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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY58

2006-7-28 01:05  


  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1

  Gambling, despite being a well known highly risky pursuit that has caused many tragedies does not scare gamblers away; instead, many consciously join the legion of gamblers, in spite of possible failure in store for them.

  How does a gambler get bogged down in such a risky occupation? Most novices do not embrace an ambition to get rich through gambling. Instead, they might think gambling is merely an exciting game through which they can try their luck and bring excitement to their dull lives. Often, they win a small sum at the first several tries, and then became bold, daring to play for larger stakes. With certain encouraging “achievements”, they are now confident of their good luck and gambling skill. At this point, they are at a crossroads: a step forward to become a professional gambler, or a step backward to return to normal life.

  Unfortunately, most of them get bogged down in gambling, because the greedy notion of getting something for nothing is their underlying motive. Openly, they deny that they have such a shameful motive, but in the recesses of their soul, there is an undeniable ambition to get great sums of money through gambling. However, Ive never heard of any myth about a person who got wealth and prestige through gambling. Instead, Ive heard many true stories about gamblers who ended their lives in misery. Once a person gets bogged down in gambling, it is rather hard for him to tear himself away from that evil. Throughout history, few gamblers have ever repented about gambling, which led them to tragedy — failure in business, destitution, family disintegration, divorce, suicide, crime, etc.

  What should a person do to get rid of such a nightmare? It is very easy. To prevent getting involved in gambling, the most effective means is to stop at the first try. It is easy for any intelligent person to stop at the first try but it is also easy for a person of weak will to receive an “invitation” to have a try. The novice often finds an excuse for the first try, thinking or murmuring, “this is the only and the last try.” In most cases, the novice will not stop at the first try — he will try again, and finally he will become an addict.

  A “vindictive” psychology drives these new gamblers to be entrapped in gambling houses. As they lose some money, they get angry and try to “avenge” themselves, so that they play for higher stakes and lose more, until they sell all they have to get money and go back to the gambling house. Finally, they have debts beyond their capacity to pay. To dodge their debtors, they have to hide or escape, or take risky and criminal actions, for example, killing or threatening the debtors. Many gamblers end their lives in jail.

  1. What's the meaning of “in store for them” in paragraph one?

  A. Something (especially dangerous) is impending and would occur at any moment.

  B. Something is accumulated or stored for future use.

  C. Something is waiting for them.

  D. Something would arise gradually and unnoticeably.

  2. According to the author, gambling known as a highly risky field still attracts so many crazy gamblers is NOT because.

  A. some people first treat it as an entertainment but gradually become an addict

  B. they are attempted by surroundings

  C. many have a motive to be rich through gambling

  D. Gamblers find it difficult to constrain or wipe out gambling desire

  3 From history, the psychological reason for a gamblers failure in everything is.

  A. their refusal to feel regret for gamblingB. their weak will

  C. their greedy notionD. their addictive desire

  4. In the last paragraph, a vindictive psychology actually refers to .

  A. sense of unfair for their fateB. sense of anger for their lucklessness

  C. envious feeling about lucky gamblersD. desire of taking revenge for themselves

  5. The author wrote this essay to.

  A. analyze gamblers psychological reason of gambling

  B. criticize gamblers and gambling

  C. warn gamblers to stay away from gambling

  D. introduce the history of gambling

  Passage 2

  Stress experienced by a mother during pregnancy appears to influence how her babys brain and nervous system will react to stressful events, according to researchers report. They believe this conditioning may increase a childs vulnerability to various physical and mental illnesses in later life.

  “Factors related to medical, endocrine and psychosocial stress during human pregnancy may negatively impact fetal brain development and function,” report Dr. Pathik Wadhwa and colleagues from the University of Kentucky in Lexington. Their findings were presented at the 20th annual Scientific Sessions of the Society of Behavioral Medicine held in San Diego, California, earlier this month.

  Previous research has suggested that highly stressed pregnant mother have a higher risk of delivering premature and underweight infants, compared with less anxious mothers. In their study of 156 motherfetus pairs, the investigators sought to determine the relationship between an expectant mothers psychological state and her fetus response to stressful stimuli. To do so, they monitored fetal heart rate while disturbing the fetus with a vibroacoustic stimulator (a small vibrating device), placed upon the mothers abdomen. These devices are commonly used by obstetricians to awaken a sleeping fetus. The authors report that “the magnitude and duration of the fetal heart rate changes in response to (the device) was greater in women with high levels of stress hormones, high levels of psychological stress, and low levels of social support” compared with women with less stress. Over time, fetuses appeared to become “habituated” to occasional vibroacoustic stimulation so that their stress responses, as indicated by increased heart rate, subsided with each new stimulation.

