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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY65

2006-7-28 01:06  


  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1

  Philip Morris, the conglomerate that owns Kraft Foods but is probably best known for its cigarettes and costly tobacco, litigation, recently decided to change its name to Altria to reflect the diversity of the companys brands. And Enron, which is in the process of moving its core energy assets out from under the bankruptcy and into a separate company, is looking for a new name for that entity.

  The recent name changes highlight the importance for companies of choosing a moniker that is relevant and authoritative while still being catchy an appealing to consumers, say marketing experts. A rose by any other name might smell as sweet, but if a company chooses a name that does not work, the stench can hover for quite some time.

  Companies often decide to change their names in an effort to rebrand themselves after a merge or a spinoff. For instance, Andersen Consulting changed its name to Accenture shortly after that firm split from parent Arthur Andersen — a move that turned out to be fortuitous, given Andersens troubles. Companies may also want to reinvent themselves after a scandal has tarnished its name, as Enron is doing. Or perhaps they simply want to give their image a makeover.

  But a new name that does not work can be a mistake that can cost company customers, credibility and millions of dollars. One example out of Britain last year was the U.K. Post Offices decision to change its name to Consignee. The postal service recently renamed itself once again to Royal Mail Inc., capping off a year of steep job and revenue for the entity.

  Though a hefty advertising and marketing budget will help to make a new name successful, other factors, such as familiarity, a coherent message from the company and a name in peoples minds. When U.S. automaker Chrysler merged with German company DaimlerBenz to form DaimlerChrysler in 1998, a year after the deal, the familiarity of the newly merged company dropped to a score of 89 when the company was just called Chrysler.

  These days, PWC Consultings new Monday title is causing more than one brand expert to raise their eyebrows in puzzlement. The companys web site proudly announces that “Monday is a fresh start, a positive attitude, part of everybodys life. Monday is a real name universally understood and easy to remember. Monday is confident. It stands for something.”

  Too bad the only thing Monday stands for in most peoples minds is the beginning of a week full of toil and drudgery. Monday is not everyones favorite day; its just an odd choice. “Like with any name, its going to be what we make of it,” says PWC Consultings spokeswoman, “Whereas some look upon it perhaps with dread, we see it as a fresh start and a new beginning.”

  1. Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage?

  A. To operate a company successfully is full of challenge and it needs effective strategies.

  B. There are various reasons that cause name changes among the companies.

  C. An attractive name is the key to a companys success.

  D. Nowadays changing name is considered as a prevailing fashion in business world.

  2. According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true?

  A. Enron changed its name because of its ill reputation after a scandal.

  B. “Philip Morris” was replaced by “Altria” because this company had to employ a new name to rebrand the various productions.

  C. The U.K. Post Offices strategy to change its name came to nothing at last.

  D. PWC Consultings terrific new Monday title absolutely reflects most peoples thoughts.

  3. From the passage we know that all of the followings are the causes of a companys name change except

  A. to attract costumers after combining with other companies.

  B. to avoid sharing the same name with other companies.

  C. to recover from the disgraceful events.

  D. just to build a new image.

  4. After reading this passage we know that in the authors opinion,

  A. a rose by any name might smell as sweet and a good company with any other name might as popular as well.

  B. “monday” is a fresh start and a new beginning and its a marvelous choice.

  C. the familiarity of a company is as significant as its huge sum of publicizing.

  D. if a company is facing problems, the best solution is to change its name.

  5. The word “hefty”(in paragraph 5, line 1) can be replaced by “”?

  A. substantialB. splendidC. terrificD. marvelous

  Passage 2

  Los AngelesBill Joy is not a Luddite. He is not afraid of new technology. As founder and chief scientist of the Silicon Valley Company, he has been in the vanguard of the hightech revolution for 20 years. But recently Joy took a glimpse into the future and it scared him to death. What he saw was a world in which humans have been effectively supplanted by machines; a world in which superpowerful computers with at least some attributes of human intelligence manage to replicate themselves and develop their own autonomy and people become superfluous and risk becoming extinct.

  “It might be arguable that the human race would never be foolish enough to hand over all the power to the machines. But what we do suggest is that the human race might easily permit itself to drift into a position of such dependence on the machines that it would have no practical choice but accept all of the machines decisions. As society and the problems that face it become more and more complex and machines become more and more intelligent, people will let machines make more of their decisions for them. Eventually a stage may be reached at which the decisions necessary to keep the system running will be so complex that human will be incapable of making them intelligently. At that stage the machines will be in effective control. People wont be able to just turn the machines off, because they will be so dependent on them that turning them would amount to suicide.”

