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考研英语范文阅读(三十五)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  Since the dawn of human ingenuity,  people have devised ever more cunning tools to cope with work that is dangerous, boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty. That compulsion has resulted in robotics——the science of conferring various human capabilities on machines. And if scientists have yet to create the mechanical version of science fiction, they have begun to come close.

  As a result,  the modern world is increasingly populated by intelligent gizmos whose presence we barely notice but whose universal existence has removed much human labor. Our factories hum to the rhythm of robot assembly arms. Our banking is done at automated teller terminals that thank us with mechanical politeness for the transaction. Our subway trains are controlled by tireless robo-drivers. And thanks to the continual miniaturization of electronics and micro-mechanics, there are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with submillimeter accuracy—far greater precision than highly skilled physicians can achieve with their hands alone.

  But if robots are to reach the next stage of laborsaving utility, they will have to operate with less human supervision and be able to make at least a few decisions for themselves—goals that pose a real challenge. “While we know how to tell a robot to handle a specific error,” says Dave Lavery, manager of a robotics program at NASA, “we can't yet give a robot enough 'common sense' to reliably interact with a dynamic world.”

  Indeed the quest for true artificial intelligence has produced very mixed results. Despite a spell of initial optimism in the 1960s and 1970s when it appeared that transistor circuits and microprocessors might be able to copy the action of the human brain by the year 2010, researchers lately have begun to extend that forecast by decades if not centuries. What they found, in attempting to model thought, is that the human brain's roughly one hundred billion nerve cells are much more talented—and human perception far more complicated—than previously imagined. They have built robots that can recognize the error of a machine panel by a fraction of a millimeter in a controlled factory environment. But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant, instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd. The most advanced computer systems on Earth can't approach that kind of ability, and neuroscientists still don't know quite how we do it.

  46. Human ingenuity was initially demonstrated in ________.

  (A)the use of machines to produce science fiction

  (B)the wide use of machines in manufacturing industry

  (C)the invention of tools for difficult and dangerous work

  (D)the elite's cunning tackling of dangerous and boring work

  47. The word “gizmos” (line 1, paragraph 2) most probably means ________.

  (A)programs

  (B)experts

  (C)devices

  (D)creatures

  48. According to the text, what is beyond man's ability now is to design a robot that can ________.

  (A)fulfill delicate tasks like performing brain surgery

  (B)interact with human beings verbally

  (C)have a little common sense

  (D)respond independently to a changing world

  49. Besides reducing human labor, robots can also ________.

  (A)make a few decisions for themselves

  (B)deal with some errors with human intervention

  (C)improve factory environments

  (D)cultivate human creativity

  50. The author uses the example of a monkey to argue that robots are ________.

  (A)expected to copy human brain in internal structure

  (B)able to perceive abnormalities immediately

  (C)far less able than human brain in focusing on relevant information

  (D)best used in a controlled environment

  答案及试题解析

  CCDBC

  46.(C)

  此题的难度合适,区分度好。

  本题是一个局部题,主要考查考生是否看懂了第一段,尤其是 “That compulsion has resulted in robotics—the science of conferring various human capabilities on machines” 这句话。这句话的意思是:(发明一些灵巧的工具来从事一些危险、乏味、繁重,或者是讨厌的工作)这样一种需求导致了机器人技术的产生,即赋予机器以人的各种技能的科学。

  47.(C)

  此题偏易,区分度很好。

  本题是考查考生从上下文猜测词义的能力。根据第二段中出现的“robot assembly arms”, “automated teller terminals”,“tireless robo-drivers”等信息,考生可以猜出“gizmos”是 “设备、装置”的意思。

  48.(D)

  此题的难度合适,区分度很好。

  本题的答题依据是第三段中Dave Lavery的第二句话,即“we can't yet give a robot enough 'common sense' to reliably interact with a dynamic world.“该句中的”dynamic“就是”动态的、变化的“意思。

  49.(B)

  此题的难度合适,区分度好。

  本题的答题依据是第三段中Dave Lavery说的第一句话,即 “While we know how to tell a robot to handle a specific error,”即我们知道如何告诉机器人去处理一个具体的错误。看懂了这句话,这道题就很容易了。

  50.(C)

  此题属于很容易的题目,区分度好。

  本题考的是文章最后一段的意思。该段的主要意思是:机器人能够在很短的时间内发现机器的问题,而人脑能很快忽略不相关的信息,而将注意力集中到相关的信息上来,这是先进的机器人都做不到的。

  翻译句子

  1、That compulsion has resulted in robotics——the science of conferring various human capabilities on machines.