  However, the research team reports that this learning process was “delayed” in fetuses carried by highly stressed women, in other words, their stress responses remained on “alert” node despite repeated stimulation. Wadhwa and his colleagues believe that these early neurological changes could also increase a childs lifelong vulnerability to “a host of (stress related) chronic mental and physical degenerative conditions,” including heart disease and its attendant risk of heart attack and stroke.

  On the other side, high stress during pregnancy, also affect womens own psychological state after labor and birth. Dr. Pauline Slade, a psychologist at Sheffield University in northern England reports that prenatal mental problems of a mothertobe is a cause for posttraumatic stress symptom, which usually associates with war or other violence. “Giving birth involves high levels of fear and the possibility of harm,” she says in a telephone interview, “its natural to be nervous.” Surprisingly, Slade adds the length of labor, degree of pain or type of intervention does not seem to be factors in whether a woman would suffer from trauma symptoms of the kind usually treated with psychological interventions. Much more important is how women perceive the labor and birth, along with preexisting or longterm issues.

  1. The author mainly argues that.

  A. mothers psychological stress in pregnancy might influence both her fetus and her own health

  B. a motherfetus study was carried on to investigate the relationship between expectant mother and labor fetal brain development

  C. women are victims of labor and childbirth

  D. its very important for pregnant women to keep physical and psychological health

  2. Which group of fetuses is at higher risk?

  A. Whose mothers have experience in bearing children.

  B. Whose heart rate is faster when they are disturbed by vibroacoustic stimulator.

  C. Whose mothers are in want of cares and support.

  D. Whose refuse to take the experiment.

  3. How do you understand “delay” in the first sentence of paragraph four?

  A. Fetuses carried by highly stressed mothers were slower in adapting the vibrating.

  B. Fetuses carried by highly stressed mothers were still on the alert for the stimulation in spite of repetition.

  C. Fetuses carried by highly stressed mothers responded less violently for the stimulation.

  D. Fetuses carried by highly stressed mothers gradually became accustomed to the stimulation.

  4. According to Dr. Slade, all the following are true EXCEPT.

  A. posttraumatic stress symptom is usually caused by outward events like violence or war

  B. a womans state of mind during pregnancy is more important

  C. a woman would not necessarily suffer from normal trauma symptoms in case of difficult labor

  D. childbirth is outside the range of normal experience

  5. The authors tone for the research is

  A. uncertainB. suspiciousC. definiteD. negative

  Passage 3

  While a wolf waited near the courthouse environmentalists and ranchers argued before a federal appeals panel Thursday whether gray wolves should be allowed to stay in one of Americas bestknown national parks.

  Lawyers for the federal government and environmental groups are trying to reverse a 1997 federal court ruling in Wyoming that orders the removal of gray wolves from Yellowstone National Park in that state and from neighboring Idaho. The wolves were reintroduced to the park with much fanfare in 1995 after being captured in Canada. The gray wolf had not been seen in the northern Rocky Mountain region for some 60 years after an eradication program wiped them out. But the American Farm Bureau sued to stop the repopulation plan, saying the ranchers it represents feared the wolf would attack livestock; moreover, the cattle industry is struggling with beef prices at 20year lows.

  “This is an extremely important moment for the Yellowstone wolves,” said Bob Ferris with the Defenders of Wildlife, one of three environmental organizations that joined the federal government in the appeal effort. “The Yellowstone wolf restoration project is probably the singlemost important restoration project of the century and a great success story for the Endangered Species Act,” Ferris said. He added that “we have gone to great lengths” to address the concerns of ranchers. To emphasize their point, the environmental groups even exhibited a captive wolf on a leash outside the courtroom.

  Thursdays oral arguments before the 10the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals focused on what constitutes a wolf population. The Farm Bureau argued that wolves were in Idaho before the reintroduction and therefore it was not necessary to put more animals in the northern Rockies. Ed. Bang, of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, said the original reintroduced population of 29 in the park and 35 in central Idaho had grown to 170 in each region. Bang said Yellowstone was “the best place in the world to see wolves.” He said it would be difficult to trap and remove them from the park and that some would have to be killed of the government were ordered to removed them.

