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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY5

2006-7-28 01:03  

  2000年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语试题(阅读部分)

  Part IIIReading Comprehension

  Directions: Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked A, B, C and D. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil.(40points)

  Passage 1

  A history of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap, but, if properly handled, it may become a driving force. When the United States entered just such a glowing period after the end of the Second World War, it had a market eight times larger than any competitor, giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale. Its scientists were the worlds best, its workers the most skilled. America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed.

  It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. Just as inevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful. By the mid1980s Americans had found themselves at a loss over their fading industrial competitiveness. Some huge American industries, such as consumer electronics, had shrunk or vanished in the face of foreign competition. By 1987 there was only one American television maker left, Zenith.(Now there is none: Zenith was bought by South Koreas LG Electronics in July.)Foreignmade cars and textiles were sweeping into the domestic market. Americas machinetool industry was on the ropes. For a while it looked as though the making of semiconductors, which America had which sat at the heart of the new computer age, was going to be the next casualty.

  All of this caused a crisis of confidence. Americans stopped taking prosperity for granted. They began to believe that their way of doing business was failing, and that their incomes would therefore shortly begin to fall as well. The mid1980s brought one inquiry after another into the causes of Americas industrial decline. Their sometimes sensational findings were filled with warnings about the growing competition from overseas.

  How things have changed! In 1995 the United States can look back on five years of solid growth while Japan has been struggling. Few Americans attribute this solely to such obvious causes as a devalued dollar or the turning of the business cycle. Selfdoubt has yielded to blind pride."American industry has changed its structure, has gone on a diet, has learnt to be more quickwitted," according to Richard Cavanagh, executive dean of Harvards Kennedy School of Government."It makes me proud to be an American just to see how our businesses are improving their productivity," says Stephen Moore of the Cato Institute, a thinktank in Washington, DC. And William Sahlman of the Harvard Business School believes that people will look back on this period as "a golden age of business management in the United States."

  51. The U.S. achieved its predominance after World War Ⅱ because .

  A. it had made painstaking efforts towards this goal

  B. its domestic market was eight times larger than before

  C. the war had destroyed the economies of most potential competitors

  D. the unparalleled size of its workforce had given an impetus to its economy

  52. The loss of U.S. predominance in the world economy in the 1980s is manifested in the fact that the American .

  A. TV industry had withdrawn to its domestic market

  B. semiconductor industry had been taken over by foreign enterprises

  C. machinetool industry had collapsed after suicidal actions

  D. auto industry had lost part of its domestic market

  53. What can be inferred from the passage?

  A. It is human nature to shift between selfdoubt and blind pried.

  B. Intense competition may contribute to economic progress.

  C. The revival of the economy depends on international cooperation.

  D. A long history of success may pave the way for further development.

  54. The author seems to believe the revival of the U.S. economy in the 1990s can be attributed to the .

  A. turning of the business cycle B. restructuring of industry

  C. improved business management  D. success in education

  Passage 2

  Being a man has always been dangerous. There are about 105 males born for every 100 females, but this ratio drops to near balance at the age of maturity, and among 70yearolds there are twice as many women as men. But the great universal of male mortality is being changed. Now, by babies survive almost as well as girls do. This means that, for the first time, there will be an excess of boys in those crucial years when they are searching for a mate. More important, another chance for natural selection has been removed. Fifty years ago, the chance of a baby(particularly a boy baby)surviving depended on its weight. A kilogram too light or too heavy meant almost certain death. Today it makes almost no difference. Since much of the variation is due to genes one more agent of evolution has gone.

  There is another way to commit evolutionary suicide: stay alive, but have fewer children. Few people are as fertile as in the past. Except in some religious communities, very few women has 15 children. Nowadays the number of births, like the age of death, has become average. Most of us have roughly the same number of offspring. Again, differences between people and the opportunity for natural selection to take advantage of it have diminished. India shows what is happening. The country offers wealth for a few in the great cities and poverty for the remaining tribal peoples. The grand mediocrity of today everyone being the same in survival and number of offspring means that natural selection has lost 80% of its power in uppermiddleclass India compared to the tribes.

