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职称英语阅读(四)理工类

2006-07-06 16:40   来源:       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  PASSAGE 12

  Kitchen Design

  Over the years economic, social and technological factors have influenced the design of kitchens. Since it is often used simultaneously by both family members as well as guests, the kitchen requires not only a glamorous look but a practical one. Also, the design elements must meet the needs of the modern family.

  Environmental concerns have had an enormous impact on kitchen design. This concern includes recycling of house hold material, as well as energy efficient appliances and the purity of both water and air. Research shows that up to 85 percent of the population is concerned about what might be in their drinking water. They are also often dissatisfied with the taste and odor of what comes out of their tap. This is why it's important to consider adding a water filter system.

  The character of today's kitchen is very different from the way it was thirty years ago. There's more sophistication in food preparation, and more technological help with cooking and clean-up.

  When choosing cabinets, first consider the style. Use the architectural style of your house as a guide. Because cabinets are a big investment, it is best to choose quality. Popular styles in kitchen cabinets are framed panel doors with raised or recessed panels of wood, cabinet fronts with glass panes, or simple slab doors in a rich painted or laminated finish. Cabinet pulls, don't be afraid to mix and match styles.

  Because many of today's kitchens consist of two of more cooks sharing in the meal preparation, there is a need for more counter space, cooktops and sinks. Although lifestyles are changing, the primary function of the kitchen as an area for preparing food has remained unchanged. The sink remains one of the most used areas in the kitchen as well as an important decorative statement.

  Appliance technology is moving at a very fast pace. Choosing what type of appliances as well as how many will depend on several factors such as how often and how much you cook and the size of your kitchen.

  Don't limit yourself to one of each kind of appliance. You can have a refrigerator in one place and a freezer in a separate area or two

  sets of cooktops, one on the counter next to the wall oven and one on an island. You can even have two dishwashers if size and budget require and permit——think of it as saving time in the long run.

  1. A well-designed kitchen should be modern, beautiful and practical at the same time.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  2. Being harmless to the environment is the top priority in kitchen design.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  3. Quality matters the most when you are choosing kitchen cabinets.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  4. More counter space, cooktops and sink are needed in today's kitchens because food preparation is more complicated than it used to be.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  5. The design of the sink is indicative of a kitchen designer's intelligence

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  6. Means of saving labor, appliances should be replaced whenever new models come out

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  7. It is the amount of time you can spend in the kitchen that decides how many appliances of the same kind you should buy

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  KEY: ACABACB

  PASSAGE 13

  The First settlement in North America

  It is very difficult to say just when colonization began. The first hundred years after Christopher Columbus's journey of discovery in 1492 did not produce any settlement on the North America continent but rather some Spanish trading posts further south, a great interest in gold and adventure, and some colorful crimes in which the English had their part. John Cabot, originally from Genoa but a citizen of Venice, was established as a trader in Bristol, England, when he made a journey in 1497. But his ship, the Matthew, with its crew of eighteen, did no more than see an island (probably off the New England coast) and return home. He and his son made further voyages across the north Atlantic which enabled the English crown to claim a “legal” title to North America. But for a long time afterwards the Europeans' interest in America was mainly confined to the Spanish activities further south.

  The first beginning of permanent settlement in North Am

  erica were nearly a hundred years after Columbus's first voyage. The Englishman Sir Walter Raleigh claimed the whole of North America for England, calling it Virginia. In 1585 he sent a small group of people who landed in Roanoke Island, but they stayed only for a year and then went back to England with another expedition, led by Drake, in 1587. A second group who landed in 1587 had all disappeared when a further expedition arrived in 1590.

  The first permanent settlement in North America was in 1607. English capitalists founded two Virginia companies, a southern one based in London and a northern one based in Bristol. It was decided to give the name New England to the northern area. The first settlers in Virginia were little more than wage slaves to the company. All were men and the experiment was not very successful. Many died. Those who survived lived in miserable conditions. By 1610 the colony had only a thousand people.

