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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY52

2006-7-28 01:05  

  DAY52

  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1

  Perhaps no other institution reflects the relaxed Italian lifestyle as much as the ubiquitous cafe (or bar, as it is called in Italy)。 From village emporia with three tin tables where the blackhated pensioners perpetually argue the Sunday soccer results, to the sprawling outdoor drawing rooms of Venices Piazza San Marco, life slows to a sitandsip. Italians order Campari or cappuccino and put the world on hold. Inside, Italian cafes are for receiving friends and suitors, reading the paper, and writing the great Calabrian novel. Some regulars even get their mail at their local cafe. Outside, in summer, the cafe is for appraising the spectacle.

  CUCCHI, Milan: Sip your Bellini (fresh peach juice and champagne) outdoors in the summer and eye the Armaniclad executives who have maneuvered Italy into one of the top economic slots in the world. Nurse a Negroni ( red vermouth and gin ) indoors in the winter amidst the pink velvet and chandeliers preserved from the 1930s when most Milano came here to dance. Or time your visit for 7∶45 AM to sample brioche fresh from the oven.

  PEDROCCHI, Padua: This sedate gathering place in the center of Padua, built in 1831 long before Italy became a unified state, once reverberated with revolutionary patriotic fervor, and its three roomsopen from dawn until after midnight — are still painted red, white, and green like the Italian flag. A bullet hole in the wall of the White is a cherished reminder of the 1848 student uprising against the citys Austrian rulers. Earnest young people come to the Green to study, talk, and celebrate graduation from the nearby university. The Red? Its where local businesspeople, intent on their double espresso, plot to preserve the status quo.

  RONEY, Palermo: The best standup food in Sicily is served at one end of its immense bar; at the other, a hundred different sweets, including the islands spacious tent — like pavilion outdoors; patrons lean back in their wicker chairs, look out on the treelined avenue, and ponder the mystery of Palermo. How can a city whose per capita income is one of Italys lowest be among the countrys top ten consumers? The answer — the rumor is that its hidden Mafia money — may give people watching in this cafe an added dimension.

  SAN MARCO, Trieste: with its newspapers draped over bamboo poles, its card tables surrounded by intent retired government employees, its corners occupied by solitary readers and scribblers, this holdover of preWorld War I days, when Trieste had 56 coffeehouses, was like something out of the late great AustroHungarian Empire. People regularly met and chatted with friends here as if it were their own living room. A sprightly refurbishing has lightened the mood, but the friendly ghosts linger.

  1. What can you do in winter in CUCCHI?

  A. Sip your Bellini outdoors.B. Nurse a Negroni.

  C. Reading fashionable magazine.D. Enjoy classic music.

  2. What is the spectacle of Pedrocchi?

  A. It wits the history of Italy.

  B. The style is excessive ornate.

  C. It appealed to most of college students and business men nearby.

  D. The ornament seemed out of date.

  3. Roney in Palermo supply .

  I. best standup foodII. particularly black and potent espresso

  III. a hundred different sweets

  A. I and IIB. I and IIIC. I, II and IIID. only II

  4. What spectacle do Pedrocchi and San Marco possess in common?

  A. Both of them are traditional ones, witch can trace to the early days.

  B. They supply typical sweets of Italy.

  C. They are both located in the biggest cities whose per capita income is Italys highest.

  D. Mafia money was accumulated in the two cities.

  5. According to the passage, which is not the reason that make Italian, or even visitors from every corner of world, fond of enjoying themselves in cafes.

  A. relaxed circumstance, culture and history it preserved

  B. chance to chat with various kinds of friends

  C. attentive and satisfactory service

  D. typical dishes

  Passage 2

  Doctors may soon be able to rejuvenate weakly pumping hearts by creating brand new muscle and blood vessels fashioned from cells scavenged else where in patients bodies, new research suggests.

  The idea is to repair the hearts of victims of congestive heart failure, a condition that afflicts nearly 5 million people in the United States, by recreating heart tissue damaged by heart attacks and the wear and tear of aging.