  Previously, Joy had dismissed such scenarios as scifi fantasy, but then he listened to friends who were experts in robotics and realized that this brave new world was much closer than any of us might imagine — as close as 30 years away. The further that Joy dug into the cutting edge of research in the new technologies — robotics, genetic engineering and Nan technology — the more horrified he became. Not only did he see scenarios in which robots would like to take on a life of their own and exterminate the human race, but also he began to see ways in which other staples of scifi horror might come to pass. Specifically, robots, engineered organism, and Nan bots share a dangerous amplifying factor: they can selfreplicate. A bomb is blown only once — but one robot can become many, and quickly get out of control.

  “I think it is no exaggeration to say we are on the cusp of the further perfection of extreme evil, an evil whose possibility spreads well beyond that which weapons of mass destruction bequeathed to the nationstates, on to a surprising and terrible empowerment of extreme individuals. We are being propelled into this new century with no plan, no control, no brakes.” Joy concludes. “Have we already gone too far down the path to alter course? I dont believe so, but we arent trying yet, and the last chance to assert control — the failsafe point — is rapidly approaching.”

  1. According to the passage, the word “Luddite”(in paragraph 1, line1) means?

  A. the name of a place where science is underdeveloped

  B. the name of a country

  C. the name of an organization which aims to advocate developing the new technology

  D. the name of a party which protest at developing science

  2. From the passage, we know that it is that scared Bill Joy to death?

  A. robots have been practically running the world

  B. humans are actually at the mercy of the machines

  C. humans are facing a fatal situation that the machines are out of control gradually and the machines will overwhelm the whole world

  D. humans will be exiled from the earth by the machines and they have to explore another fixed star

  3. What does the sentence “I dont believe so, but we arent trying yet……”(in the last paragraph, line 5) indicate

  A. it is high time for us to give an end to the new technologies.

  B. we should cease to explore the perilous Nan technology.

  C. humans have to devoted themselves to save the whole world by containing and wrecking the machines.

  D. it is right time for humans to dominate the high developing technology effectively and handle it skillfully.

  4. Bill Joy realized the situation that

  A. the day when the world controlled by the machines is just round the corner.

  B. the human world is on the edge of an exceeding danger.

  C. the machines in the future will be as perilous as the mass destruction.

  D. humans are now on their wits end.

  5. Which of the following can best describe the author attitude towards the future relationship between humans and machines?

  A. OptimisticB. PessimisticC. Confident C. Indifferent

  Passage 3

  Hollywood racked up another “record” year at the box office. But the higher ticket sales mask fundamental issues in the U.S. movie industry, where the socalled blockbuster strategy is causing movies to open with big tallies that fall off faster than in previous years. Movie ticket sales reached an estimated $8.35 billion in 2001, up 8.4% from $7.7 billion in 2000, the largest gain since 1998. Moreover, the number of tickets sold — a more reliable indicator — rose to an estimated 1.49 billion, according to boxoffice tracking firm Exhibitor Relations Co. The strong sales were aided by the postChristmas, prenew Year weekend. Although many observers though people would stay away from the theaters after the 9.11, the numbers have been up 5% industrywide since then from yearearlier levels.

  Those positive trends, however, gloss over deeper problems facing the Hollywood studios and movietheater chains, where real audience growth has been marginal. Boxoffice totals have nearly tripled during the past decade, while the number of tickets sold has risen 30%; indicating the boxoffice record is driven by higher ticket prices, not increase in movie attendance. A more dangerous development, at least for theater operators, has been the trend toward movies opening to large boxoffice figures during the first weekend and then quickly trailing off. Theater operators earn most of the money from movies playing in their theaters after the second week. Studios, in contrast, collect the majority of a movies ticket receipts the first week.

  But, for the Hollywood studios that distribute the bulk of the movies seen by the public, the blockbuster strategy of putting as many marketable highprofile movies into theaters as possible will continue in 2002. “I call it the year of the sequel,” says Paul, a boxoffice analyst, noting the coming years lineup includes Men in Black 2, Stuart Little 2, Spy Kids 2, second installments for Harry Potter and Lord of the Ring. “Studios are playing it safe,” he says. Such hyper marketed movies can open big at box office, but they dont tend to hold up in subsequent weeks, as the core movie — going audience — teenagers and adults in their 20sflock to the next “big” movie. Some of last years largest openers, such as Planet of the Apes, The Mummy Return and Jurassic Park saw their boxoffice number plunge by 50% or more the second weekend.

