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考研英语范文阅读(二十九)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  Specialisation can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge. By splitting up the subject matter into smaller units, one man could continue to handle the information and use it as the basis for further research. But specialisation was only one of a series of related developments in science affecting the process of communication. Another was the growing professionalisation of scientific activity.

  No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professionals and amateurs in science: exceptions can be found to any rule. Nevertheless, the word “amateur” does carry a connotation that the person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share its values. The growth of specialisation in the nineteenth century, with its consequent requirement of a longer, more complex training, implied greater problems for amateur participation in science. The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United Kingdom.

  A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper. Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture. Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local studies in the old way. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century. As a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, where as the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way.

  Although the process of professionalisation and specialisation was already well under way in British geology during the nineteenth century, its full consequences were thus delayed until the twentieth century. In science generally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the crucial period for this change in the structure of science.

  51. The growth of specialisation in the 19th century might be more clearly seen in sciences such as ________.

  (A)sociology and chemistry

  (B)physics and psychology

  (C)sociology and psychology

  (D)physics and chemistry

  52. We can infer from the passage that ________.

  (A)there is little distinction between specialisation and professionalisation

  (B)amateurs can compete with professionals in some areas of science

  (C)professionals tend to welcome amateurs into the scientific community

  (D)amateurs have national academic societies but no local ones

  53. The author writes of the development of geology to demonstrate ________.

  (A)the process of specialisation and professionalisation

  (B)the hardship of amateurs in scientific study

  (C)the change of policies in scientific publications

  (D)the discrimination of professionals against amateurs

  54. The direct reason for specialisation is ________.

  (A)the development in communication

  (B)the growth of professionalisation

  (C)the expansion of scientific knowledge

  (D)the splitting up of academic societies

  答案及试题解析

  DBAC

  51.(D)

  根据第二段第三、四句,19世纪开始的专门化要求更长时间、更复杂的培训,日益增长的专门化给参与科学活动的业余爱好者带来了更大的问题。在特别是以数学和实验为基础的那些科学领域里,这一倾向自然表现得最为明显,英国地质学领域的发展充分地说明了这一点。

  在这四个选择项中,虽然没有提到地质学,但是,众所周知,就19世纪而言,物理学和化学均是以数学和实验作为基础的科学,因此(D)是正确答案。

  52.(B)意为:业余研究者可以在某些科学领域与专业研究者相匹敌。

  根据第三段,在20世纪,局部的研究(local studies)只有在能被纳入并反映出更广泛研究框架的时候,才为专业研究者所接受。这说明,某些方面的研究是为专业研究者所认可的。第二段还提到,目前并存着分别以业余研究者和专业研究者为对象的两种杂志,专业地质学家组成了全国性的一两个协会,而业余研究者则通常是或者参加本地的研究协会,或者也以不同的方式结成全国性的组织。这些都说明了业余研究的不可或缺性以及与职业研究并存状况。

  A意为:专门化和专业化过程几乎没有区别。根据本文,专门化过程(specialisation)和专业化过程(professionalisation)实质上是同一个过程,即:研究领域的专门化带来了研究人员的专业化,一个是针对研究对象而言,另一个是针对研究者而宫,二者同时发生,不可比较。

  C不对。根据第三段第四句,专业研究者对业余研究者甚至还有排挤的倾向。

  D不对。参阅本题对选择项(B)的解释。

  53.(A)

  参阅第二段第三、四句并第51题题解。请特别注意第四句中illustrate(举例说明)。

  另外,第四段第一句也提到,虽然专业化和专门化过程早在19世纪已在英国的地质学领域展开,但直到20世纪我们才看到其全面影响。这句话也是对上一段的总结。

  B意为:业余研究者在科学研究中碰到的艰辛。例子中虽然提到了专业化结业余研究者带来的不利影响。但就总体而言,这个例子说明的是专业化和专门化过程的形成及其影响。

  C意为:科技出版物出版方针的变化。第三段提到了科学杂志的问题(参阅第52题题解),但这显然不是例子旨在说明的问题。

  D意为:专业研究者对业余研究者的歧视。

  54.(C)

  全文第一句指出,专门化过程可以看做是对日益积累的科学知识的反应。该句的含义是:科学知识的积累促进了知识的进一步分类和分化(或专门化)。

  A不对。第一段第二、三句话的意思是,通过将研究课题分作更小单位,人们可以继续处理信息(注意:这里所说的information指上一句中的 scientific knowledge),用之作为进一步研究的基础,但是,专门化只是影响交流过程的一系列科学发展的一部分。这里所说的communication指科学知识的交流。

  B不对。专业比是随着知识的进一步分类而产生的,不是其成因。参阅第52题对选择项A的解释。

  D意为:学术团体的分裂。

  翻译句子

  1、The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United Kingdom.

  [参考译文]很自然,这种趋势会在尤以数学或实验室训练为基础的自然学科领域表现最为明显,并且可以英国的地质学发展作例证来说明。

  [结构剖析]两个分句有同一个主语,即the trend,两个谓语为was obvious和can be illustrated.前一个分句中based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training修饰areas of science.