  “This is incredibly exciting new science.” commented Dr. Rose Marie Robertson of Vanderbilt University.

  Heart failure occurs when damage to the heart muscle weakens the organs power to pump blood forcefully enough. Although medicines can help, many victims suffer crippling shortness of breath, lack of stamina and swelling of the legs.

  In the French case, first made public last month, doctors treated a 72yearold man with severe heart failure resulting from a heart attack, which left his main pumping chamber scarred and disabled.

  Under local anesthesia, they removed a bit of muscle from his thigh, and then grew it in the lab to create millions of contracting cells called skeletal myoblasts. On June 15, they transplanted 800 million of these cells with a needle into and around the heart scar.

  Dr Philippe Menasche of Bichat Hospital in Paris said the man has improved dramatically, and the new tissue in his heart is contracting rhythmically.

  “We repopulated the dead scar with living cells,” Menasche said. “These are encouraging results, but we have to be very, very, very cautious.”

  The French doctors hope to repeat the experiment on eight more patients over the next year.

  Two other approaches have been tried only in lab animals, but doctors say they could offer one important advantage: The new tissue will be real heart material, not transplanted skeletal muscle as the French used.

  Dr. Ray C. J Chiu of McGill University in Montreal reported, on the use of immature bone marrow tissue called marrow stromal cells. These have the ability to transform into many different body parts, including nerves and liver as well as heart.

  His team injected marrow stromal cells in the hearts of 22 genetically identical rats; Chiu said the new tissue quickly began to work with the original heart cells, beating in unison.

  “They were hard to distinguish,” he said.

  Using rats, the Boston researchers gathered these immature endothelial cells, grew them in test tubes to make millions of copies and then injected them into the areas of damaged heart muscle. The animals hearts grew new blood vessels and appeared to work better than hearts without the treatment.

  However, none of these treatments is likely to be as simple as it seems. For instance, Chiu cautioned that the marrow stromal cells tend to develop like the tissue they are placed next to. So in a damaged heart, they could form new scar tissue.

  Chiu said it might be possible to nudge cells with drugs to develop into particular cell types, such as contracting muscle cells, despite being implanted next to scar material.

  1. To repair the weakly pumping hearts, the way can be .

  A. to duplicate heart tissueB. to create brand — new muscle and blood vessels

  C. to reduce the wear and tear of agingD. to get more nutrition

  2. When a person suffers a heart attack, which of the following symptoms is not mentioned in the text?

  A. Crippling shortness of breath.B. Lack of stamina.

  C. Swelling of the legs.D. Can not move any more.

  3. One of the important advantages to treat heartattacked people is that

  A. contracting cells may soon be transplanted into and around heart scar.

  B. the new tissue will be real heart material.

  C. the tissue can be transformed into many different body parts.

  D. the new tissue can work with the original heart cells very harmoniously.

  4. The problem of marrow stromal cells is that .

  A. They could form the tissues around themB. They cannot be planted next to scar material

  C. They are not fit for manD. We cannot make copies of them

  5. What can be inferred from the text?

  A. The science to make a weakly pumping heart work efficiently is around the corner.

  B. Three approaches of treatment have been put into practical use.

  C. The rat experiment seems quite perfect.

  D. The marrow stromal cells were first used by French doctors.

  Passage 3

  During the traditional wedding ceremony, the bridal couple promise each other lifelong devotion. Yet, about one out of four American marriages ends in divorce. Since 1940, the divorce rate has more than doubled, and experts predict that, of all marriages that occurred in the 1970s, about 50% will end in divorce. The U.S.A. has one of the highest divorce rates in the world, perhaps even the highest.

  What goes wrong? The fact that divorce is so common in the United States does not mean that Americans consider marriage a casual, unimportant relationship. Just the opposite is true. Americans expect a great deal from marriage. They seek physical, emotional, and intellectual compatibility. They want to be deeply loved and understood. It is because Americans expect so much from marriage that so many get divorced. They prefer no marriage at all to a marriage without love and understanding. With typical American optimism, they end one marriage in hope that the next will be happier. With nofault divorce laws in many states; it is easier than ever to get a divorce. Some American women stay in unhappy marriages because they dont have the education or job experience to support themselves and their children. But most American women believe that, if necessary, they can make it alone without a husband.