  For us, this means that evolution is over; the biological Utopia has arrived. Strangely, it has involved little physical change. No other species fills so many places in nature. But in the pass 100,000 years even the pass 100 years our lives have been transformed but our bodies have not. We did not evolve, because machines and society did it for us. Darwin had a phrase to describe those ignorant of evolution: they "look at an organic being as average looks at a ship, as at something wholly beyond his comprehension." No doubt we will remember a 20th century way of life beyond comprehension for its ugliness. But however amazed our descendants may be at how far from Utopia we were, they will look just like us.

  55. What used to be the danger in being a man according to the first paragraph?

  A. A lack of mates.       B. A fierce competition.

  C. A lower survival rate.   D. A defective gene.

  56. What does the example of India illustrate?

  A. Wealthy people tend to have fewer children than poor people.

  B. Natural selection hardly works among the rich and the poor.

  C. The middle class population is 80% smaller than that of the tribes.

  D. India is one of the countries with a very high birth rate.

  57. The author argues that our bodies have stopped evolving because .

  A. life has been improved by technological advance

  B. the number of female babies has been declining

  C. our species has reached the highest stage of evolution

  D. the difference between wealth and poverty is disappearing

  58. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?

  A. Sex Ration Changes in Human Evolution

  B. Ways of Continuing Mans Evolution

  C. The Evolutionary Future of Nature

  D. Human Evolution Going Nowhere

  Passage 3

  When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal. With regard to Futurist poetry, however, the case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be even admitting that the theory on which it is based may be right, it can hardly be classed as Literature.

  This, in brief, is what the Futurist says; for a noise and violence and speed. Consequently, our feelings, thoughts and emotions have undergone a corresponding change. This speeding up of life, says the Futurist, requires a new form of expression. We must speed up our literature too, if we want to interpret modern stress. We must pour out a large stream of essential words, unhampered by stops, or qualifying adjectives, of finite verbs. Instead of describing sounds we must make up words that imitate them; we must use many sizes of type and different colored inks on the same page, and shorten or lengthen words at will.

  Certainly their descriptions of battles are confused. But it is a little upsetting to read in the explanatory notes that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river and then to find that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers: "Puff! Puff! A hundred and eightyfive kilograms."

  This, though it fulfills the laws and requirements of Futurist poetry, can hardly be classed as Literature. All the same, no thinking man can refuse to accept their first proposition: that a great change in our emotional life calls for a change of expression. The whole question is really this: have we essentially changed?

  59. This passage is mainly .

  A. a survey of new approaches to artB. a review of Futurist poetry

  C. about merits of the Futurist movementD. about laws and requirements of literature

  60. When a novel literary idea appears, people should try to .

  A. determine its purposes     B. ignore its flaws

  C. follow the new fashions    D. accept the principles

  61. Futurists claim that we must .

  A. increase the production of literature  B. use poetry to relieve modern stress

  C. develop new modes of expression  D. avoid using adjectives and verbs

  62. The author believes that Futurist poetry is .

  A. based on reasonable principles

  B. new and acceptable to ordinary people

  C. indicative of basic change in human nature

  D. more of a transient phenomenon than literature

  Passage 4

  Aimlessness has hardly been typical of the postwar Japan whose productivity and social harmony are the envy of the United States and Europe. But increasingly the Japanese are seeing a decline of the traditional workmoral values. Ten years ago young people were hardworking and saw their jobs as their primary reason for being, but now Japan has largely fulfilled its economic needs, and young people dont know where they should go next.

  The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the maledominated job market have limited the opportunities of teenagers who are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbing Japans rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs. In a recent survey, it was found that only 24.5 percent of Japanese students were fully satisfied with school life, compared with 67.2 percent of students in the United States. In addition, far more Japanese workers expressed dissatisfaction with their jobs than did their counterparts in the 10 other countries surveyed.

