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考研英语范文阅读(三)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  Rumor has it that more than 20 books on creationism/evolution are in the publisher's pipelines. A few have already appeared. The goal of all will be to try to explain to a confused and often unenlightened citizenry that there are not two equally valid scientific theories for the origin and evolution of universe and life. Cosmology, geology, and biology have provided a consistent, unified, and constantly improving account of what happened. Scientific creationism, which is being pushed by some for equal time in the classrooms whenever the scientific accounts of evolution are given, is based on religion, not science. Virtually all scientists and the majority of non-fundamentalist religious leaders have come to regard scientific creationism as bad science and bad religion.

  The first four chapters of Kitcher's book give a very brief introduction to evolution. At appropriate places, he introduces the criticisms of the creationists and provides answers. In the last three chapters, he takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating. He describes their programmes and tactics, and, for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists, the extent of their deception and distortion may come as an unpleasant surprise. When their basic motivation is religious, one might have expected more Christian behavior.

  Kitcher is philosopher, and this may account, in part, for the clarity and effectiveness of his arguments. The non-specialist will be able to obtain at least a notion of the sorts of data and argument that support evolutionary theory. The final chapter on the creationists will be extremely clear to all. On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: This book stands for reason itself. And so it does-and all would be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.

  67. Creationism in the passage refers to ________.

  (A)evolution in its true sense as to the origin of the universe

  (B)a notion of the creation of religion

  (C)the scientific explanation of the earth formation

  (D)the deceptive theory about the origin of the universe

  68. Kitcher's book is intended to ________.

  (A)recommend the views of the evolutionists

  (B)expose the true features of creationists

  (C)curse bitterly at this opponents

  (D)launch a surprise attack on creationists

  69. From the passage we can infer that ________.

  (A)reasoning has played a decisive role in the debate

  (B)creationists do not base their argument on reasoning

  (C)evolutionary theory is too difficult for non-specialists

  (D)creationism is supported by scientific findings

  70. This passage appears to be a digest of ________.

  (A)a book review

  (B)a scientific paper

  (C)a magazine feature

  (D)a newspaper editorial

  答案及试题解析

  DBBA

  67.(D)

  意为:关于宇宙起源的虚假理论。

  在本文中,作者将造物主义理论(或创世主义理论)与进化论对立而论,指出前者的基础是宗教而不是科学,而且,几乎所有的科学家和大部分非原教旨主义宗教领袖都越来越将所谓科学的造物主义理论看做既不是好科学也不是好的宗教。Kitcher 的书对造物主义理论进行了深刻的批判。参阅第一段。

  A意为:有关宇宙起源的真正意义上的进化论。

  B意为:宗教创立的思想。

  C意为:地球形成的科学解释。

  68.(B)

  意为:揭露了造物主义理论的真实面目。

  第二段指出,他利用合适的机会(at appropriate places)对造物主义理论进行了批判。在最后三章,他摘掉了手套,将造物主义者狠狠地揍了一顿。他描述了他们的纲领及(骗人)手段,对那些不了解他们的把戏的人来说,(Kitcher所揭露出的)他们的欺骗程度和歪曲程度会令人感到吃惊和厌恶。考虑到他们的基本动机是宗教的,人们也许期望在他们身上看到更多的基督徒行为(但他们欺骗人民、歪曲事实)。

  A意为:推崇进化论的观点。Kitcher的确推崇进化论,但从书的章节安排来看,本书更着重于对造物主义的批判。

  C意为:狠狠地咒骂了他的对手。

  D意为:对造物主义者发起了突然袭击。

  69.(B)

  意为:造物主义的论点不是建立在推理之上的。

  参阅第67题题解。文章最后一句指出,它的确代表了理性本身,如果理性是造物主义理论与进化论之争的惟一裁判者,问题就容易解决了。本句是一个虚拟条件句,等于说:all would be well if reason were the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.

  A意为:在这场争论中,推理起了决定性作用。注意:reason(理性)与reasoning(推理)意思不同。

  C意为:对专家以外的人来说,进化论太难。第三段第二句指出,不是专家至少也能了解一下支持进化论的数据的性质及其论点。

  D意为:科学发现支持了造物主义理论。

  70.(A)

  本文是一个书评摘要。这从第二、三段就可以一目了然。

  B意为:科学论文。

  C意为:杂志特写。

  D意为:报纸社论。

  翻译句子

  1、In the last three chapters, he takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating. He describes their programs and tactics, and, for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists, the extent of their deception and distortion may come as an unpleasant surprise.

  [参考译文] 在最后三章中,他脱下手套,将神造论者好好地揍了一顿。他描述了他们的活动和战术,而且,对于那些对神造论者的做事方式不熟悉的人来说,神造论者的欺骗和扭曲事实的程度可能会令这些人有一种不快的诧异。

  [结构剖析] 第一句话的主体结构是…he takes off…and gives…,第二句是 and 连接的两个并列句。在第二个分句中,前面插入了一个介词词组 for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists,其中 unfamiliar 相当于省略了 who are 的定语从句,修饰 those.