  When a couple gets divorced, the court may require the man to pay this former wife a monthly sum of money called alimony. The amount of alimony depends on the husbands income, the wifes needs, and the length of the marriage. If the woman is working and earns a good salary, she may receive no alimony at all. Occasionally, the court decides that a woman should pay her husband alimony. About 10% of American women out earn their husbands. If the woman has totally supported her husband during the marriage, the court may decide that she must continue to support him after the divorce. This is a rather new concept in the United States.

  If a divorcing couple has children, the court must determine which parent the children will live with and who will provide for their support. In most cases, the children live with the mother, and the father pays child support and has visitation rights. However, it is not uncommon for a father to get full custody or joint custody of his children when this arrangement seems to be in the childrens best interest.

  The high risk of divorce doesnt seem to make Americans afraid to try marriage again and again. By middle age, about 95% of Americans have been married at least once. About 80% of those who get divorced eventually remarry. Only in Japan is the married proportion of the population as high as it is in the U.S.A. In fact, remarriage and the creation of new families is so common in the United States.

  Despite the dominance of the married lifestyle, the number of people choosing alternative lifestyles is increasing, and their behavior is increasingly accepted by the general population. The number of unmarried couples living together rose from about 500,000 in 1970 to about 2.6 million in 1988.

  Another alternative to the traditional marriage is the homosexual relationship. Scientists estimate that about 4% of American men and 1.5% of American women are homosexuals. Many homosexuals live with someone of their own sex, and sometimes these relationships last for many years, with the same loyalty and emotional attachment as in a happy marriage.

  1. Why is the divorce rate high in the U.S. according to the text?

  A. People are not so serious about their marriages.

  B. Americans expect too much from their marriages.

  C. Couples do not share the same opinions and interests.

  D. They find marriage boring after living together for a long time.

  2. It is implied in the text that divorce now is easy, which of the following statements is not its elements?

  A. They are optimistic about their next marriage.

  B. Nofault divorce is carried out.

  C. Women can support themselves and their children.

  D. Divorce brings them no harm.

  3. When parents divorce, which of the following statements about children is incorrect according to the text?

  A. Mostly, mother will bring them up.

  B. Father can also have the custody.

  C. It follows the principle that benefits children most.

  D. Children will not live with their father under any circumstance.

  4. Many people choose unconventional lifestyles, such as .

  A. unmarried couples living together

  B. maintaining the homosexual relationships

  C. remaining single when they are in their middle ages

  D. Both A and B

  5. The best title for this article may be .

  A. divorce and alternative lifestyles in U.S.B. american peoples view about marriage

  C. high divorce rate in AmericaD. alimony and custody of children

  Passage 4

  The new music was built out of materials already in existence: blues, rocknroll, and folk music. But although the forms remained, something completely new and original was made out of these older elements — more original, perhaps, than even the new musicians themselves yet realize. The transformation took place in 1966-1967. Up to that time, the blues had been an essentially black medium. Rocknroll a blue derivative was rhythmic dance music. Folk music, old and modern, was popular among college students. The three forms remained musically and culturally distinct, and even as late as 1965, none of them were expressing any radically new states of consciousness. Blues expressed black soul; rock was the beat of youthful energy; and folk music expressed antiwar sentiments as well as love and hope.

  In 1966-1967 there was spontaneous transformation. In the United States, it originated with youthful rock groups playing in San Francisco. In England, it was led by the Beatles, who were already established as an extremely fine and highly individual rock group. What happened, as well as it can be put into words, was this. First, the separate musical traditions were brought together. Bob Dylan and the Jefferson Airplane played folk rock, folk ideas with a rock beat. White rock groups began experimenting with the blues. Of course white musicians had always played the blues, but essentially as imitators of the Negro style; now it began to be the white bands own music. And all of the groups moved towards a broader eclecticism and synthesis. They freely took over elements from jazz, from American country music, and as time went on from even more diverse sources. What developed was a music readily taking on various forms and capable of an almost limitless range of expression.