  Nevertheless, government and environmental lawyers say the reintroduction program was legal and necessary, and that there was no indication wolves had been in the region prior to1995. One government lawyer said Congress left it up to the Interior Department to make that determination. “The Endangered Species Act, its purpose is, to create more wolves, more whales, more bald eagles on the face of the planet. The sum and substance of what went on inside today is that the American Farm Bureau doesnt want wolves in Yellowstone or Idaho,” Brian ONeill, an attorney representing the environmental groups, said after the court session.

  1. Which of the following sentences best summarize the article?

  A. It's high time gray wolves were reintroduced into northern Rocky Mountain Area.

  B. An argument about ranchers concern for gray wolves.

  C. Federal government and environment strived for preserving wolves for nature balance.

  D. Different social organizations lodged a lawsuit on gray wolves problem in a national park.

  2. It can be inferred from the paragraph that.

  A. gray wolves possessed a long history in northern Rocky Mountain region

  B. the wolves sent to the park in 1996 were originally from Canada

  C. after 1997 federal court ruling wolves didnt exist in Yellow National Park

  D. there were wolves in Rocky Mountain Region before the reintroduction in 1995

  3. By saying “we have gone to great length”, Ferris actually referred to .

  A. ranchers worry was exaggerated

  B. they had devoted too much on this federal appeal

  C. they found sufficient evidence to support their argument

  D. they understood ranchers concern

  4. According to Brian ONeills claim, .

  A. he complained that the Endangered Species Act had no real effect in protecting animals

  B. he complained that the American Farm Bureau knew little about the instinct of wolves

  C. he complained that the American Farm Bureau violated the Endangered Species Act to certain degree

  D. he complained that the Endangered Species Act did not sum up the main ideas and therefore failed to guide the ranchers

  5. What can we learn from the passage?

  A. It was illegal that environmentalists took a real wolf to the courtroom to threaten their opponents.

  B. The environmentalists group thought the ranchers had no reason to stop the repopulation plan so their worry was not worth considering.

  C. By the time of the arguments, the gray wolves were still declared “illegal” in the Yellowstone Park.

  D. American ranchers were selfish and shortsighted.

  Passage 4

  European scientist have created the worlds first genetically modified malaria mosquito that could one day help to rid the world of the disease that kills an estimated 2.7 million people each year. By inserting a marker gene into the species of mosquito that carries malaria, researchers at Imperial College London and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, Germany has come a step closer to creating a mosquito to stop the spread of the disease. “With what we have available it is theoretically possible to construct in the laboratory a mosquito which is resistant to malaria,” Dr. Andrea Crisanti, of Imperial College, told Reuters. The scientists inserted an extra gene that produces a green fluorescent protein, which distinguishes the transgenic insect from other mosquitoes and makes it visible under ultraviolet light.

  The achievement means scientists may soon be able to substitute other genes that could make the malariacarrying anopheles mosquito produce antibodies to the malaria parasite or a resistance to it. They may also be able to change the mosquitos behavior so it feeds on animals instead of humans. “We think that within six years a mosquito will be created that is stable, safe and physically unable to transmit the malariacausing parasite.” Crisante, a molecular entomologist added.

  The research reported in the science journal Nature has been hailed as a breakthrough in the battle against malaria, which infects up to 500 million people a year. “The announcement of stable germ line transformation of anopheles mosquitoes represents a major breakthrough in the file of molecular entomology,” Dr. Carlos Morel, a tropical disease specialist with the WHO and World Band, said in a statement. “The transformed green mosquitoes now signal a green light for more serious investment in the development of new approaches for malaria control.” he added.

  Most cases of malaria are caused by a parasite that is transmitted to humans by the female mosquito. The parasites enter the bloodstream and travel to the liver where they replicate by the thousands. The disease, which causes fever, muscle stiffness and shaking and sweating, is increasing because the parasite has developed a resistance to antimalarial drugs.

  Scientists have had difficulty in creating transgenic malaria mosquitoes because the mosquito egg hardens quickly, making it difficult to inject the new gene into it. “In order to circumvent this problem we tested a series of compounds for their ability to slow down the process. One compound proved very effective and allowed us to inject the embryos while they were still soft,” Crisanti explained. Crisanti and colleagues believe transferring a gene that confers resistance to the parasite will be the winning strategy. “What we want to do is to spread the resistant gene through the transgenic mosquito.” he added.

  1. Malaria is directly caused by.

  A. mosquitoes B. a germC. a virus D. a parasite

  2. We can learn from what Dr. Andrea Crisanti said.

  A. their creation proved to be resistant to malaria parasite

  B. they have invented a mosquito to stop the spread of the disease

  C. a stable harmless mosquito will be created in a couple of years

  D. the scientist could soon change mosquitos behavior

  3. Which of the following is closest in meaning to “the transformed green mosquitoes now signal a green light for more serious investment in the development of new approaches for malaria control”?

