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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY32

2006-7-28 01:04  

  Increasing reading speed

  Directions:Do the word recognition drill below.Note the word on the left then underline it every time it appears in the same form to the right.No regression,no vocalization.Try to finish in 15 seconds or less.

  Starting Time:

  1. sunfiresunlight sunshine sunflower sunbeam sunfire

  2. surplus              surprise surface surcharge surplus surgeon

  3. preview        previous prevent preview previse prevail

  4. construct            constrict constant consult construct instruct

  5. collector            collect collected collection collector elector

  6. reflect              reflective reflection reflector reflect reflex

  7. overall              overcome overcoat overall overflow overtake

  8. torches              tornado torpedo torrent tortoise torches

  9. figure               figurable figural figured figure finger

  10. confident           confidence confine confide confident combine

  Finishing Time: Total Time:

  Errors: Check each line carefully for mistakes.

  Sunfire:Solar Collector Built By KidsTwenty tons of shining glass,white metal,and silver rise 12 meters (44 feet) above the Earth like a modern sculpture. Built in a backyard by an inventor and more than 40 kids,Sunfire turns on electricity and the imagination.

  Using the energy of the sun,this unusual machine will generate enough electricity to supply the energy requirements of an average sized American home. Now in its final testing stages,Sunfire is a hopeful preview of our energy independent future.

  Sunfire is a solar powered electrical generator designed by California inventor Howard Frank Broyles. Its huge set of special mirrors focus the sun's light on two boilers that are filled with water. The intense heat of the concentrated light turns the water in the boilers to steam. The steam is then used to power a small steam engine that turns an electrical generator.

  Most of Sunfire is made from surplus material. Scrap steel from a local junkyard was used to make the frame. The boilers are made of empty beer kegs. And the electrical generator is an alternator taken from an old car.

  Construction Begins in the 1960'sWhen the construction of Sunfire began in the late 1960's,no one,not even Howard Broyles,knew that it would become such an amazing accomplishment.

  The project began when Broyles bet a scientist $10 that he could construct a solar collector fop less than $ 2,500 that could generate 5,000 watts of electricity.

  For the first few years Broyles worked on the contraption alone. Lacking detailed plans,he followed his intuition more than blueprints. Progress went very slowly.  By the early 1970's Broyles knew he needed help. He wasn't sure he wanted the help of the kids,but he got it anyway. An entire physics class from Crescenta Valley High School started helping him in 1974. Many of the students stayed with the project for years.

  Each weekend about 30 students would show up at Broyles house. "We had no idea what we were doing,at first", Mark White,one of the students,recalls. Mark,now a college student,has worked on the project since he was 15. Then one day it became clear that Btoyles didn't exactly know what he was doing either. For example,Broyles made the collectors,which reflect the sunlight onto the boilers,out of aluminum foil. However,the problem was that the foil collectors didn't reflect enough sunlight to heat the boilers. "The machine wasn't going to work at all," Broyles recalled. "I started having nightmares."

  The kids quickly came to his rescue by taking charge. One student,Neil Dipprey,appointed himself overall supervisor. Mark became construction foreman. With organization,the kids worked better.

  Work Pace Picks UpConstruction speeded up. The students actually built their own crane to reach the top of their rapidly growing structure. With money from tag sales and car washes,the students bought a sandblaster to clean up the now rusted metal frame. Using welding torches,they rebuilt Sunfire's undersized base. A computer was used to design special mirrors to replace the inefficient foil reflectors. Finally,on July 6 of this year,the beautiful,freshly painted Sunfire was ready for its first test run.

  When the solar generator was aimed at the afternoon sun,Sunfire came to life. It generated electricity!

  Although their Sunfire has yet to operate at full power,the young engineers have already begun plans on their next project. They want to give their $ 50,000 machine to the energy starved people on Pitcairn Island in the South Pacific.

  Although Pitcairn Island is 8,000 kilometers (5,000 miles) away from California,these energetic kids are confident that they'll figure out a way to get Sunfire there. After all,they've already harnessed the sun.

  ——from Current Science,Nov. 5,1980

  Time: 633 words=wpm

  minutes

  EXERCISESⅠ。READING COMPREHENSION

  Select the answer which is most accurate according to the information given in the passage.

