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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY5

2006-7-28 01:03  


  Part IIIReading Comprehension

  Directions: Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked A, B, C and D. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil.(40points)

  Passage 1

  A history of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap, but, if properly handled, it may become a driving force. When the United States entered just such a glowing period after the end of the Second World War, it had a market eight times larger than any competitor, giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale. Its scientists were the worlds best, its workers the most skilled. America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed.

  It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. Just as inevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful. By the mid1980s Americans had found themselves at a loss over their fading industrial competitiveness. Some huge American industries, such as consumer electronics, had shrunk or vanished in the face of foreign competition. By 1987 there was only one American television maker left, Zenith.(Now there is none: Zenith was bought by South Koreas LG Electronics in July.)Foreignmade cars and textiles were sweeping into the domestic market. Americas machinetool industry was on the ropes. For a while it looked as though the making of semiconductors, which America had which sat at the heart of the new computer age, was going to be the next casualty.

  All of this caused a crisis of confidence. Americans stopped taking prosperity for granted. They began to believe that their way of doing business was failing, and that their incomes would therefore shortly begin to fall as well. The mid1980s brought one inquiry after another into the causes of Americas industrial decline. Their sometimes sensational findings were filled with warnings about the growing competition from overseas.

  How things have changed! In 1995 the United States can look back on five years of solid growth while Japan has been struggling. Few Americans attribute this solely to such obvious causes as a devalued dollar or the turning of the business cycle. Selfdoubt has yielded to blind pride."American industry has changed its structure, has gone on a diet, has learnt to be more quickwitted," according to Richard Cavanagh, executive dean of Harvards Kennedy School of Government."It makes me proud to be an American just to see how our businesses are improving their productivity," says Stephen Moore of the Cato Institute, a thinktank in Washington, DC. And William Sahlman of the Harvard Business School believes that people will look back on this period as "a golden age of business management in the United States."

  51. The U.S. achieved its predominance after World War Ⅱ because .

  A. it had made painstaking efforts towards this goal

  B. its domestic market was eight times larger than before

  C. the war had destroyed the economies of most potential competitors

  D. the unparalleled size of its workforce had given an impetus to its economy

  52. The loss of U.S. predominance in the world economy in the 1980s is manifested in the fact that the American .

  A. TV industry had withdrawn to its domestic market

  B. semiconductor industry had been taken over by foreign enterprises

  C. machinetool industry had collapsed after suicidal actions

  D. auto industry had lost part of its domestic market

  53. What can be inferred from the passage?

  A. It is human nature to shift between selfdoubt and blind pried.

  B. Intense competition may contribute to economic progress.

  C. The revival of the economy depends on international cooperation.

  D. A long history of success may pave the way for further development.

  54. The author seems to believe the revival of the U.S. economy in the 1990s can be attributed to the .

  A. turning of the business cycle B. restructuring of industry

  C. improved business management  D. success in education

  Passage 2

  Being a man has always been dangerous. There are about 105 males born for every 100 females, but this ratio drops to near balance at the age of maturity, and among 70yearolds there are twice as many women as men. But the great universal of male mortality is being changed. Now, by babies survive almost as well as girls do. This means that, for the first time, there will be an excess of boys in those crucial years when they are searching for a mate. More important, another chance for natural selection has been removed. Fifty years ago, the chance of a baby(particularly a boy baby)surviving depended on its weight. A kilogram too light or too heavy meant almost certain death. Today it makes almost no difference. Since much of the variation is due to genes one more agent of evolution has gone.

  There is another way to commit evolutionary suicide: stay alive, but have fewer children. Few people are as fertile as in the past. Except in some religious communities, very few women has 15 children. Nowadays the number of births, like the age of death, has become average. Most of us have roughly the same number of offspring. Again, differences between people and the opportunity for natural selection to take advantage of it have diminished. India shows what is happening. The country offers wealth for a few in the great cities and poverty for the remaining tribal peoples. The grand mediocrity of today everyone being the same in survival and number of offspring means that natural selection has lost 80% of its power in uppermiddleclass India compared to the tribes.

  For us, this means that evolution is over; the biological Utopia has arrived. Strangely, it has involved little physical change. No other species fills so many places in nature. But in the pass 100,000 years even the pass 100 years our lives have been transformed but our bodies have not. We did not evolve, because machines and society did it for us. Darwin had a phrase to describe those ignorant of evolution: they "look at an organic being as average looks at a ship, as at something wholly beyond his comprehension." No doubt we will remember a 20th century way of life beyond comprehension for its ugliness. But however amazed our descendants may be at how far from Utopia we were, they will look just like us.