  The second thing that happened was that all the musical group began using the full range of electric instruments and the technology of electronic amplifiers. Electronics did, in fact, make possible sounds that no instruments up to that time could produce. And in studio recordings, new techniques made possible effects that not even an electronic band could produce live. Electronic amplifiers also made possible a fantastic increase in volume, the music becoming as loud and penetrating as the human ear could stand, and thereby achieving a “total” effect, so that instead of an audience of passive listeners, there were now audiences of total participants, feeling the music in all of their senses and all of their bones.

  Third, the music becomes a multimedia experience; a part of a total environment. The walls of the ballrooms were covered with changing patterns of light, the beginning of the new art of the light show. And the audience did not sit, they danced. With records at home, listeners imitated these lighting effects as best they could, and heightened the whole experience by using drugs. Often music was played out of doors, where nature provided the environments.

  1. What does the word “sentiments” in paragraph one mean?

  A. passionsB. sensationC. emotions D. sensory

  2. The new music has something complete new and original because.

  A. the separate musical traditions were brought together

  B. electric instruments and the technology of electronic amplifier were used by all musical groups

  C. it becomes a multimedia experience

  D. A, B and C

  3. Up to 1966-1967,。

  A. the blues had been popular among college students

  B. rocknroll expressed mainly such sentiments as love and hope

  C. folk music was enjoyed largely by black people

  D. the three forms of music remained distant from each other

  4. What has changed passive listeners of music into active ones?

  A. The use of electronic amplifiers and electric instruments.

  B. The expression of radically new states of consciousness.

  C. The change in musical forms.

  D. Multimedia.

  5. It can be inferred from the text that new music.

  A. inherits all of the older element — blues, rocknroll, folk music

  B. the transformation to new music happened in 1966-1967

  C. has a limited range of expression

  D. is not the first music form to use new art of light show

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:

  Passage 1

  这是一篇有关意大利风情的文章。意大利的咖啡店是意大利文化历史的积淀, 喜好放松生活方式的意大利人喜欢在那里交友, 谈商, 消磨时间。

  1. Sip your Bellini outdoors in the summer and eye the Armaniclad executives who have maneuvered Italy into one of the top economic slots in the world.你可在该馆的露天餐桌边一边喝贝利尼饮料, 一边注视身着阿玛尼服装的行政官——是他们使意大利成为世界上最主要的经济通道之一。

  2. A bullet hole in the wall of the White is a cherished reminder of the 1848 student uprising against the citys Austrian rulers.白房间墙上的一个子弹孔是1848年学生反抗该城奥地利统治者所留下的珍贵纪念品。

  3. The answer — the rumor is that its hidden Mafia money — may give people watching in this cafe an added dimension.据说该城藏有黑手党的金钱-可能会给在这个咖啡馆里观赏的人们一个新的衡量标准。

  1. 「A」第二段第一句有明显陈述。其它都不符合题意。

  2. 「A」从第三段中的built in 1831 long before Italy became a unified state可以推知它见证了意大利的历史。其它选项表述都有错误。

  3. 「C」从原文第四段开头可以找到明确答案,只有C是全面而正确的。

  4. 「A」从文章最后一段中this holdover of preWorld War I days可知圣马可也有较长时间的历史。而其它都不是它们的共同点。

  5. 「A」B项原文都有明确表述,D项指的是意大利卡普契诺咖啡等有名而具有地方特色的餐点,C项原文并没有提到。

  Passage 2

  医生做了许多实验,希望使心脏重新恢复活力。虽然一些实验看起来很成功,但仍存在一些问题,如新移植的细胞会形成与它周围受损组织一样的细胞。

  1. The idea is to repair the hearts of victims of congestive heart failure, a condition that afflicts nearly 5 million people in the United States, by recreating heart tissue damaged by heart attacks and the wear and tear of aging. 这个想法就是使那些由于心脏病发作或长期磨损而损伤的心脏得到修养——美国约有500万人受到心力衰竭的折磨,从而修复这些受害者的心脏。