  1. We know for sure that colonization began at the end of the 15th century

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  2. Among the early settlers in South America in the 16th century were Spanish traders.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  3. With John Cabot's arrival at an island off the New England coast in 1497, the British Crown claimed to be the legal owner of North America.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  4. There were eighteen people on board the Matthew during its voyage to North America in 1497

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  5. The first attempt made by European people to settle down permanently in North America occurred in the 1580s

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  6. The name Virginia was given to North America by Sir Walter Raleigh

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  7. The name New England was given to the northern area of North America by the boss of one of the two Virginia companies

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  KEY: BABBAAC

  PASSAGE 14

  An Observation and Explanation

  It is worth looking at one or two aspects of the way a mother behaves towards her baby. The usual fondling, cuddling and cleaning requite little comment, but the position in which she holds the baby against her body when resting is rather revealing. Careful studies have shown the fact that 80 per cent of mothers hold their infants in their left arms, holding them against the left side of their bodies. If asked to explain the significance of this preference most people reply that it is obviously the result of the predominance of right-handedness in the population. By holding the babies in their left arms, the mothers keep their dominant arm free for manipulations. But a detailed analysis shows that this is not the case. True, there is a slight difference between right-handed and left-handed females; but not enough to provide an adequate explanation. It emerges that 83 per cent of right-handed mothers hold the baby on the left side, but so do 78 per cent of left-handed mothers. In other words, only 22 per cent of the left-handed mothers have their dominant hands free for actions. Clearly there must be some other, less obvious explanation.

  The only other clue comes from the fact that the heart is on the left side of the mother's body. Could it be that the sound of her heart-beat is the vital factor? And in what way? Thinking along these lines it was argued that perhaps during its existence inside the body of the mother the unborn baby gets used to the sound of the heart beat. If this is so, then the re-discovery of this familiar sound after birth might have a calming effect on the infant, especially as it has just been born into a strange and frighteningly new world. If this is so then the mother would, somehow, soon arrive at the discovery that her baby is more at peace if held on the left against her heart, than on the right.

  1. We can learn a lot by observing the position in which a mother holds her baby against her body

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  2. Most left-handed women feel comfortable by holding their baby in their left arm and keep the right arm free

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  3. The number of right-handed mothers who hold the baby on the left side exceeds that of left-handed ones by 22%

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  4. The fact that most left-handed mothers hol

  d the baby on their left side renders the first explanation unsustainable

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  5. The fact that the heart is on the left side of the mother's body provides the most convincing explanation of all

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  6. A baby held in the right arm of its mother can be easily frightened

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  7. The writer's explanation of the phenomenon is supported by the fact that babies tend to be more peaceful if held in their mothers' left arms than in the right arms

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  KEY: ACBABCA

  PASSAGE 15

  The Worker's Role in Management

  Traditionally, it has been the worker's role to worker and management's role to mange. Managers have planned and directed the firm's operation with little thought consulting the labor force. Managers have rarely felt compelled to obtain the worker's opinions or to explain their decisions to their employees. At most, companies have provided “suggestion boxes” in which workers could place ideas for improving procedures. In recent years, however, many management specialists have been arguing that workers are more than sellers of labor-they have a vital stake in the company and many be able to make significant contributions to its management. Furthermore, major company decisions profoundly affect workers and their dependents. This is particularly true of plant closings, which may put thousands on the unemployment lines. Should workers, then, play a stronger role in management?

  Workers should have a role in management. At the very least, the labor force should be informed of major policy decisions. (A common complaint among rank-and-file workers is the lack of information about company policies and actions.) Between 1980 and 1985 about five million workers were the victims of plant closings and permanent layoffs, often with no warning. At least 90 day's notice ought to be given in such instances so that workers have time to adjust. Management should consult workers before closing a plant, because the workers might be able to suggest ways of improving productivity and reducing costs and might be willing to make concessions that will keep the plant operating.

  It should become a general practice to include workers in some managerial decision making. There ought to be representatives of the workers on the firm's board of directors or other major policymaking groups. If rank-and-file workers are given a voice in the planning and management of the work flow, they will help to make improvement, their morale will rise, and their productivity will increase. As a further incentive, they must be given a share in the company's profits. This can be done through employee stockownership plans, bonuses, or rewards for efficiency and productivity. Finally, when a plant can no longer operate at a profit, the workers should be given the opportunity to purchase the plant and run it themselves.

  1. Traditional workers showed no interest in management.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. No mentioned

  2. In recent years many management specialists have been arguing for the worker's role in management with two major reasons.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. No mentioned

  3. Since policy decisions are business secrets of a firm, workers should not be informed of them.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. No mentioned

  4. Before closing, a plant should put up a notice and keep it for 90 days.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. No mentioned

  5. The workers' participation in management might save a plant from closing down.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. No mentioned

  6. One of the advantages of involving workers in making a decision is that the interpersonal relationship between workers and managers can be improved.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. No mentioned

  7. An efficient and productive worker should be rewarded with anything but shares of his plant.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. No mentioned

  Key: CABBACB

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