  [阅读重点] 第一句话中,作者把写书比喻成拳击,因而要抨击神造说/特创论的时候,用了 takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating 这样的句子。第二句中,关键要弄清楚 their programs and tactics, their deception and distortion 中的两个 their 指代的都是 creationists,而不是指那些对神造论者的处事方式不熟悉的人。

  2、On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: This book stands for reason itself. And so it does-and all would be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.

  [参考译文] 在这本杰出的书的外纸封面上,史蒂芬?杰伊?古尔德写道:这本书本身就代表理性。而它确实是这样的-而且如果理性成为神造论/进化论之间的辩论中的惟一评判标准的话,一切就都好办了。

  [结构剖析] 第一句话中是主语+谓语动词+直接引语。第二句表示对第一句中的观点的赞同,破折号后作进一步解释;其中隐含一个 if 引导的状语从句表示虚拟语气。在正式的文体中,倒装可以用来代替 if 引导的表示假设的状语从句。were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate 相当于 if reason were the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.

  [阅读重点] 注意 so it does 的用法:so+主语+助动词,表示对前面表述的观点的赞同,注意这一结构与 so+助动词+主语结构的区别。后者表示也的意思,只用在肯定句当中。另外应注意破折号后解释部分中的条件句里时态的运用:if 条件状语从句中使用过去时 were,主句中用过去将来时 would do,是作出与现在事实相反的假设。

  补充难句翻译

  ①The goal of all will be to try to explain to a confused and often unenlightened citizenry that there are not two equally valid scientific theories for the origin and evolution of universe and life.

  [参考译文] 所有这些书的目的都是要努力向迷惑而且通常还没有被启发的普通民众解释:不可能有两种同样站得住脚的关于宇宙和生命的起源和演化的科学理论同时存在。

  [结构剖析] 句子的主干结构是 The goal… will be to try to explain…,其中 explain 后面接的是双宾语:explain to sb. sth.,这里 sth. 是 that 引导的宾语从句 there are not…。

  [阅读重点] all 指代上文提到的书籍,要注意 origin 和 evolution 是并列的,而universe 和 life 是并列的。而 confused 和 unenlightened 也是并列的。

  ②Scientific creationism, which is being pushed by some for equal time in the classrooms whenever the scientific accounts of evolution are given, is based on religion, not science.

  [参考译文] 科学的神造说/特创论-不论什么时候谈到进化的科学解释的时候,某些人就会要求在教室里获得同等的时间来解释这一学说-是以宗教为基础的,而不是以科学为基础。

  [结构剖析] 句子的主体结构是… creationism is based… on religion, not science,其中which 引导了一个非限定性定语从句 which is being pushed by some for equal time in the classroom…修饰 creationism,在这一定语从句中,whenever 引导了一个时间状语从句 whenever the scientific accounts of evolution are given.

  [阅读重点] 首先要理解非限定性定语从句的用法,另外,在阅读中可以先跳过非限定性定语从句,只看句子的主干。

  语言点详解

  1. creationism 神造说,特创论(一种反进化论的学说)

  2. rumor has it 据传言说

  [大纲词汇] rumor/ rumour n.传闻,谣言

  [经典例句] Rumor has it that more than 20 people died in the accident.

  3. pipeline 供应线

  [大纲词汇] pipeline n.管道,管线

  4. unenlighted 未受启蒙的

  [大纲词汇] enlighten v.启发,启蒙,教导

  [衍生词汇] enlightened a.开明的,有知识的,文明的 enlightening a.有启迪作用的enlightenment n.开明,启发 unenlightened a.未受启发的,愚昧无知的,落后的

  [经典例句] He regarded most people as unenlightened.

  5. citizenry 老百姓

  [大纲词汇] citizen n.公民;市民,平民

  [衍生词汇] citizenry n.〔总称〕公民;市民;老百姓

  6. cosmology 宇宙论

  [大纲词汇] cosmic a.宇宙的

  [衍生词汇] cosmology n.宇宙论,宇宙哲学

  7. geology 地质学

  [大纲词汇] geology n.地质学

  5. biology 生物学

  [大纲词汇] biology n.生物学

  9. consistent 前后一致的

  [大纲词汇] consistent a.(with)前后一致的,始终如一的

  [经典例句] What he said was consistent with what he did.

  10. unified 统一的

  [大纲词汇] unify n.使联合;使同意;使相同,使一致

  [经典例句] It is their strong wish that the country should be unified.

  11. constantly

  [大纲词汇] constant a.经常的,不断的;坚定的;永恒的;忠实的

  [衍生词汇] constantly ad.经常地,不断地

  [经典例句] The world is changing constantly.

  12. virtually 实际上

  [大纲词汇] virtual a.实际上的,事实上的

  [衍生词汇] virtually ad实际上,事实上

  [经典例句] The city virtually disappeared in the tornado.

  13. majority 大多数

  [大纲词汇] major a.(较)大的,(较)重要的 n.专业,主修科目;专业学生,少校v. (in)主修,专攻 majority n.多数,大多数

  [经典例句] The majority of the Senate voted against the motion.