  While often praised by foreigners for its emphasis on the basics, Japanese education tends to stress test taking and mechanical learning over creativity and selfexpression."Those things that do not show up in the test scores personality, ability, courage or humanity are completely ignored," says Toshiki Kaifu, chairman of the ruling Liberal Democratic Partys education committee."Frustration against this kind of thing leads kids to drop out and run wild." Last year Japan experienced 2, 125 incidents of school violence, including 929 assaults on teachers. Amid the outcry, many conservative leaders are seeking a return to the prewar emphasis on moral education. Last year Mitsuo Setoyama, who was then education minister, raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World WarⅡhad weakened the "Japanese morality of respect for parents".

  But that may have more to do with Japanese lifestyles."In Japan," says educator Yoko Muro, "its never a question of whether you enjoy your job and your life, but only how much you can endure." With economic growth has come centralization; fully 76 percent of Japans 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extended family have been abandoned in favor of isolated, twogeneration households. Urban Japanese have long endured lengthy commutes(travels to and from work)and crowded living conditions, but as the old group and family values weaken, the discomfort is beginning to tell. In the past decade, the Japanese divorce rate, while still well below that of the United States, has increased by more than 50 percent, and suicides have increased by nearly onequarter.

  63. In the Westerners eyes, the postwar Japan was .

  A. under aimless development    B. a positive example

  C. a rival to the West           D. on the decline

  64. According to the author, what may chiefly be responsible for the moral decline of Japanese society?

  A. Womens participation in social activities is limited.

  B. More workers are dissatisfied with their jobs.

  C. Excessive emphasis has been placed on the basics.

  D. The lifestyle has been influenced by Western values.

  65. Which of the following is true according to the author?

  A. Japanese education is praised for helping the young climb the social ladder

  B. Japanese education is characterized by mechanical learning as well as creativity.

  C. More stress should be placed on the cultivation of creativity.

  D. Dropping out leads to frustration against test taking.

  66. The change in Japanese lifestyle is revealed in the fact that .

  A. the young are less tolerant of discomforts in the fact that

  B. the divorce rate in Japan exceeds that in the U.S.

  C. the Japanese endure more than ever before

  D. the Japanese appreciate their present life

  Passage 5

  If ambition is to be well regarded, the rewards of ambition health, distinction, control over ones destiny must be deemed worthy of the sacrifices made on ambitions behalf. If the tradition of ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared; and it especially must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired, the educated not least among them. In an odd way, however, it is the educated who have claimed to have give up on  ambition as an ideal. What is odd is that they have perhaps most benefited from ambition - if not always their own then that of their parents and grandparents. There is heavy note of hypocrisy in this, a case of closing the barn door after the horses have escaped with the educated themselves riding on them.

  Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes, European travel, BMWs. The locations, place names and name brands may change, but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago. What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams, as easily and openly as once they could, lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar. Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in threestar restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools. For such people and many more perhaps not so exceptional, the proper formulation is,"Succeed at all costs but avoid appearing ambitious."

  The attacks on ambition are many and come from various angles; its public defenders are few and unimpressive, where they are not extremely unattractive. As a result, the support for ambition as a healthy impulse, a quality to be admired and fixed in the mind of the young, is probably lower than it has ever been in the United States. This does not mean that ambition is at an end, that people no longer feel its stirrings and promptings, but only that, no longer openly honored, it is less openly underground, or made sly. Such, then, is the way things stand: on the left angry critics, on the right stupid supporters, and in the middle, as usual, the majority of earnest people trying to get on in life.