  55. What used to be the danger in being a man according to the first paragraph?

  A. A lack of mates.       B. A fierce competition.

  C. A lower survival rate.   D. A defective gene.

  56. What does the example of India illustrate?

  A. Wealthy people tend to have fewer children than poor people.

  B. Natural selection hardly works among the rich and the poor.

  C. The middle class population is 80% smaller than that of the tribes.

  D. India is one of the countries with a very high birth rate.

  57. The author argues that our bodies have stopped evolving because .

  A. life has been improved by technological advance

  B. the number of female babies has been declining

  C. our species has reached the highest stage of evolution

  D. the difference between wealth and poverty is disappearing

  58. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?

  A. Sex Ration Changes in Human Evolution

  B. Ways of Continuing Mans Evolution

  C. The Evolutionary Future of Nature

  D. Human Evolution Going Nowhere

  Passage 3

  When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal. With regard to Futurist poetry, however, the case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be even admitting that the theory on which it is based may be right, it can hardly be classed as Literature.

  This, in brief, is what the Futurist says; for a noise and violence and speed. Consequently, our feelings, thoughts and emotions have undergone a corresponding change. This speeding up of life, says the Futurist, requires a new form of expression. We must speed up our literature too, if we want to interpret modern stress. We must pour out a large stream of essential words, unhampered by stops, or qualifying adjectives, of finite verbs. Instead of describing sounds we must make up words that imitate them; we must use many sizes of type and different colored inks on the same page, and shorten or lengthen words at will.

  Certainly their descriptions of battles are confused. But it is a little upsetting to read in the explanatory notes that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river and then to find that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers: "Puff! Puff! A hundred and eightyfive kilograms."

  This, though it fulfills the laws and requirements of Futurist poetry, can hardly be classed as Literature. All the same, no thinking man can refuse to accept their first proposition: that a great change in our emotional life calls for a change of expression. The whole question is really this: have we essentially changed?

  59. This passage is mainly .

  A. a survey of new approaches to artB. a review of Futurist poetry

  C. about merits of the Futurist movementD. about laws and requirements of literature

  60. When a novel literary idea appears, people should try to .

  A. determine its purposes     B. ignore its flaws

  C. follow the new fashions    D. accept the principles

  61. Futurists claim that we must .

  A. increase the production of literature  B. use poetry to relieve modern stress

  C. develop new modes of expression  D. avoid using adjectives and verbs

  62. The author believes that Futurist poetry is .

  A. based on reasonable principles

  B. new and acceptable to ordinary people

  C. indicative of basic change in human nature

  D. more of a transient phenomenon than literature

  Passage 4

  Aimlessness has hardly been typical of the postwar Japan whose productivity and social harmony are the envy of the United States and Europe. But increasingly the Japanese are seeing a decline of the traditional workmoral values. Ten years ago young people were hardworking and saw their jobs as their primary reason for being, but now Japan has largely fulfilled its economic needs, and young people dont know where they should go next.

  The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the maledominated job market have limited the opportunities of teenagers who are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbing Japans rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs. In a recent survey, it was found that only 24.5 percent of Japanese students were fully satisfied with school life, compared with 67.2 percent of students in the United States. In addition, far more Japanese workers expressed dissatisfaction with their jobs than did their counterparts in the 10 other countries surveyed.

  While often praised by foreigners for its emphasis on the basics, Japanese education tends to stress test taking and mechanical learning over creativity and selfexpression."Those things that do not show up in the test scores personality, ability, courage or humanity are completely ignored," says Toshiki Kaifu, chairman of the ruling Liberal Democratic Partys education committee."Frustration against this kind of thing leads kids to drop out and run wild." Last year Japan experienced 2, 125 incidents of school violence, including 929 assaults on teachers. Amid the outcry, many conservative leaders are seeking a return to the prewar emphasis on moral education. Last year Mitsuo Setoyama, who was then education minister, raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World WarⅡhad weakened the "Japanese morality of respect for parents".

  But that may have more to do with Japanese lifestyles."In Japan," says educator Yoko Muro, "its never a question of whether you enjoy your job and your life, but only how much you can endure." With economic growth has come centralization; fully 76 percent of Japans 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extended family have been abandoned in favor of isolated, twogeneration households. Urban Japanese have long endured lengthy commutes(travels to and from work)and crowded living conditions, but as the old group and family values weaken, the discomfort is beginning to tell. In the past decade, the Japanese divorce rate, while still well below that of the United States, has increased by more than 50 percent, and suicides have increased by nearly onequarter.