  [阅读重点]注意be illustrated的用法,这里是“举例说明,例证说明”的意思;另外in terms of是“就某事来说,以某事为例”的意思。

  2、A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper.

  [参考译文]将过去一个半世纪英国地质学领域的出版物做一下比较,(我们)就会发现不仅对科研的主导地位的强调不断攀升,而且一篇可接受的科研论文所包含的内容的定义也有所变化。

  [结构剖析]本句的主语是a comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half(中心词为a comparison),谓语是reveals,宾语主体结构是not simply…… but also……所连接的两个并列宾语,注意宾语emphasis和definition前都有分词来修饰。

  [阅读重点]an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research译为“对科研的重要性的强调不断攀升”,a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper译为“一篇过得去的科研论文创作标准也有所变化”,其中what指代the elements that.

  补充难句翻译

  1、No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professionals and amateurs in science: exceptions can be found to any rule. Nevertheless, the word “amateur” does carry a connotation that the person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share its values.[参考译文]科学领域的专业人员和业余爱好者之间划不出径渭分明的界线:因为任何规则都有例外。然而,“业余”一词的确意味着相关人员不能充分融人职业科学界,尤其未能分享科学圈子的价值。

  [结构剖析]先看前面的句子的主干是No…… distinction can be drawn between……,冒号后面的内容是进一步说明前面的观点。在第二个句子中,一上来就有一个转折词nevertheless,表示语意的转折,其主句是the word “amateur” does carry a connotation,后面有一个同位语从句,里面有两个并列谓语。

  [阅读重点]注意nevertheless表示转折,其后的信息与其前面的信息意思相反,前面讲二者没有很明显的区别,后面便说业余和专业就是不一样。其次要看清the word “amateur” DOES carry a connotation而非DOES NOT.

  2、 The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century.[参考译文]这样一来总的结果便是业余爱好者想在专业地质学期刊上发表文章就更难了,而被广泛使用的论文评审推荐制度又进一步强化了这一结果,该种制度先是出现在19世纪的国家级刊物上,后又在20世纪被几家地方级地质学刊物所使用。

  [结构剖析]全句的主干结构是 The…… result has been to do sth.。注意逗号后面只是一个名词性的短语,其核心词是a result,可以被看成是前面句子主语的同位语,在其内部主要是一个长的定语从句,而定语从句中又有两个并列的状语first by……, and then by……。

  [阅读重点]entrance入口,此处指发表文章,进入专业圈子。reinforce增强,也就是使难度更高。本句的理解重点在于理顺句子结构,要看到在第一个逗号之后没有动词了,可以一层一层地把这个名词短语分解开。

  3、A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way.[参考译文]一个颇为相似的分化过程已经导致专业的地质学家走到一起组成一到两个全国性的专科学术社团,而业余地质爱好者们倾向于要么仍留在地方社团,要么也以另一种方式组成全国性机构。

  [结构剖析]这是一个并列关系的并列句,两个分句由whereas(而)连接,说明了两种情况,前面是在说professional,而后面说amateurs.

  [阅读重点]coming together nationally within one or two specific societies理解为“组成一到两个全国性的专科学术社团”。

  语言点详解

  1.specialisation专业化[大纲词汇]specialise/specialize v.(in)专攻,专门研究,专业化[衍生词汇] sepcialization/specialisation n.专业化,专门化[经典例句]The specialization of modern industry has greatly increased output.

  2.accumulation积累[大纲词汇]accumulate v.积累,储蓄,堆积[衍生词汇]accumulation n.积累[经典例句]Wisdom comes from accumulation of experience.

  3slipt up分裂,分开[大纲词汇] split v.裂开,劈开;分裂,分离; n.分化,分裂,裂口[经典例句]They slipt up after years of marriage

  4.unit单位[大纲词汇]unit耸。单位,单元;部件,元件;机组,装置[经典例句]A family is the smallest unit.5.professionalisation[大纲词汇]profession n.职业,自由职业professional a.职业的,专业的,专门的;n.自由职业者,专业人员[衍生词汇] professionalisation / professionalization n.专业化,职业化[经典例句]Many training programs were initiated at the requirement of professionalisation.

  6.clear- cut明确的[扩充词汇]clear-cut a.轮廓清楚的,清晰的;明确的[联想记忆]dear-headed a.头脑清楚的dear-eyed a.有洞察力的[经典例句]There was no dear-cut difference between the two proposals.

  7. amateur业余活动(爱好)者[大纲词汇]amateur a.业余的; n.业余活动(爱好)者[经典例句]He is very good at piano as an amateur.

  8.connotation含义[扩充词汇] connotation n.含蓄;内涵意义,隐含意义[经典例句] Politician carries different connotations from “statesman”。

  9.integrate into成为一体,融人[大纲词汇]integrate v.(into,with)(使)成为一体,(使)结合在一起,(使)合并[经典例句]The different ideas have been integrate into one uniform plan.