  67. It is generally believed that ambition may be well regarded if  .

  A. its returns well compensate for the sacrifices

  B. it is rewarded with money, fame and power

  C. its goals are spiritual rather than material

  D. it is shared by the rich and the famous

  68. The last sentence of the first paragraph most probably implies that it is .

  A. customary of the educated to discard ambition in words

  B. too late to check ambition once it has been let out

  C. dishonest to deny ambition after the fulfillment of the goal

  D. impractical for the educated to enjoy benefits from ambition

  69. Some people do not openly admit they have ambition because .

  A. they think of it as immoral

  B. their pursuits are not fame or wealth

  C. ambition is not closely related to material benefits

  D. they do not want to appear greedy and contemptible

  70. From the last paragraph the conclusion can be drawn that ambition should be maintained .

  A. secretly and vigorouslyB. openly and enthusiastically

  C. easily and momentarilyD. verbally and spiritually

  51. 「C」问题是:二战后美国取得了优势是因为

  文章第1段第2句指出二战后,美国进入一个欣欣向荣的时期,它拥有8倍于其他任何一个竞争国家的市场,工业经济发展到空前规模,它拥有世界上最优秀的科学家和最熟练的工人。下一句作者又指出美国的繁荣和美国人富裕水平是欧洲人和亚洲人做梦也想不到的,因为战争摧毁了他们的经济。从这句可以推断出美国之所以有这么大的优势,是因为在经历了二战之后惟有它的经济毫无损伤。这与C项内容相符。A,D项文中没有提到,B项内容是美国取得优势的一个特征,而不是取得优势的原因。

  52. 「D」问题是:在80年代,美国在世界经济竞争中失去她的优势,这主要表现在美国

  文章第2段第1、2句作者讲到面临着其他国家经济复苏,在对手面前,美国逐渐失去她的优势。随后作者在不同工业领域中一一给出例子,先是电视。到1987 年为止,美国仅存的电视制造商只有Zenith一家了(现在已荡然无存:Zenith于7月份被韩国LG公司收购)。这里并没有提到美国电视失去国际市场。事实上,它连国内市场也无法保证。B项不对,因为第2段最后一句,作者提到半导体制造业似乎将会成为最后一个受害者。C项也不对,因为第2段提到了机床制造业也在走钢丝(on the ropes)。这表明,他正在失去国内外市场,并没有提到其自取灭亡。

  53. 「B」问题是:从本文可以推断出

  第3段提到,严峻的现实使美国人失去了自信,他们不再认为繁荣是自然而然的事,他们开始认识到自己的经营方式存在严重的问题。在80年代中期,他们开始探讨美国经济衰退的原因。他们有时有些惊人的发现,其中往往提示人们警惕外来竞争。第4段提到了90年代的经济复苏。其中的含义是:在竞争的压力下,美国人在80年代进行了自我反思和产业结构调整,因此带来了90年代的经济复苏。因此选B:高度竞争导致经济成功。

  54. 「A」问题是:作者似乎认为90年代美国经济复苏可以归功于

  文章第4段第2句,作者讲到,对于90年代美国经济复苏,美国人不认为这是美元贬值或经济周期所直接带来的。紧接着在下一句,作者对这种看法给予了批评,盲目骄傲战胜了自疑。很明显,对于90年代经济复苏原因的这个问题,作者肯定了大多数美国人所否定的,即A项内容。

  长期而轻而易举取得的成功有可能是一种缺陷,但是如果处理得当,它也可能变成一种动力。二战后美国就进入了这样一段辉煌的时期:它的市场比竞争对手的要大八倍,为它的工业提供了无法比拟的集约效应。它拥有全世界最好的科学家和最熟练的技术工人。美国和美国人民的繁荣是欧洲和亚洲那些经济被战争严重摧毁的国家做梦都想象不到的。

  当然,不可避免的,随着其他国家逐渐富强起来,美国的这种领先优势在逐渐缩小,而领先优势的丧失不免会令人痛苦。到了80年代中期,美国人发现他们在工业上的竞争力日益减少,而他们也无计可施。一些美国工业的巨头,例如电子工业,在外国的竞争之下缩小或消失。到1987年只剩下Zenith一家美国电视制造商(现在连这一家也没有了,韩国LG电子公司在7月份收购了Zenith)。外国生产的汽车和纺织品席卷美国内市场;美国的机床产业岌岌可危;半导体,这种由美国发明并处于电脑时代核心位置的产业,一度也似乎即将成为下一个牺牲者。

