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Windows 是什么?

2006-07-28 23:20

  Microsoft Windows is a software system based on graphics, which can run under MS-DOS. Like a huge shelf arranged orderly, Windows provides a user-friendly graphical interface including pop-up menus, scroll bars, dialogue boxes, icons and etc. The work under Windows seems quite comfortable and natural. So, someone says: Windows is a user's paradise full of beautiful icons, graphics and menus.

  The Characteristics of Windows

  Windows has two evident characteristics :

  (1) GUI-graphical user interface. In Windows, the computer screen is referred to as a desktop. The desktop displays all your work in rectangular areas called windows. You open a windows when you run an application and close the windows when you quit from an application program. You can easily drag a window to change its size and location with the mouse. You arrange windows on the desktop just as you move work items around on your actual desk.

  (2) Multitask operation. With Windows, you will find it easy to start up and work with application programs. You can run more than one application at a time, transfer information between them and switch quickly among them.

  Windows Modes

  Windows can run in two modes : 386 enhanced mode and standard mode. When you type “win ”,Windows starts in the most appropriate mode for your system. You can find out which mode Windows is running by choosing the “About ” command from the “Help” menu in Program Manager.

  Windows uses the following criteria to select the running mode:

  Windows stars in 386 enhanced mode if you have an 80386 SX computer (or higher) with at least 640k of conventional memory plus 1024K of extended memory. However, more memory is required to use the more advanced features of Windows .

  Windows starts in standard mode if you have an 80286 computer (or  higher ) with at least 640K of conventional memory and 384K of extended memory . Windows also starts in standard mode on 80386 computers that have less than 2MB of free memory .

  Windows Initialization Files

  Windows initialization files contain information that defines your Windows environment. Windows and its applications can use the information stored in these files to configure themselves to meet your needs and preferences.

  There are two standard Windows initialization files:

  WIN.INI, which primarily contains settings that Windows maintains to customize your Windows environment according to your preferences.

  SYSTEM.INI, which primarily contains settings that customize Windows to meet your system's hardware needs.

  Program Manager of Windows

  Program Manager is the central to the operation of Windows.It starts automatically whenever you start Windows and continues to run as long as you are using Windows.

  Starting applications from Program Manager is easy. You simply choose the program for the application you want to use and Program Manager dose the rest . When you do run other applications , Program Manager runs in the background or on your desktop as an application icon .

  The Accessories Group, the Games Group and the Windows Applications Group are represented as identical group icons at the bottom of the Program Manager window.

  You must return to Program Manager when you want to end your Windows session. You cannot quit Program Manager without also quit Windows.

  Accessories

  Windows includes accessories that you can use to perform many everyday tasks. The following list briefly describes how to use the accessories:

  Use Media Player and Sound Recorder to play or record sound flies and work with other multimedia devices.

  Use Calculator, Cardfile,and Clock to manage personal information.

  Use Write, Notepad,Paintbrush,and Character Map for publishing or writing tasks.

  Use Terminal to communicate with another computer via a modem.

  Use Recorder to record keystrokes or mouse actions to play back later.

  Can Windows 95 Replace DOS?

  Compared with DOS and Windows 3.x, Windows 95 is a completely new 32-bit operating system. It is well established for its flexible operations, powerful functions, multitasking, multithreading and plug and play. Moreover, it has downward compatibility which makes all application software developed for DOS and windows 3.x run even without any modification. All these allow users to make full use of the present resources and succeed in task Performance. It can be asserted that Windows 95 will completely replace DOS and Windows 3. x, and become the main stream in the field of personal computers in the near future.

  MS Windows 是一个基于图形的软件系统,它可以运行在MS-DOS环境下,它像一个排列有序的大货架,Windows 提供了用户友好的图形接口界面,包括弹出式菜单、滚动条、对话框和图标等。在Windows 系统下工作起来轻松自如。因此有人说:“Windows 是用户的天堂,它充满了美丽的图标、画面和菜单”。

  Windows的特点

  Windows 有下列两个明显的特点:

  1)GUI-图形用户界面。在Windows中,计算机的屏幕又被称为桌面。在这个桌面上,你所有的工作都被显示在一个称为窗口的矩形框里。当你运行一个应用程序时就的开一个窗口,从应用程序中退出,就关闭相应的窗口。使用鼠标,你可以很容易地拖动窗口以改变窗口的大小和位置。在桌面上排列窗口,就像你在实际的桌子上移动工作用品一样。

  2)多任务操作。在Windows中,你会发现启动、运行应用程序都很简单。在某一时刻可以同时运行多个应用程序,在它们之间传递信息,在它们之间快速地切换。

  Windows 的运行模式

  Windows 能在386增强模式和标准模式两种模式下运行。当你只键入“win”时,   Windows以最合适的模式启动你的系统。通过选择程序管理器的帮助菜单的“关于”命令,你可以查找出Windows的运行模式。

  Windows 根据以下原则选择运行模式。

  如果你用的是带有至少640K常规内存和1024K扩展内存的80386SX机,那么,   Windows以386增强模式启动。然而,要使用更先进的功能就需要有更多的内存。

  如果你用的是80286(或更高级的机器),带有至少640K常规内存和384K扩展内存,那么,Windows以标准模式启动。Windows 在带有不到2MB可用内存的80386 上也以标准模式启动。

  Windows初始化文件

  Windows初始化文件含有定义 Windows环境的信息,Windows和Windows应用程序能根据这些文件中的信息完成自身的配置,满足你的需要。

  有两种标准的Windows初始文件:

  WIN.INI,它包括一些装置,能根据你的喜好,设置Windows.

  SYSTEM.INI,它含有你根据硬件需要对Windows的设置。

  Windows的程序管理器

  程序管理器是所有Windows操作的中枢。当你启动Windows时,它就自动启动,在使用Windows的过程中它也始终在运行着。

  在程序管理器下运行应用程序很容易,你只需选中应用程序的图标,其余的工作就都由程序管理器来做了,在运行其他的应用程序时,程序管理器或者以背景的形式存在,或者变为桌面上的一个小图标。

  附件组、游戏组和应用程序组都作为相同的组图标排列在程序管理器窗口的底部。

  你要退出Windows时,一定要先回到程序管理器下,退出程序管理器的同时退出Windows.

  附件

  Windows含有许多附件,可以用来处理许多日常事务。下面简要地说明使用这些附件的方法:

  用多媒体播放器和录音机播放或记录声音文件,并可以同其他多媒体设备一起工作。

  用计算器、卡片文件和时钟管理个人信息。

  用书写器、记事本、画笔、字符映射表完成排版或打印任务。

  用终端通过调制解调器与其他计算机通信。

  用记录器记录击键或鼠标行为,以备后来播放。

  Windows 95能取代 DOS吗?

  与DOS, Windows 3.x等相比,Windows 95是一个全新的 32位操作系统。它具有操作灵活简便、功能强大、多任务、多线程、以及即插即用等特性。而且,它还具有向下兼容性,使得以往在DOS、Windows 3.x下开钱的各种应用软件,甚至可以不加任何修改,就能在 Windows 95中照常运行。这些都将会让用户更充分地利用现有资源,更出色地完成工作。可以断言在不久的将来,Windows 95将彻底取代 DOS和 Windows 3.x而成为微机领域的主流。

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