  14. nonfundamentalist 非原教旨主义者

  [大纲词汇] fundamental a.基础的,基本的;n.[pl.]基本原则,基本原理

  [衍生词汇] fundamentalist n.原教旨主义者 nonfundamentalist n.非原教旨主义者

  15. glve an introduction to 介绍……

  [大纲词汇] introduction n.(to)介绍;传入,引进;导言,导论,绪论

  [经典例句] The mayor give his guest a brief introduction to his city.

  16.appropriate适当的[大纲词汇] appropriate a. (to)适当的,恰如其分的[经典例句] He intended to propose his plan in appropriate time.

  17. take off 脱下

  [大纲词汇] takeoff 拿走;脱下;起飞

  [经典例句] He helped the old lady to take off her coat.

  15. give…a good beating 把…痛打一顿

  [大纲词汇] beat v.打,敲;打败,战胜;(心脏等)跳动,搏动 n.敲打,敲击声,节拍;(心脏等)跳动,搏动

  [衍生词汇] beating n.拍打,捶打;打败

  [经典例句] The Russian troop gave a good beating to their enemy.

  19. tactics 策略

  [大纲词汇] tactics n.策略,战术

  [经典例句] This is a fairly common tactics among junior executive.

  20. extent 程度

  [大纲词汇] extent n.广度,宽度,长度;程度,限度

  [经典例句] What he did exceeded the extent of his authority.

  21. deception 欺骗

  [大纲词汇] deceive v.欺骗,蒙蔽

  [衍生词汇] deception n.欺骗,蒙蔽

  [经典例句] He was furious at the deception of his friends.

  22. distortion 歪曲

  [大纲词汇] distort v.歪曲,扭曲

  [衍生词汇] distortion n.歪曲,扭曲,变形

  [经典例句] What we have heard is a total distortion of facts.

  23. motivation 动力

  [大纲词汇] motive n.动机,目的

  [衍生词汇] motivation n.提供动机;动力,诱因,刺激

  [经典例句] The child has not found any motivation for learning.

  24. philosopher 哲学家

  [大纲词汇] philosopher n.哲学家,哲人 philosophy n.哲学

  25. in part 部分来说

  [经典例句] He failed in part because of his carelessness.

  26. clarity 清晰

  [大纲词汇] clarity n.清晰,明晰 clarify v.澄清,阐明

  [经典例句] I remembered the scene with complete clarity.

  27. effectiveness 有效

  [大纲词汇] effective a.有效的,生效的

  [衍生词汇] effectiveness n.有效

  [经典例句] No one doubts the effectiveness of the drug.

  28. nonspecialist 非专家

  [大纲词汇] specialist n.专家 specialize v. ( in)专攻,专门研究,专业化

  specialty n.特性,特质;专业,专长

  [衍生词汇] nonspecialist非专家

  29. notion 概念

  [大纲词汇] notion n.概念,想法,意念,看法,观点

  [经典例句] Her notion of rural life is a lot of sunshine and fun.

  30. dust jacket 包在书外起保护和装饰作用的纸封面

  31. in its true sense 真正意义上的

  [经典例句] His behavior in its true sense has showed his indifference to others.

  32. opponent 反对者

  [大纲词汇] opponent n.对手,反对者,敌手;a. 二对立的,对抗的

  [经典例句] His opponents claimed that he had accepted bribes.

  33. book review 书评

  [大纲词汇] review v.回顾;复习;n.回顾;复习;评论

  [经典例句] His performance got mixed reviews.

  34. editorial 社论

  [大纲词汇] editorial n.社论

  全文翻译

  有传言说,有20多本关于创世纪论与进化论之争的书即将出版,有几本已经面世了。所有这些书的目的是试图告诉那些迷糊而且常常是还不开通的芸芸众生:就宇宙和生命的起源与发展问题而言,不可能存在两种都成立的科学理论。对于所发生的一切,宇宙学、地质学、生物学已经提供了一贯的、统一的并且是在不断完善的解释。而科学创世纪论-当课堂上讲授进化论时,有些人就想争抢相同的课时来解释它-是基于宗教,而非科学的。实际上,所有科学家和大多数非原教旨主义宗教领袖们都已将科学创世纪论看作是拙劣的科学和拙劣的宗教。

  金切尔这本书的前四章简单地介绍了进化论。作者在合适的地方引入了对创世纪论者的批评并提供了后者的回答。在书的后三章,他毫不客气地对创世纪论者进行了猛烈抨击。他揭露了这些人的纲领和手段,对那些不了解创世纪论者惯用手法的人来说,其欺骗和歪曲事实的程度会让他们感到气愤和吃惊。由于他们的基本动机是宗教,人们原本还期待他们会做出更具基督精神的作为。

  金切尔是位哲学家,这也许能部分说明他的立论为何明确而有说服力。非专业人士起码可以了解支持进化论的各种数据和观点。关于创世纪论者的最后一章对每个人来说都阐述得极为清楚。这部优秀作品的护封上引用了斯蒂芬·杰·古尔德的一句话,本书赌注是理性。的确如此-如果理性是创世纪论和进化论之争的惟一裁判,一切问题就已解决了。

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