  这些情况导致了美国人的信心危机:他们不再认为繁荣是理所当然。他们开始认为自己做生意的方式失败了,因此他们的收入会很快开始减少。80年代中期,对美国工业滑坡原因的探讨一个接着一个,偶尔出现的惊闪发现都充斥着对外国不断增强的竞争力的警告。

  世事真是变化无常!到了1995年,美国回顾着过去五年的持续增长,而日本开始了挣扎。很少有美国人把这仅仅归结于向美元贬值或商业周期变化这样显而易见的原因。不自信变成了盲目自大。哈佛大学肯尼迪学院院长Richard Cavanagh认为:"美国的工业结构发生了变化,精简了机构,头脑也更灵活了。"华盛顿智囊团的一员,Cato机构的Stephen Moore说:"看到我们不断提高的生产力,我为自己身为其中一员而自豪。"哈佛商学院的William Sahlman认为,在人们回顾这段历史时,会认为它是"美国经济管理的黄金时代".

  55. 「C」问题是:过去身为男人的危险是什么

  从第一段我们知道,在过去男人的死亡率要比女人高,所以答案是C.

  56. 「B」问题是:文中那个印度的例子说明了什么?

  这道题主要是考察对文中第二段最后一句话的理解(请参看译文)。选项B意思为自然选择在穷人和富人之间几乎发挥不了什么作用了。

  57. 「A」问题是:作者认为我们的身体停止了进化是因为什么?

  最后一段三、四行的一句话是答案的关键——"We did not evolve, because machines and society did it for us".这句话的意思是我们没有进化,是因为机器和社会的进化替代我们的进化。故此题选A,意为生活被技术革新所改善。

  58. 「D」问题是:哪一个是本文最恰当的标题?

  本文在开头由过去男性的死亡率高的问题引入到现在的男性死亡率已下降,试图说明人类进化的一个手段已消失(第一段最后一句话);第二段从人们养育子女的热情逐步走向低潮,从另外一个角度说明人类已放缓进化(第二段第一句话)。而最后一段则集中讨论了为什么人类自身会停止进化,原因在于机器和社会取代了我们的进化。所以此题的答案是D(人类进化原地止步)。

  身为男人一直是一件危险的事情。出生时,男女婴儿的比例是105∶100,但到接近成年时,这个比例已经下降到接近平等了,而到了70多岁的时候,女人的数量是男人的两倍。但是男性死亡这一普遍现象已经得到了改变。现在,男婴和女婴的存活率是一样高的。这就意味着,到了婚配年龄时,男人的数量会第一次多于女人的数量。更重要的一点是,自然选择的另一个机会已经不存在了。五十年前,婴儿(尤其是男婴)的存活主要取决于它的体重。比正常体重一公斤或轻一公斤几乎都意味着死亡,而今天体重已经没有什么意义了。由于体重的差别主要是由基因决定的,进化的一个手段已经丧失了。

  人们生存下去,但养育的子女减少了,这也是停止进化的又一个表现。现在人的生育欲望不如以前的人。除非是在一些宗教团体中,很少有女人会生15个孩子。如今新生儿的数目就像死亡年龄一样已经趋向平均了。我们大多数人的子女数目都差不多。因此,人于人之间的不同,以及因此而导致的自然选择的机会也缩小了。印度发生的事情就是很好的例子。在印度的大城市里,有少数的富裕阶层,但其他的部落人群还处于贫困之中。可是在今天,一切都是平等的——每个人存活的机会相同,生育子女的数目也相同——这意味着,相对于部落人群来说,在印度的中上层阶层中自然选择已经丧失了80%的力量。