  10.participation参与[大纲词汇] participate v.(in)参与,参加;分享,分担[衍生词汇]participation n.参与[经典例句]we expected their participation in the conference.

  11.laboratory实验室[大纲词汇] laboratory n.实验室,研究室12.in terms of从…方面而言[大纲词汇]in terms of依据,依照;用…措辞[经典例句]It has been a terrible year in terms of business.

  13.comparison比较[大纲词汇]comparison n.比较,对比,比喻,比拟[经典例句]The comparison of the output of last two months showed a steady increase.

  14.publication出版物[大纲词汇]publication n.出版物;出版,发行;公布,发表[经典例句]His articles appeared in various publication.

  15.definition定义[大纲词汇]definition n.定义,解释[经典例句]A clear definition to this term is the key to solve the argument.

  16.constitute构成[大纲词汇]constitute v.组成,构成constitution n.构成,构造,组成(方式),成分;体格,体质;宪法[经典例句]Twelve months constitute a year.

  17.in their own right凭他们本身的实力[大纲词汇] in one's own right凭本身的权利(能力、实力、资格等)[经典例句]This brand of wine is becoming popular in its own right.

  15.incorperate结合[大纲词汇]incorporate v.合并,纳人,结合;a,合并的[经典例句]The proposal incorporated different suggestions.

  19.reflection反映出[大纲词汇]reflect v.反映,表现;反省,细想;考虑[经典例句]Your sales figures reflected well on your ability as a salesman.

  20.on the other hand另一方面[大纲词汇]on the other hand另一方面[经典例句]On the other hand,it also indicated his nervousness.

  21.entrance进人,登载[大纲词汇] entrance n.进人;人口,门口;人学,人会[经典例句]Entrance into the college was a great event in his life.

  22.reinforce加强[大纲词汇] reinforce v.增援,加强[衍生词汇]reinforcement n.加强[经典例句]He reinforced his argument with more facts.

  23.widespread普遍的[大纲词汇] widespread a.分布广泛的,普遍的[经典例句]There is a widespread belief that newspapers have not told the truth.

  24.referee审阅[扩充词汇]referee v.审阅,鉴定(学术著作等);仲裁,裁判[经典例句]All submitted papers are to be refereed.

  25.differentiation区分,分化[大纲词汇]differentiate v.区别,区分;(使)不同[衍生词汇]differentiation n.区别,区分;分化[经典例句]Differentiation of the two substances are still not clear to the scientists.

  26.specific society特定的团体

  27.whereas反之[大纲词汇]whereas conj.而,却,反之[经典例句」She is honest, whereas her husband is sly.

  28.delay延迟[大纲词汇]delay n./v.耽搁,延迟[经典例句]The plane is delayed due to heavy rain.

  29.reckon估计[大纲词汇]reckon v.认为,估计;指望,想要;测算,依靠,指望[经典例句] You can reckon me among your supporters.

  全文翻译

  专业化可被视为针对科学知识不断膨胀这个问题所做出的反应。通过将学科细化,个人能够继续处理这些不断膨胀的信息并将它们作为深入研究的基础。但是专业化仅是科学领域内一系列影响交流过程的有关现象之一。另一现象是科学活动的日益职业化。

  在科学领域内,专业与业余之间没有绝对的区分:任何规律都有其例外。但是“业余”这个词的确具有特殊的含义,那就是所指的那个人没有完全融入某个科学家群体,具体地说,他可能并不完全认同这个群体的价值观。19世纪的专业化的发展,以及随之而来的对训练的长期性和复杂性的要求,对业余人员进入科学界造成了更大的困难。特别是在以数学和实验室训练为基础的科学领域,这种倾向自然尤为明显,这可以通过英国的地质学发展过程得到证实。

  对过去一个半世纪的英国地质出版物进行比较,我们不但发现人们对研究的重视程度在不断增加,而且人们对可以接受的论文的定义也在不断变化。因此,在19世纪,局部的地质研究本身就可形成一种有价值的研究;而到了20世纪,如果局部的研究能够被专业人员接受,那么它越来越倾向于必须体现或思考更广阔的地质面貌。另一方面业余人员继续以旧的方式从事局部的研究。其整体的结果是使业余人员进入专业性地质学杂志更加困难,而审稿制度的全面引进使这个结果得到加强,这一制度开始是在19世纪的全国性杂志进行,进入20世纪后也在一些地方性地质杂志实行。这样发展的必然结果是出现了针对专业读者和业余读者的不同杂志。类似的分化过程也导致专业地质学家聚集起来,形成一两个全国性的团体,而业余地质学家则要么留在地方性团体中,要么以不同方式组成全国性的团体。

  虽然职业化和专业化过程在19世纪的英国地质学界中已经得到迅速发展,但是它的效果直到20世纪才充分显示出来。然而,从科学这个整体来看,19世纪必须被视为科学结构发生变化的关键时期。

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