  63. In the Westerners eyes, the postwar Japan was .

  A. under aimless development    B. a positive example

  C. a rival to the West           D. on the decline

  64. According to the author, what may chiefly be responsible for the moral decline of Japanese society?

  A. Womens participation in social activities is limited.

  B. More workers are dissatisfied with their jobs.

  C. Excessive emphasis has been placed on the basics.

  D. The lifestyle has been influenced by Western values.

  65. Which of the following is true according to the author?

  A. Japanese education is praised for helping the young climb the social ladder

  B. Japanese education is characterized by mechanical learning as well as creativity.

  C. More stress should be placed on the cultivation of creativity.

  D. Dropping out leads to frustration against test taking.

  66. The change in Japanese lifestyle is revealed in the fact that .

  A. the young are less tolerant of discomforts in the fact that

  B. the divorce rate in Japan exceeds that in the U.S.

  C. the Japanese endure more than ever before

  D. the Japanese appreciate their present life

  Passage 5

  If ambition is to be well regarded, the rewards of ambition health, distinction, control over ones destiny must be deemed worthy of the sacrifices made on ambitions behalf. If the tradition of ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared; and it especially must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired, the educated not least among them. In an odd way, however, it is the educated who have claimed to have give up on  ambition as an ideal. What is odd is that they have perhaps most benefited from ambition - if not always their own then that of their parents and grandparents. There is heavy note of hypocrisy in this, a case of closing the barn door after the horses have escaped with the educated themselves riding on them.

  Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes, European travel, BMWs. The locations, place names and name brands may change, but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago. What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams, as easily and openly as once they could, lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar. Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in threestar restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools. For such people and many more perhaps not so exceptional, the proper formulation is,"Succeed at all costs but avoid appearing ambitious."

  The attacks on ambition are many and come from various angles; its public defenders are few and unimpressive, where they are not extremely unattractive. As a result, the support for ambition as a healthy impulse, a quality to be admired and fixed in the mind of the young, is probably lower than it has ever been in the United States. This does not mean that ambition is at an end, that people no longer feel its stirrings and promptings, but only that, no longer openly honored, it is less openly underground, or made sly. Such, then, is the way things stand: on the left angry critics, on the right stupid supporters, and in the middle, as usual, the majority of earnest people trying to get on in life.

  67. It is generally believed that ambition may be well regarded if  .

  A. its returns well compensate for the sacrifices

  B. it is rewarded with money, fame and power

  C. its goals are spiritual rather than material

  D. it is shared by the rich and the famous

  68. The last sentence of the first paragraph most probably implies that it is .

  A. customary of the educated to discard ambition in words

  B. too late to check ambition once it has been let out

  C. dishonest to deny ambition after the fulfillment of the goal

  D. impractical for the educated to enjoy benefits from ambition

  69. Some people do not openly admit they have ambition because .

  A. they think of it as immoral

  B. their pursuits are not fame or wealth

  C. ambition is not closely related to material benefits

  D. they do not want to appear greedy and contemptible

  70. From the last paragraph the conclusion can be drawn that ambition should be maintained .

  A. secretly and vigorouslyB. openly and enthusiastically

  C. easily and momentarilyD. verbally and spiritually

  51. 「C」问题是:二战后美国取得了优势是因为


  52. 「D」问题是:在80年代,美国在世界经济竞争中失去她的优势,这主要表现在美国

  文章第2段第1、2句作者讲到面临着其他国家经济复苏,在对手面前,美国逐渐失去她的优势。随后作者在不同工业领域中一一给出例子,先是电视。到1987 年为止,美国仅存的电视制造商只有Zenith一家了(现在已荡然无存:Zenith于7月份被韩国LG公司收购)。这里并没有提到美国电视失去国际市场。事实上,它连国内市场也无法保证。B项不对,因为第2段最后一句,作者提到半导体制造业似乎将会成为最后一个受害者。C项也不对,因为第2段提到了机床制造业也在走钢丝(on the ropes)。这表明,他正在失去国内外市场,并没有提到其自取灭亡。

  53. 「B」问题是:从本文可以推断出


  54. 「A」问题是:作者似乎认为90年代美国经济复苏可以归功于





  世事真是变化无常!到了1995年,美国回顾着过去五年的持续增长,而日本开始了挣扎。很少有美国人把这仅仅归结于向美元贬值或商业周期变化这样显而易见的原因。不自信变成了盲目自大。哈佛大学肯尼迪学院院长Richard Cavanagh认为:"美国的工业结构发生了变化,精简了机构,头脑也更灵活了。"华盛顿智囊团的一员,Cato机构的Stephen Moore说:"看到我们不断提高的生产力,我为自己身为其中一员而自豪。"哈佛商学院的William Sahlman认为,在人们回顾这段历史时,会认为它是"美国经济管理的黄金时代".

  55. 「C」问题是:过去身为男人的危险是什么


  56. 「B」问题是:文中那个印度的例子说明了什么?


  57. 「A」问题是:作者认为我们的身体停止了进化是因为什么?

  最后一段三、四行的一句话是答案的关键——"We did not evolve, because machines and society did it for us".这句话的意思是我们没有进化,是因为机器和社会的进化替代我们的进化。故此题选A,意为生活被技术革新所改善。

  58. 「D」问题是:哪一个是本文最恰当的标题?