  对我们来说,这意味着自然选择已经不起作用了,生物界的乌托邦时代到来了。但奇怪的是,我们的身体却没发生什么变化。自然界里再没有别的生物能占据如此广阔的空间。但是在过去的十万年中——即使是在过去的一百年里——我们的生活方式虽然发生了改变,但我们的身体却没有变化。我们没有进化,这是因为我们的社会和机器代替我们进化了。达尔文有一句话形容那些对进化无知的人,说:他们"看待一个有机生命体就好像野人看待一条船,好像看待一件他们完全无法理解的事情。"毫无疑问,我们会记得20世纪的生活方式,而不用理解它丑陋的一面。我们的后代也许会惊异于我们离理想社会如此之远,但不论他们如何吃惊,他们长的和我们还是完全一样。

  59. 「B」问题是:本篇文章主要讲的是。

  文章第1段的最后一句作者便开门见山地指出,"无论未来派诗歌是什么东西——即使承认其理论根据是正确的,还是很难将它归入文学作品。"第2段作者对什么是未来派诗歌和它倡导者所提倡的作了一番叙说。第3段和第4段作者举实例对它进行批评。本文不难看出是一篇文学评论,即B项内容。"Review"有 "analysis, examining, critique"等意思。

  60. 「A」问题是:当新的文学思想出台时,人们应当试着去。

  文章第一段第一句指出,每当一个新艺术思潮达到一定流行程度时,(在评价它之前)最好先找出倡导者的目的,因为,无论其(创作)原则在今天看来可能是多么不着边际,多么荒谬,但是在未来它也许会被看做是正常的东西。B项文中没有提到;C,D项内容与作者意图刚好相反。

  61. 「C」问题是:未来派声称我们必须。

  文章第2段简述了什么是未来派和他们所提倡的,如诗中不注入大量关键词汇,不带标点符号,没有修饰形容词和限定动词;还有与其形容声音,干脆不如造象声词,在同一页面随意写上不同大小、不同颜色的字。D项内容,是这种新表达方式的具体表现。C项内容包括了全部,故选C

  62. 「D」问题是:作者认为未来派诗歌是。

  文章第1段作者便指出,未来派诗歌属不正常的(not normal)的东西,而且不可以被视为文学作品。在第3段作者举例引证了未来派所提倡的"新表达方式"的可笑 (Puff! Puff! A hundred and eightyfive kilograms)。文章结尾,作者指出,我们情感生活的巨大变化的确要求我们表达方式的变化。但问题是:我们本质上来说真的发生了变化吗?这是一个反问句,其目的是强调作者的立场。很显然,作者认为未来派诗歌与其说是文学,不如说是一种短暂的现象,即D项。

  当艺术领域内的一项新的运动开始形成风尚的时候,人们应该留心一下倡导者的用意何在。因为不论现在看来它的原则是多么的牵强和不可理喻,很有可能几年后它就变成了很正常的东西。但是,对于未来派诗歌,事情就很难办了,因为不论怎样——即使承认它的理论基础是正确的——我们也很难把这种东西称之为文学。

  下面就简单介绍一下未来派诗人的观点:一个世纪以来,人类的生活状况被加速了,我们现在生活在一个充满喧嚣、暴力和速度的世界里。因此,我们的感觉、思想和情感也经受了相应的变化,而加速了的生活需要一种新的表达方式。如果想诠释现代社会的压力,那么我们的文学也必须加速。我们必须尽情倾吐最能表示我们感觉的词句,中间没有停顿,没有修饰性的形容词和限定动词。我们必须创造出新的词语来模拟声音,而不是描绘声音;在同一书页上,我们要使用不同的字体、不同的颜色,随意加长或缩短单词。

  这些诗人对战争的描写是混乱的。有一首诗的注解说,诗中有一句话描写的是一位土耳其军官和一位保加利亚军官在一座桥上的战斗,最后他们都掉进了桥下的河里。结果在读这句话的时候,发现描写了他们掉进河里的声音和两位军官的重量:"啪啦哧!啪啦哧(创造出的模拟声音的词)!一百八十五公斤!"

  这首诗尽管符合未来派诗歌的要求和原则,但我们很难把它称为文学。同样,尽管任何有思想的人都无法拒绝他们的主张:我们的感情生活起了巨大的变化,因此我们的表达方式也应有所改变,但问题是:我们真的变了吗?

