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Rock Climb

2006-07-24 18:34

  No one can really learn to rock climb from a newspaper, a video or the Internet. This article is intended as an introduction to rock climbing only. Seek instruction and places to practice first.

  Why rock climb?

  Adventure; freedom; go where no one has ever been; reach the top; enjoy nature; exercise; the excitement of newness. Or maybe you have your own reasons for wanting to learn. The beginning climber should always climb with an experienced leader, who will take care of runners, rope, sling, protection equipment, and the like. The beginning climber will be concerned with his/her own clothing, carabiners, and harness. All climbers should be concerned with the environment and courtesy to those who don't climb.

  Clothing

  For the beginner, any clothing tough enough to take abrasion will suffice. Athletic shoes or hiking boots will allow you to sample the sport. If you fall in love with rock climbing, you will want to buy specialized rock climbing shoes, known as varappe or kletterscuhe. They have rubber synthetics that greatly enhance one's friction on the rock.

  Rope

  Don't use old, static ropes not manufactured for climbing. They are dangerous. Modern climbing ropes are laboratory-tested and "stretch" slightly after a fall. They are kernmantle constructed (outer sheath over a large number of long inner filaments), and although pricey, are used when sliding with less friction is desired. This preserves one's body from bruises and pain at the end of any fall. No climbing rope has failed from a fall since World War II. They're that good!

  Carabiners

  These are similar to large safety pins. Most climbers use a combination of the oval shape or the modified D-shape of Chouinard's. Royal Robbins, author of Basic Rockcraft writes, "When buying a carabiner, check to make sure the spring action is smooth but not too strong, that the gate meshes freely, that there are no burrs, and that they are strong."

  Carabiners should test to at least 3,000 pounds. The responsible dealer will have information on carabiner strength. Ask before buying. Tying knots is beyond the scope of this article. You should learn the overhand knot, overhand loop, bowline, double-loop bowline, figure-of-eight loop, ring bend, and fisherman's knot.

  Belay

  The belay consists of anchor, friction, and position.

  1. Anchor

  The most important element of the belay is the anchor. The anchor is a fixed point of attachment such as a tree, rock, or other "bomb-proof" attachment. Most belay accidents are caused through failure of the belayer. Therefore, it is important to use two anchors or slings when possible and test the anchor first by applying stress.

  2. Friction

  Friction is what keeps one alive if there is a fall. Sometimes the human body is used for friction. Many belay devices aid the belayer in protecting the climber above or below. The belayer should be secured to a fixed anchor in certain situations, i.e., the climber outweighs his belayer. The belayer protects the life of the climber at all times. Should his/her climber fall, one hand is always the "brake hand". The other hand is the "guide hand". It is imperative not to confuse these functions in the heat of a fall. Practice until holding with the proper hand is automatic.

  3. Position

  Robbins continues by writing that friction is useless unless the body is braced toward the direction of pull. Usually, this means a straight leg on the side of the rope going to the climber. The belayer places himself so as to minimize any adverse action upon the body, and generally faces the wall. Since it is not easy to judge the direction of force in a fall, much less the extent of force, the belayer must evaluate each situation and make use of the rock for the most secure position. Often he/she must be prepared for forces from various directions.

  Conservation

  Conservation of a route involves leaving it unchanged so others may enjoy nature and the climb. Use runners and "placed" protections whenever possible because they leave the rock intact. Pitons are not used for "free climbing" any more. They destroy the rock. Bolts are used only when necessary, and, only with permission of the land manager. Take your litter with you unless it is organic. Even orange rinds are slow to disintegrate and not eaten by animals.

  Final Tips

  The amount of strength one is able to conserve is far more important in rock climbing than the amount of strength one has. Move with a bit of spring and rhythm. Rest when you can. While resting, study the climb ahead. Use leg muscles for climbing, arms for balance and security.

  Caution: loose rock is your enemy. It is impossible to tell whether a hold is solid by looking at it. All handholds should be tested. Handholds are struck with the heel of the hand; footholds are kicked for testing.

  Rock climbing (not mountaineering as in climbing Mt. Everest) is a fast-growing sport for all ages and both sexes. Indoor "Rock Gyms" are popular in the metroplex for staying in shape. They are no substitute for outdoor climbing on "real" rock.

  Jim Neumann, a resident of Arlington, Texas, is a long-time rock climber.