  [参考译文]这种不得已的行为导致了机器人科学的产生——一门将人类的能力赋予机器的科学。

  2、“While we know how to tell a robot to handle a specific error, ” says Dave Lavery, manager of a robotics program at NASA, “we can't yet give a robot enough 'common sense' to reliably interact with a dynamic world.”

  [参考译文]“虽然我们知道如何让机器人去纠正一个特定的错误,”NASA的一个机器人项目经理戴维?拉维里说,“我们仍然不能赋予机器人以足够的'常识',使它们能够与动态的世界进行可靠的交流。”

  补充难句翻译

  ①Since the dawn of human ingenuity,  people have devised ever more cunning tools to cope with work that is dangerous,  boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty.[参考译文]:从人类(具有)创造性的初期,人们就发明了越来越聪明的工具来对付那些危险、乏味、繁重,甚至是仅仅令人讨厌的工作。

  [结构剖析]该句是一个复杂单句,前面是since引导的一个时间状语,这个地方的dawn取其比喻的意思,表示早期。后面主句中有一个定语从句that

  is dangerous, boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty用来修饰work.

  [阅读重点]本句结构比较简明,但是有一些词的意思比较难:ingenuity创造性,灵活性;nasty讨厌的。

  ②As a result,  the modern world is increasingly populated by intelligent gizmos whose presence we barely notice but whose universal existence has removed much human labor. [参考译文]:因此,当今世界充满着越来越多的聪明的小玩意,我们很少注意到它们的存在,但是它们的普遍存在已经替代了很多的人类劳动。

  [结构剖析]本句的主句是the modern world is increasingly populated by intelligent gizmos,后面是两个定语从句,中间用but来引导。

  [阅读重点]要看懂本句,重点在于看到gizmo一词后面的两个定语从句。在本句中,认不认识gizmo并不重要,因为从上下文中可以看出它和robot的意思应该大同小异。

  ③There are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with submillimeter accuracy —far greater precision than highly skilled physicians can achieve with their hands alone. [参考译文]:现在已有一些机器人系统能够进行精确到毫米以下的脑部和骨骼手术——这要比极具技巧的医生单单用手精确得多。

  [结构剖析]该句是一个there be的结构,注意robot systems后面有一个修饰它的定语从句。而后面的破折号引出一个补充说明部分来修饰submillimeter accuracy.

  [阅读重点]注意该句中的最核心的部分是robot systems,其它成分都是围绕着它来展开的。

  ④But if robots are to reach the next stage of laborsaving utility,  they will have to operate with less human supervision and be able to make at least a few decisions for themselves —goals that pose a real challenge.[参考译文]:但是如果机器人要达到节省人工的下一个阶段,它们将必须在更少的人力监督之下工作,而且还要能够自己作出至少几个决定——这些目标才会引发真正的挑战。

  [结构剖析]整句是一个条件句,注意后面的主句比较复杂,里面有两个并列的谓语,而后面破折号引

  导的是一个补充说明成分,修饰整个主句。

  [阅读重点]要注意两个并列谓语之间的关系。

  ⑤But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant,  instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd. [参考译文]:但是人类的头脑可以只迅速地嚓一眼一个快速改变的场面,然后立刻放弃98%的不相关部分,而马上聚焦于一条崎岖森林道路边的一只猴子,或者在茫茫人海中的一张可疑的脸。

  [结构剖析]整句的主干部分是这样的,主语the human mind,并列谓语glimpse和disregard,逗号后面 instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd 这一部分做状语,修饰谓语。

  [阅读重点]要注意两个并列谓语之间的关系并抓住句子的主干成分。

  语言点详解

  1.ingenuity创造性,灵活性[词义辨析]genuine adj.真实的,真正的,诚恳的[衍生词汇] ingenious adj.有发明天才的;聪明的genius n.天才,天赋,天才人物[经典例句] Our ingenuity can certainly devise means of solving energy problems.

  2.cunning聪明的[大纲词汇]cunning adj奸诈的;狡猾的;[词义辨析]这个词一般情况下是贬义,但是在本文中是中性的。

  [联想记忆]同为贬义的有:sly ,shrewd[经典例句]Shylock is a cunning Jew in Merchant of Venice.

  3. nasty令人不愉快的;讨厌的[大纲词汇]nasty adj.肮脏的;令人不愉快的;讨厌的[经典例句]For most teachers, to correct a student's writing is a nasty task.

  4.compulsion难以抗拒的冲动[大纲词汇]compulsion n.难以抗拒的冲动;压力;强制[经典例句]I have a strong compulsion to do things by myself.