  2. Chiu said it might be possible to nudge cells with drugs to develop into particular cell types, such as contracting muscle cells, despite being implanted next to scar material. 周说:有可能利用药物促进特殊种类细胞,如收缩的肌肉细胞的培育,即使它们已被移植到靠近已经受损伤的组织。

  1. 「B」根据文章第1段可得到正确答案。

  2. 「D」从文章第2段可得到正确答案

  3. 「B」第10段说得很明了。

  4. 「A」从倒数第2段可看出。

  5. 「A」文章第一句话已说明,其它选项表述都有误。

  Passage 3

  本文主要分析了美国高离婚率的原因,以及赡养费和孩子抚养的问题,并介绍了不同于传统的其他生活方式。

  1. However, it is not uncommon for a father to get full custody or joint custody of his children when this arrangement seems to be in the childrens best interest. 然而,只要最大限度地对孩子有利,父亲拥有对孩子的全部监护权或父母共有监护权的情况也很常见。

  2. Despite the dominance of the married lifestyle, the number of people choosing alternative lifestyles is increasing, and their behavior is increasingly accepted by the general population.尽管选择婚姻这一生活方式是社会的主流,但越来越多的人选择了其他的生活方式 ,他们的选择也渐渐为公众所认可。

  3. Many homosexuals live with someone of their own sex, and sometimes these relationships last for many years, with the same loyalty and emotional attachment as in a happy marriage.许多同性恋者与同性伙伴生活在一起,有时这种关系延续好多年,他们同样忠诚相待,感情依恋,如同美满婚姻一般。

  1. 「B」从文章第二段可得到正确答案。

  2. 「D」从文章第二段可得到正确答案。 D项文中未提。

  3. 「D」从第四段可得到正确答案。该段对此讲得比较具体、详细。

  4. 「D」从文章最后一段第一句和倒数第二段最后一句可得到正确答案。

  5. 「A」只有A最全面。

  Passage 4

  本文主要介绍新音乐的主要起源: 布鲁斯、摇滚和民间音乐, 以及其它不同于这三种形式的一些全新而富有创意的东西。

  1. But although the forms remained, something completely new and original was made out of these older elementsmore original, perhaps, than even the new musicians themselves yet realize. 虽然形式保存下来了, 但从这些较早的音乐中却产生了一些连音乐家们自身都没意想到的全新而富有创意的东西。

  2. The three forms remained musically and culturally distinct, and even as late as 1965, none of them were expressing any radically new states of consciousness.这三种形式一直保留着音乐和文化上的不同特色, 直到1965年, 它们中也没有一种形式表达一些全新的意识形态。

  3. The second thing that happened was that all the musical group began using the full range of electric instruments and the technology of electronic amplifiers. 其次,所有的音乐组合都开始使用全套电子乐器和电子扩音技术。

  4. Electronic amplifiers also made possible a fantastic increase in volume, the music becoming as loud and penetrating as the human ear could stand, and thereby achieving a “total” effect, so that instead of an audience of passive listeners, there were now audiences of total participants, feeling the music in all of their senses and all of their bones. 在录音室, 新的技术能做出连电子乐队现场都演奏不出的效果, 电子放大器也可以使音量大到极点, 音乐显得洪亮而有穿透力, 震耳欲聋, 因而达到一种震撼人心的效果, 使得听众不再是被动接受者, 而是完全地投入, 用整个身心去感受音乐。

  1. 「C」根据文章上下文意思,sentiment指情绪;sensation情感;passion感觉,感受;emotion是情感、情绪的意思;sensory 感觉的,感受的。

  2. 「D」新音乐表现在A,B,C三个方面。

  3. 「D」从文章第一段可得到正确答案。

  4. 「A」从倒数第二段可得出正确答案A.

  5. 「B」可以根据第二段第一句话得出,其它表述都有错误。

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