  63. 「B」问题是:在西方人眼中,战后的日本是。

  文章第1段第1句,作者便指出"战后,日本的目标明确,生产率与和谐的社会状态是美国和欧洲所羡慕的。" 即B项内容。"a positive example",一个好的榜样。A,D项内容与第1段内容刚好相反;C项内容文中没有提及。

  64. 「D」问题是:根据作者,造成日本社会道德价值观沦丧的主要原因是。

  文章第3段作者指出,日本教育界对道德教育的忽视,从而造成了日本青年辍学和目无法纪等现象。此外,作者还引用了去年案例来进行补充说明。第3段,6~7 行,"许多人在大声疾呼;许多保守派领袖试图回到战前日本对道德教育极其重视的老路。" 作者最后引用了Mitsuo Setoyama教育部长的一句话。很明显,根据Mitsuo Setoyama,日本社会道德价值观沦丧,这一切很大程度上归因于生活方式受西方价值观的影响,即D项内容。

  65. 「C」问题是:根据作者,以下哪一项是正确的?

  文章第3段第1、2句,作者引用自民党教育委员会主席Toshiki Kaifu的话,指出日本单方面的过于强调考试和机械化的学习,而忽略了创造力、自我表达方面的培养,并且个性、能力、勇气、仁爱等在试卷中是看不出来的,只有C项内容是正确的。

  66. 「A」问题是:日本人生活方式的变化显现在。

  文章第4段作者举例,城市居民长期以来,一直承受着上下班时间长和生活环境拥挤的折磨;但是随着旧有的团体和家庭价值观的瓦解,困难开始表面化了。以此可以推出,现在的日本人比起以前的日本人更难以忍受生活中的艰苦,即A项内容。

  战后的日本目标明确,生产力水平和社会融洽的程度都令美国和欧洲国家羡慕。但是现在,日本人那种"劳动是美德"的传统观念逐渐退化了。十年前,年轻人把工作视为生活的主要原因,但现在日本已经基本满足了经济上的需要,年轻人也不知道下一步该做些什么了。

  战后生育高峰时期诞生的婴儿都已经到了工作年龄,再加上妇女如今也进入了本来由男性统治的职业市场,这使得青少年的机会大大缩小了。他们本来就已经抱怨在日本社会里要想上好学校、取得好工作就必须要爬上森严的社会阶梯,所以个人必须做出很多牺牲。在最近的一次调查统计中,只有24.5%的日本学生对学校生活完全满意,而在美国有67.2%的学生表示满意。而且,和其他10个被调查的国家的工人相比,太多的日本工人表示对自己的工作不满意。

  尽管外国人经常表扬日本人重视基础教育,但是日本的教育倾向于重视考试和机械式的学习,而不重视培养创造性和表达自己的见解。执政的自民党教育委员会主席 Toshiki Kaifu说:"那些没有反映在考试成绩上的东西——性格、能力、勇气和仁爱——都被忽略了。由于在这些方面受到挫折,很多孩子辍学或学坏了。"去年日本就发生了2125起校园暴力事件,其中包括929起攻击教师的事件。现在许多人在大声疾呼;很多保守党领袖试图回到战前那种重视德育的情况。去年,当时的教育部长Mitsuo Setoyama大为光火,认为二战后由美国占领引入的自由改革削弱了"日本人尊重父母的道德观".

  但这可能和日本人的生活方式关系更大。教育家Yoko Muro说:"在日本,你是否喜欢你的工作和生活从来不是问题,问题是你究竟能忍受多少。"随着经济发展的集中化,在日本的一亿一千九百万国民中,有 76%的人住在城市里,几代同堂的大家庭和社区已经被独立的、主要由两代人组成的小家庭所取代。城市居民长期以来一直承受着上下班时间长和环境拥挤的折磨。但是随着旧有的团体和家庭观念的削弱,这些不便之处也开始显现出来。在过去十年中,日本的离婚率虽然仍远远低于美国的离婚率,但已经增长了50%还多,自杀的比率也增长了将近25%.

