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考研英语核心词汇速成胜经 Unit 1

2006-7-14 22:47  

  一、真题文章(1994年)

  The first and smallest unit that can be discussed in relation to language is the word. In speaking, the choice of words is of the utmost importance. Proper selection will eliminate one source of likely breakdown in the communication cycle. Too often careless use of words prevents a meeting of the minds of the speaker and listener. The words used by the speaker may stir up unfavorable reactions in the listener which interfere with his comprehension; hence, the transmission——reception system breaks down.

  Moreover,inaccurate or indefinite words may make it difficult for the listener to understand the message which is being transmitted to him. The speaker who does not have specific words in his working vocabulary may be unable to explain or describe in a way that can be understood by his listeners.

  二、考研核心词汇

  choice n. 选择, 抉择, 精选品, 选择机会, 选择权 adj. 精选的, 上等的, 挑三拣四的, 可选的, 宠爱的, 爱惜的

  [例] She had to make a choice between the two dresses.

  她得在两件衣服中选择一件。

  [同义] alternative , cream ,decision ,option, pick, preference ,selection

  [派生] choose v. 选择, 选定

  [固定搭配] at one's own choice 随意挑选, 自由选择;be choice of 好挑剔的;

  [熟词生意] choice a.斟酌得当的

  eg.Some of his remarks are really choice.

  他的有些话真精辟。

  utmost [原为out的最高级] n. 极限, 最大可能, 极力 adj. 极度的, 最远的

  [例] the utmost ends of the earth 天涯海角

  [同义] extreme, farthest ,greatest, most

  [固定搭配] at the utmost 至多;do one's utmost 尽全力; make the utmost of …… 充分利用; to the utmost 竭力; 尽力;

  reaction n. 反应, 反作用, 反动(力)

  [例] What is his reaction to your proposal? 他对你的建议有什么反应?

  [反义] action n. 动作, 作用, 战斗, 行动, 举动, 行为, (戏剧或书中)的情节, (某一地区、领域或团体中)最能产生效果、最有趣、最有刺激性的活动 vt. 对……起诉

  [派生] react vi. 起反应, 起作用, 反抗, 起反作用

  reactive adj. 反应的, 起反作用的, 反动的, 电抗性的

  [固定搭配] reaction to 对……的反应;chain reaction 连锁反应;chemical reaction 化学反应;physiological reaction 生理反应;replacement reaction 置换反应

  interfere vi. 干涉, 干预, 妨碍, 打扰

  [例] I was playing with Jane, but Anne interfered and spoiled the game.

  我正在和珍妮玩,可是安妮插了进来,把游戏给打乱了。

  [同义] arbitrate, encroach, intercede ,interrupt, intervene, intrude, meddle

  [派生] interference n. 冲突, 干涉

  [固定搭配] interfere in 干涉, 干预; interfere with 妨碍; 干涉, 干扰;

  comprehension n. 理解, 包含

  [例] Reading depends on the comprehension of the ideas expressed by the words used.

  阅读有赖于对所用词句所表达的含义的理解。

  [同义] apprehension

  [反义] incomprehension n. 不了解, 不领悟

  [派生] comprehensive adj. 全面的, 广泛的, 能充分理解的, 包容的

  comprehend vt. 领会, 理解, 包括(包含), 由……组成

  hence adv. 因此, 从此

  [例] They grew up in the Sudan; hence their interest in Nubian art.

  他们在苏丹长大;由是产生了对努比亚艺术的兴趣

  [同义] accordingly, away, consequently, elsewhere, from now on, later therefore

  [反义] ago adv. 以前的, 以往的

  transmission n. 播送, 发射, 传动, 传送, 传输, 转播

  [例] transmission of news 消息的传播

  [同义] sending ,transport, transfer, broadcast

  [反义] reception n. 接待, 招待会, 接收

  [派生] transmissible adj. 可传送的, 可遗传的

  transmit vt. 传输, 转送, 传达, 传导, 发射, 遗传, 传播 vi.发射信号, 发报

  inaccurate adj. 错误的, 不准确的

  [例] There is a slight inaccuracy in this design. 这张设计图中有一点不大准确。

  [同义] incorrect , inexact

  [反义] accurate adj. 正确的, 精确的

  [派生] inaccuracy n. 错误

  indefinite adj. 模糊的, 不确定的, [语]不定的

  [例] an indefinite leave of absence 对在场者的离席无明确限制的

  [同义] broad, confused, general, hazy, indistinct, obscure, unclear, vague

  [反义] definite adj. 明确的, 一定的

  [派生] indefinitely adv. 不确定地

  [固定搭配] an indefinite answer 含糊的答复;in an indefinite manner 模模糊糊地;不明确地;an indefinite prison term 无期徒刑;for an indefinite time/period 无限期地;to be indefinite about their plans 尚未决定他们的计划

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