  1. According to paragraph 1,what looks like a modern sculpture?

  A. Shining glassB. White metalC. SilverD. Sunfire

  2. Paragraph 3 describes .

  A. the major parts of Sunfire

  B. the working principle of Sunfire

  C. how the water in the boilers is turned to steam

  D. how the electrical generator is driven

  3. Most of the collector's parts were .

  A. made of used material B. bought from hardware stores

  C. bought from a local junkyard                 D. made of empty beer kegs

  4.  Broyles began to work on his project, more than 40 high school students began assisting him.

  A. When           B. Soon after                 C. 10 years after       D. 14 years after

  5. What can be inferred from paragraph 8?

  A. Only Broyles knew exactly how to make the solar collector.

  B. All the participants knew exactly how to build their Sunfire except Mark.

  C. Neither Broyles nor the kids knew exactly how to make the solar collector.

  D. Both Broyles and the kids knew exactly how to build their Sunfire.

  6. Which of the following tools was built by the students?

  A. The sandblaster.         B. The crane.C. The welding torch.          D. The computer.

  7. The foil reflectors were replaced by the special mirrors because .

  A. it was undersized B. it was rusty

  C. it could not reflect enough sunlight               D. it was fragile

  8. Although their Sunfire ,Broyles and his young companions have already started the arrangements for their next project.

  A. has not yet operated at full power

  B. has to operate at full power during sunny days

  C. has operated at full power

  D. has failed to operate at full power

  Ⅱ。CONTEXTUAL REFERENCE

  Guess the meaning of the following words in italics using reading techniques.

  1. A micropyrometer is an optical instrument to measure the temperature of small glowing bodies.

  2. A thermometer is an instrument (which is) used for measuring temperature.

  3. An instrument for measuring strength of an electric current is ruled an amperemeter.

  4. The word solar describes anything relating to the sun,and lunar anything relating to the moon. For example,the sun and the planets circling it are called the solar system. The period of time in which,the earth circles the sun once is a solar year. The moon takes one lunar month to circle the earth. A lunar year of twelve lunar months is eleven days shorter than a solar year.

  5. The sun's rays can be transformed into electricity by a photovoltaic cell. A photovoltaic cell is also known as a solar cell. At present photovoltaic cells are used to power everything from watches and calculators to telephones and orbiting satellites.

  6. Energy is the capacity of matter to do work. In this respect,matter can have both potential and kinetic energy. Potential energy is stored up energy or energy an object possesses due to its relative position. For example,a ball located 20 feet above the ground has more potential energy than another ball located 10 feet above the ground,and will bounce higher when allowed to fall. Water backed up behind a dam represents potential energy that can be converted into useful work in the form of electrical energy. Gasoline represents a source of stored up chemical potential energy that can be released during combustion.

  Ⅲ。CLOZE

  Complete the following passage by filling in the blanks with appropriate words.

  Turning Night into Day - by Computer

  Computers may one day turn night into day - with good old,natural sunlight.

  Giant computer controlled mirrorsthousands of feet across,  1  one day orbit the Earth,2     sunlight onto a darkened United States.

  Two scientists     3     NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) say that 16 of these mirrors,   4     about a half mile wide, could     5     reflected light at one area on Earth 6     was about 200 miles     7     300 miles. That much light would equal     8     56 moons.

  The mirrors would be     9      high that they could   10   the sun's light   11   it was shining on the    12    side of the Earth. The mirrors would    13    - thousands of miles high -  14    the same speed as the Earth spins. That way,the mirrors   15   always be over the same spot.

  The aluminiumcoated plastic mirrors could be   16   up and packed into a   17   shuttle,according to the scientists, John Allen and John Canady.   18   released a few hundred miles in  19,the mirrors, powered     20     a solarpowered engine, could make the rest of the trip into space on their own.

  Allen and Canady say that the computercontrolled mirrors could also be made to tilt slowly, so the reflected sunlight would sweep slowly along the surface of the Earth. For example,as night fell,the mirrors could be tilted to light up Boston. Later on,as darkness crept slowly westward,Chicago,for example,then San Francisco could be lit up. The reflected sunlight would allow these cities to conserve electricity. And in emergencies, such as power failures or disasters,the mirrors could light up the affected area.

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