  59. 「B」问题是:本篇文章主要讲的是。

  文章第1段的最后一句作者便开门见山地指出,"无论未来派诗歌是什么东西——即使承认其理论根据是正确的,还是很难将它归入文学作品。"第2段作者对什么是未来派诗歌和它倡导者所提倡的作了一番叙说。第3段和第4段作者举实例对它进行批评。本文不难看出是一篇文学评论,即B项内容。"Review"有 "analysis, examining, critique"等意思。

  60. 「A」问题是:当新的文学思想出台时,人们应当试着去。


  61. 「C」问题是:未来派声称我们必须。


  62. 「D」问题是:作者认为未来派诗歌是。

  文章第1段作者便指出,未来派诗歌属不正常的(not normal)的东西,而且不可以被视为文学作品。在第3段作者举例引证了未来派所提倡的"新表达方式"的可笑 (Puff! Puff! A hundred and eightyfive kilograms)。文章结尾,作者指出,我们情感生活的巨大变化的确要求我们表达方式的变化。但问题是:我们本质上来说真的发生了变化吗?这是一个反问句,其目的是强调作者的立场。很显然,作者认为未来派诗歌与其说是文学,不如说是一种短暂的现象,即D项。





  63. 「B」问题是:在西方人眼中,战后的日本是。

  文章第1段第1句,作者便指出"战后,日本的目标明确,生产率与和谐的社会状态是美国和欧洲所羡慕的。" 即B项内容。"a positive example",一个好的榜样。A,D项内容与第1段内容刚好相反;C项内容文中没有提及。

  64. 「D」问题是:根据作者,造成日本社会道德价值观沦丧的主要原因是。

  文章第3段作者指出,日本教育界对道德教育的忽视,从而造成了日本青年辍学和目无法纪等现象。此外,作者还引用了去年案例来进行补充说明。第3段,6~7 行,"许多人在大声疾呼;许多保守派领袖试图回到战前日本对道德教育极其重视的老路。" 作者最后引用了Mitsuo Setoyama教育部长的一句话。很明显,根据Mitsuo Setoyama,日本社会道德价值观沦丧,这一切很大程度上归因于生活方式受西方价值观的影响,即D项内容。

  65. 「C」问题是:根据作者,以下哪一项是正确的?

  文章第3段第1、2句,作者引用自民党教育委员会主席Toshiki Kaifu的话,指出日本单方面的过于强调考试和机械化的学习,而忽略了创造力、自我表达方面的培养,并且个性、能力、勇气、仁爱等在试卷中是看不出来的,只有C项内容是正确的。

  66. 「A」问题是:日本人生活方式的变化显现在。




  尽管外国人经常表扬日本人重视基础教育,但是日本的教育倾向于重视考试和机械式的学习,而不重视培养创造性和表达自己的见解。执政的自民党教育委员会主席 Toshiki Kaifu说:"那些没有反映在考试成绩上的东西——性格、能力、勇气和仁爱——都被忽略了。由于在这些方面受到挫折,很多孩子辍学或学坏了。"去年日本就发生了2125起校园暴力事件,其中包括929起攻击教师的事件。现在许多人在大声疾呼;很多保守党领袖试图回到战前那种重视德育的情况。去年,当时的教育部长Mitsuo Setoyama大为光火,认为二战后由美国占领引入的自由改革削弱了"日本人尊重父母的道德观".

  但这可能和日本人的生活方式关系更大。教育家Yoko Muro说:"在日本,你是否喜欢你的工作和生活从来不是问题,问题是你究竟能忍受多少。"随着经济发展的集中化,在日本的一亿一千九百万国民中,有 76%的人住在城市里,几代同堂的大家庭和社区已经被独立的、主要由两代人组成的小家庭所取代。城市居民长期以来一直承受着上下班时间长和环境拥挤的折磨。但是随着旧有的团体和家庭观念的削弱,这些不便之处也开始显现出来。在过去十年中,日本的离婚率虽然仍远远低于美国的离婚率,但已经增长了50%还多,自杀的比率也增长了将近25%.

  67. 「A」问题是:大多数人认为 "野心"可被看作是好事,如果。


  68. 「A」问题是:文章第1段最后一句,很有可能暗示。


  69. 「D」问题是:有一些人从不公开承认他们有 "野心"是因为。

  文章根据第2段第3句,事实是:人们不坦陈自己的梦想,不像从前一样容易公开承认梦想,以防被人看作是爱出风头的、贪婪庸俗的人。B,C项与作者所持观点相反。事实上,在第1-2段中,作者多处指出,物质利益或名望是大多数人"野心"的动机和目的。A项中 "immoral","不道德"这个词太重,不适合表达作者本意。

  70. 「B」问题是:从最后一段可以得出的结论是: "野心"应当保持。