:我们没有专门就陈水扁总统昨天可能说过的话交换意见。我只是鼓励今天同我会谈的每位谈话者在对话问题上不要有任何先入之见,而应抓住一切机会增加两岸对话。

  至于对台军售问题,不错,这个问题确实谈到了。中方对这类军售表示反对,而我重申,我们的政策是建立在“一个中国”、三项公报的基础之上的,但同时也是建立在我们根据我国的法律,即《台湾关系法》所承担的责任的基础之上的。该项法律要求确保台湾有能力进行自卫,不是获取进攻能力,而是进行自卫。我们的所有军售都是为了这个目的,都是经过慎重审议的。目前正在考虑的军售物项同过去三年中有关各方已知的物项是一致的。在这个物项单上,台湾方面还没有最后敲定他们准备买些什么。

  但是,我们认为,我们将继续履行我们根据《台湾关系法》所承担的责任,并且不使之损害我们的基本政策,即基于三项公报的“一个中国”的政策。我们非常谨慎地在我们对中国承担的责任和我们根据国内法对台湾承担的责任之间保持平衡。

  好吧,女士们,先生们,谢谢大家。

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