  没有人能够通过报纸、电视、或者互联网学会攀岩。本文旨在向大家介绍一下攀岩运动。不过,首先还是寻求指导、找个地方开始挑战吧。

  攀岩的目的

  冒险,自由,探索人迹罕至的地方,勇攀顶点,享受自然,锻炼体魄,寻求新奇刺激。当然,你也许会有其他个人的原因。初级攀岩者应该在专业人士指导下操作,他们可以为你准备带环、绳索、绳套、保护装置等。初级攀岩者应该准备自己的服饰、铁锁和攀岩绳。所有攀岩者都应该关注周围的环境,对那些不攀岩的人要有礼貌。

  装备

  对于初级攀岩者来说,任何耐磨的衣服都可以。你可以穿运动鞋或旅游鞋参加攀岩。如果你彻底迷上了它,就需要购买专门的攀岩鞋,像"varappe"或者"kletterscuhe"就比较出名。它们是由橡胶制成的,能够增强在岩石上的摩擦力。

  攀岩绳

  一定不要使用旧式固定的非攀岩专用的绳索,会很危险。现代的攀岩绳经过测试,在落下时会有轻微的弹力。它们是由编织绳构造而成的,尽管非常昂贵,但是在低摩擦滑行时却是必需的。这样可以使身体落下时不受到撞击或疼痛。自二战至今,还未出现攀岩绳断掉的情况。它们非常可靠。

  铁锁

  它们就相当于大型的安全别针。大多数攀岩者都会选择一系列椭圆形或经过改良的D形Chouinard铁锁。《攀岩技术要素》的作者罗亚尔·罗宾斯在书中写道:"在购买铁锁时,一定要保证弹簧的弹力正常,但强度不能太大。开口能够正常开闭。不能有损伤的刻边。而且必须很牢固。"

  铁锁应该经过至少3,000磅的测试。销售商应该有铁锁负重量的信息。在购买之前一定要咨询。关于打结问题,这里就不进行详细地陈述了。但你应该学会单结、反手绳圈、布林结、双布林结、八字结、防脱结以及交织结。

  固定保护绳

  固定保护绳包括锚点、摩擦力和位置。

  1. 锚点

  固定保护绳最重要的部分就是锚点。锚点是指绳索的固定点,例如树、岩石或其他结实的固定点。大多数固定保护绳事故都是由于保护者的失误造成的。因此尽可能使用两个锚点或绳套,并首先用力测试一下锚点。

  2. 摩擦力

  在降落时,摩擦力是对人至关重要的因素。有时候,人体也被用于摩擦。有的固定保护绳装置协助保护者保护上面或下面的攀岩者。保护者应该受到保护,并有一个固定的锚点,以防攀岩者的体重超过保护者。保护者应该始终保证攀岩者的安全。如果有攀岩者掉了下去,保护者的一只手将被用于停止降落,而另一只手则用于指导。在有人降落的危险时刻,这些功能是不允许混淆的。一定要多加练习,直到双手形成了某种惯性。

  3. 位置

  罗宾斯在书中说道,如果身体没有受到牵引力的作用,那么摩擦力也是没有任何用处的。通常情况下,这意味着靠近攀岩绳一侧的腿要保持挺直。保护者将自己固定,以减少身体的反作用,而且通常情况下要面对岩壁。由于在降落过程中很难判断受力的方向,更不用说受力的大小,因此保护者必须对每一种情况进行估量,并利用岩石取得最安全的位置。通常,他们需要准备承受来自不同方向的力。

  保护措施

  对路线的保护措施包括保证路线的固定性,这样其他人可以享受自然和攀登的过程。随时使用带环和固定的保护装置,因为这样可以保持岩石的完整。自由攀登是不使用岩钉的。因为他们破坏了岩石。锚钉也只是在必要时,并获得当地管理人员同意之后才能使用。要随身携带垃圾袋,除非是有机的。即使桔子皮也需要很长时间才能被分解,而且不会有动物来吃。

  最后提示

  在攀岩运动中,个人的耐力要比爆发力重要得多。要按照一定的弹力和节奏移动。在允许的情况下,可以休息。但是在休息过程中,要考虑后面的攀登。利用腿部肌肉攀登,用胳膊来保持平衡,以保证自身安全。

  注意:松软的岩石是你的天敌。仅仅看表面很难判断你攀住的岩石是否结实。任何一个手点都要仔细检查。手点要用手的踝关节进行检查,而脚点要通过踢来检查。

  攀岩并非攀登喜马拉雅山的登山运动,它是一项发展迅速的运动,适合任何年龄和性别。用于保持体形的室内"攀岩场馆"在大城市非常流行。但是它们无法取代室外真正的攀岩运动。

  来自阿林顿的吉姆·诺尔曼就是一位忠实的攀岩爱好者。

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