  67. 「A」问题是:大多数人认为 "野心"可被看作是好事,如果。

  文章第一段作者暗示到(言外之意),只有树立雄心壮志,并为实现雄心壮志作出努力和牺牲,收到的回报就会大于做出的牺牲,使你感到没有白白地做出牺牲。这与选项A基本同义。B,C,D都有片面之处,不可以总结作者对这个问题的表述。

  68. 「A」问题是:文章第1段最后一句,很有可能暗示。

  文章第一段最后一句的前半句指责这些人都是虚伪的,后半句是一个比喻。意为:他是野心的受益者,但又虚伪地否认拥有野心的重要性。这与A项相同。

  69. 「D」问题是:有一些人从不公开承认他们有 "野心"是因为。

  文章根据第2段第3句,事实是:人们不坦陈自己的梦想,不像从前一样容易公开承认梦想,以防被人看作是爱出风头的、贪婪庸俗的人。B,C项与作者所持观点相反。事实上,在第1-2段中,作者多处指出,物质利益或名望是大多数人"野心"的动机和目的。A项中 "immoral","不道德"这个词太重,不适合表达作者本意。

  70. 「B」问题是:从最后一段可以得出的结论是: "野心"应当保持。

  文章以人们对自己或他人的"野心"不健康的处理、开始、发展到结束。在最后一段4至5句,作者点明由于人们不公开表达自己的野心,就产生一些不良后果,有些野心就成为暗中拥有的东西,使人变得狡黠。由此得出,作者的结论是:对于"野心",我们应该保持一个积极的心态而不是刻意地去隐瞒它,即B项内容。

  如果想使人们对野心产生好感,那么必须认为野心获得的回报——财富、名望、对自己命运的主宰——都是值得为其做出牺牲的。如果想使野心这一传统获得活力,那么它必须得到众多人的认可,尤其是得到那些本身就受人羡慕的人的尊敬,特别是其中受过教育的人。然而,令人奇怪的是,正是这些受过教育的人宣称他们放弃了野心。而正是他们从野心中获益最多——也许不是他们亲身获益,那也是他们的父母或祖父母从中获益。他们的宣称有很重要的虚伪成分,就好像等马都跑光了才去关上马厩的门,而骑在马背上的,正是那些受过教育的人。

  当然,今天的人们和过去相比,对成功及其标志的兴趣并没有减少。度假别墅、欧洲之旅、宝马轿车——这些场所、地名和品牌的名字可能会改变,但对类似东西的需求,在今天和在十年前或者两年前相比,并没有减少。事实是,人们再也无法像以前那样轻易地、坦白地承认自己的梦想,因为怕别人说他们有野心、追求物质、粗俗。于是,我们戴上了精致的伪君子的眼镜,这种眼镜现在比以前更多了。例如:批评美国人过于追求物质利益的批评家,在南安浦顿有座度假别墅;出版激进书籍的出版商经常在三星级饭店用餐;鼓吹在生活各方面都应人人共享民主的记者,却把孩子送进了私立学校。对这些人,还有其他很多更平常一些的人来说,合适的表达应该是,"不惜一切获得成功,但不要表现得太有野心。"

  从各个不同的角度对野心进行的攻击很多,但在公开场合支持它的很少,也没有给人留下什么印象,虽然这些支持的声音并不是完全没有吸引力。结果,那些支持野心的人,认为它是一种健康的推动力,一种值得钦佩的品质,应该深深地印在年轻人的脑海里的人,比美国历史上的任何时期都要少。这并不意味着野心已经走到了终点,人们再也感觉不到它的激励和鼓动了,只是现在人们再也不公开对它表示敬意,再也不公开承认了。当然,这带来的结果是,野心被赶入了地下,变得偷偷摸摸。于是,事情就变成了这样:左面站着愤怒的批评家,右面站着愚蠢的支持者,而就像通常一样,站在中间的是大多数人,热切地盼望着发迹的那一天。

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