  5.confer授予,赠予[大纲词汇]confer v.授予,赠予[衍生词汇]conference n.会议,讨论会[经典例句]The university conferred an honorary degree on the famous politician.

  6.gizmo n.小装置,小玩艺儿,小东西[词义辨析]这个词也可写成gismo.虽然是超纲单词,但是我们通过上下文也大概能猜出它的意思。

  7.hum忙碌;活跃[大纲词汇]hum v.(蜜蜂、动物等)发出嗡嗡声;发出哼哼声;哼曲子;活跃起来[记忆方法]这个词很好记,它是一个象声词。但是词组hum to表示随着二而忙碌。

  8.terminal终端[大纲词汇]terminal adj.临终的,最后的;n.终点,终端[经典例句]Computer terminals are seen everywhere in a bank office now.

  9.miniaturization,。小型化[记忆方法]记住其最开始的词缀是mini-表示“小的”,而-riza一般表示“化”,-ation是表示名词词性的后缀。

  10.submillimeter小于毫米的[记忆方法]这个词虽然看起来很难,但是只要分析它的构词法就可以知道它的意思:sub- 的意思是“低于,小于,在…之下”;而milli-表示“千分之一”,mete:是米。[经典例句] Scientists can observe the movement of some submillimeter microorganism.

  11.common sense常识[记忆方法]common sense是一个理解英语文章的关键词,它表示一个有理性的人认可的通常的社会规范和他所具有的基本判断力。

  12.dynamic动力的;有活力的[大纲词汇]dynamic adj.动力的;有活力的[联想记忆]dynamics n.动力学 dynamite n.炸药[经典例句]Although he is handicapped, he still leads a very dynamic life.

  13.forecast预测;预报[大纲词汇]forecast n./v.预测;预报[联想记忆」weather forecast天气预报[经典例句]Due to advanced technology,  weather forecasts nowadays become more and more accurate.

  14.fraction小部分[大纲词汇]fraction n.小部分,片断,分数[经典例句]He did not swerve from his principle by a fraction.

  15. instantaneously瞬间地,即时地[大纲词汇]instantaneous adj.瞬间的,即时的[联想记忆]instant adj.立即的,直接的,紧迫的,刻不容缓的instinct n.本能

  16 .neuroscientist神经科学家[记忆方法」neuro-表示神经

  全文翻译

  从人类最初有了智慧至今,人们一直在设计日益巧妙的工具来处理那些危险的、枯燥的、繁重的或者只是一般肮脏的工作。这种不得已的行为导致了机器人科学的产生——一门将人类的能力赋予机器的科学。如果科学家们还没有在机械上实现科幻小说的幻想,那么他们也已经很接近这个目标了。

  由此引起的结果是,现代世界已经日益充斥着智能的装置,虽然我们几乎都注意不到他们,但他们的普遍存在却节省了许多人类劳力。我们的工厂里轰鸣着机器人生产线的节奏;我们的金融服务完成于自动柜员机旁,完成业务后,它们还会机械地、有礼貌地感谢我们;我们的地铁车辆由不知疲倦的机器人驾驶。由于电子和微观机械仪器的不断缩小,现在已有一些机器人系统能够进行精确到毫米的脑部和骨髓手术,其精确性远远超过熟练的医生用他们的双手所能达到的水平。

  但是如果机器人要进入节省劳力的下一个阶段,他们必须能够在更少的人工监控下运行,并且至少能够独立地做一些决定。这些目标给我们提出了一个真正的挑战。“虽然我们知道如何让机器人去纠正一个特定的错误,”NASA的一个机器人项目经理戴维?拉维里说,“我们仍然不能赋予机器人以足够的'常识 ',使它们能够与动态的世界进行可靠的交流。”

  实际上对真正的人工智能的追求已经产生了各种各样的效果。虽然一开始在20世纪60年代和70年代有过一段乐观的时期——那时候仿佛晶体管电路和微处理器的发展将使他们在2010年能够模仿人类大脑的活动——但是最近研究人员已经开始将这个预测延后数十年,甚至数百年。

  在试图建造思维模型的过程中,研究人员发现,人类大脑中的近1000亿个神经细胞要比以前想像的更聪明,人类的感觉器官也比以前想像的更复杂。他们建造的机器人在严格控制的工厂环境里,能够在仪表盘上识别毫米以下的误差。但是人的大脑能够扫描一个快速变化的场景,迅速排除98%的不相干的物体,立即聚焦于森林中婉蜒道路旁的一只猴子,或者人群中的一张可疑的脸。地球上最先进的计算机系统也不能仿效这种能力,并且神经学科学家仍然不知道我们是怎样做到这一点的。

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