The third largest island in the Dodecanese（希腊的多德卡尼斯群岛）， after Rhodes and Karpathos （喀帕苏斯岛）， Kos （科斯岛）lies between Kalimnos （卡利姆诺斯岛）and Nissiros . It is mainly flat with a mountain chain -Mts. Dikeos （875 m.） and Simpatras—— running along （绵延）the south coast.
Famous as the birthplace of Hippocrates （希腊名医希波克拉底）， the father of medicine， Kos is also known for its lovely， gentle scenery. It is both lush （繁荣的）and fertile（富饶的）， with an abundance of （大量的）springs and streams， gorgeous beaches and a marvelous climate.
Inhabited since prehistoric times， Kos， like Rhodes and the other Dodecanese， has known periods of great prosperity but also times of great hardship over the centuries.
During the Mycenaean （迈锡尼文明的）period （15th - 12th century B.C.）， the island was densely settled and took part in （参与）the Trojan War （特洛伊战争）。 In the 7th and 6th century B.C.， it was the sixth city-state —— along with （除……以外）Halicarnassus， Knidos， Lindos， Ialyssos and Kameiros- in the Dorian （多里斯的）hexapolis.
After the end of the Persian Wars it became a member of the First Delian （爱琴海中的得洛斯岛）or Athenian Confederacy（联盟）。
In the 2nd century A.D.， however， Kos fell under the sway （受到……的统治）of Rome and sank into （陷入）obscurity.
landscape of Kos
The long centuries under Byzantine（东罗马帝国的）rule were beneficial to the island， but by the 11th century， it was under constant threat from Saracen （撒拉逊人）and pirate raids before passing into the hands of the Venetians， the Genoese and， eventually， the Knights of the Order of St. John in 1315.
In 1522， the Turks finally conquered it after a series of unsuccessful attempts. The Turks held it until 1912， when the Italians occupied it and the other Dodecanese， and Kos did not become united with Greece until 1947.
Kos today has developed into a cosmopolitan resort（世界性的旅游胜地）， which is becoming more and more in demand （非常需要的）for apart from（除了）its physical beauty， it possesses some remarkable archaeological sites and important monuments —— leftovers （残留物）of various eras - excellent facilities for tourists and， furthermore， it is easy to get to whether by boat or by plane.