  A. The green fluorescent mosquitoes should undergo serious tests before being used for malaria control.

  B. The success with the transgenic mosquitoes overshadows the previous development of new ways for malaria control.

  C. Encouraged by the success with the GM mosquitoes, people are willing to invest more in the filed of malaria control.

  D. The creation of the GM mosquitoes paved the way for more investment in the development of antimalaria drugs.

  4. How did scientist overcome the difficulty in experiment?

  A. They inserted an extra gene into mosquito eggs very promptly before it hardened.

  B. One compound was injected into mosquito to slow down the process.

  C. The new gene was injected into adult malaria mosquito with a compound prolonging the process.

  D. A special compound that can defer the process was adopted and the injection was done in time.

  5. The article has covered all the following details EXCEPT.

  A. types of malariacarrying mosquitoesB. the method of the experiment

  C. the symptoms of malariaD. the goal of the research

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:

  Passage 1


  Gambling, despite being a well known highly risky pursuit that has caused many tragedies does not scare gamblers away; instead, many consciously join the legion of gamblers, in spite of possible failure in store for them.众所周知,赌博是一项极冒风险、制造了许多悲剧的行业,尽管有未知的失败在等待着他们,但这并没吓跑许多有心而来的赌徒。

  1. 「C」in store for them 是prep.phrase, 意为waiting for them.

  2. 「B」A,C项 在一,二段中可找到依据。D项即为 “Once a person gets bogged down in gambling, it is rather hard for him to tear himself away from that evil”的另一种说法。故排除B.

  3. 「A」“Throughout history, few gamblers have ever repented about gambling, which led them to tragedy — failure in business, destitution, family disintegration, divorce, suicide, crime, etc.”为答案依据,其它项都不符合 “from history”这个限制。

  4. 「D」vindictive psychology是指报复心理,具体是说赌博者因为输钱而产生的为自己报复的心态。

  5. 「A」全文都是在分析赌徒的心理状态——他们为何上瘾成癖,难以自拔。

  Passage 2


  However, the research team reports that this learning process was “delayed” in fetuses carried by highly stressed women. 然而,研究小组报告称,这种学习过程对于精神高度紧张的孕妇腹中的胎儿来说仍被“推延”了。

  1. 「A」见文章大意分析。

  2. 「C」“low level of social support” 为C 的出处。B项错误在于不是心跳快,而是心率变化幅度大,变化时间更长。A项意思正好相反。D项不成立。

  3. 「B」“However, the research team reports that this learning process was ”delayed“ in fetuses carried by highly stressed women”句后的 “in other words,……”即解释。

  4. 「D」A,B,C均可在原文中找到依据。

  5. 「A」文中大量出现 “seem, appear, might, could, possible” 等语气不确定的词,体现作者目前还不肯定的态度。

  Passage 3


  He added that “we have gone to great lengths” to address the concerns of ranchers. 他还用“我们考虑过度” 来形容农场主们的顾虑。

  1. 「D」见文章大意分析。

  2. 「B」B的出处见第二段第三行。A 是错误项,Gray wolves在1995年才被重新引进该地区。C是错误项,Gray wolves 还未被迁出这所公园。D项可在第二段找到正确依据。

  3. 「A」见难句解析。

  4. 「C」“doesnt want any wolves” 即是对Endangered Species Act 的公然违反。

  5. 「C」因为文中并未给出诉讼的结果,所以灰狼在该公园的合法性仍未得到承认。

  Passage 4


  The transformed green mosquitoes now signal a green light for more serious investment in the development of new approaches for malaria control. 这些变异后的绿蚊子为在研究控制疟疾的新方法上追加投资铺平了道路。

  1. 「D」原文中有 “malariacarrying parasite”, “transmit the malariacausing parasite”等依据。

  2. 「C」文中第二段第三行是答案C 的依据。A 是错误项,Dr. Crisanti说过,这项成果只是在实验室里成立,并未经过实践检验。B项错误,这项成果只是 “come a step closer to creating a mosquito to stop the spread to the disease”。D项错误,科学家有可能改变蚊子的行为,而不是很快就能改变。

  3. 「C」见难句解析。

  4. 「D」解决方法是利用一种化合物来降低mosquito eggs 的硬化速度,再将基因注射其中。由此排除A,C,B.

  5. 「A」文中对B,C,D项的内容都有介绍。