  One possible outcome is that the decadesold relationship between studios and theaters will undergo changes. If the studios persist in pushing “blockbuster” movies, then the traditional system of the studios taking a larger share of the boxoffice receipts in the first weeks could be revised to something more equitable. Studios, however, would be expected to fight any effort to revamp the current system.

  1. The fundamental issue in the U.S. movie industry is that

  A. the boxoffice figures have been declining ceaselessly without any improvement.

  B. as the ticket price is going up rapidly these years, fewer people can afford it.

  C. those “big” movies open with a extremely large boxoffice figures, but decline quickly after a short period.

  D. highquality movie are becoming marginal and the core of the moviegoings audience is limited.

  2. The theater operators are facing perilous problems except

  A. the number of the audience is getting smaller year after year.

  B. the studios gain most of the ticket receipts while the theater operators gain less.

  C. generally speaking, after the second week, the audiences nearly have little interest in the socalled “blockbuster” movies.

  D. the boxoffice figures usually fall off rapidly after the first weekend.

  3. The socalled “blockbuster” (in paragraph 1) means

  A. show a meticulously highquality movie to attract the audience.

  B. show as many highprofile movies as possible.

  C. put on the wellpublicized movies to overwhelm the audiences.

  D. put a lot of movies into the theaters in a short period.

  4. According to the passage, one possible solution that can solve the current problem between the studios and the theaters is that

  A. produce more and more marketable “big” movies and put them into theaters immediately.

  B. improve the quality of the movies and enlarge the number of the audiences.

  C. stop carrying out the “blockbuster” strategy and implement revised system to balance the interest.

  D. have recourse to law in order to achieve a more equitable pattern.

  5. Which of the following words can take place of the word “revamp”?

  A. RenewB. ReplaceC. RevertD. Review

  Passage 4

  It is the year 2050, and April blizzards have gripped southern England for the third successive year while violent storms batter the North Sea coast. In America, much of Alaska has turned into a quagmire as permafrost and glaciers disintegrate. In Colorado, chair lift pylons stand rusting in the warm drizzle, remainders that the nation supported a billiondollar ski industry, while the remnants of Florida are declared Americas second island state. Africa is faring badly. Its coastline from Cairo to Lagos is completely flooded and many of the major cities have been abandoned. Tens of millions of people have been forced to flee and are struggling to survive in a parched, waterless interior. In Asia, Bangladesh is almost totally inundated and the East Indies have been reduced to a few scrappy islands.

  This is a startling scenario. And it would be easy to dismiss, were it for the uncomfortable fact that these visions are the result of rigorous scientific analysis by some of the worlds most distinguished criminologists. As the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change points out in its recent Climate Change 2001 report, global warming is likely to trigger a cascade of unpleasant effects: elderly people will suffer and die in smoggy, polluted cities; crops will fail; and wildlife and livestock will perish on the planet.

  That report was the combined work of several thousand of the worlds leading meteorological experts and scientists whose views George Bush has now dismissed as “questionable” and whose work in creating the Kyoto protocol has been utterly undone. The U.S. decision to pull out of the international accord on climate change has caused predictable international alarm, though it is important to note it will have no direct effect on levels of carbon dioxide now circulating in the atmosphere. Kyoto merely pledged developed countries to restrict their industrial output. “It was an excellent first step towards reversing climate change, ” according to Southampton Universitys professor.

  Kyoto was a statement of intent. The industrial nations, which had, after all, initiated the problem of global warming, would show their commitment by making the first crucial, selfsacrificing moves. Then the third World could be drawn in, and the first decreases in carbondioxide emissions agreed over the next few years. “Bush has now made the attainment of these next crucial steps much more difficult, ”says Arielle. In fact most experts believe he has made them impossible. If the West wont act, why should the rest of the world? If no action is taken, the consequences are likely to be calamitous. Before the industrial revolution, the atmosphere was made up of 250 parts per million of carbon dioxide. Now that figure has reached 366 and is already producing meteorological effects. And that is just the start.

  1. From the first paragraph we know that

  A. in the year 2050, the whole world will be confronted with a horrific hurricane.

  B. most parts of Alaska have been covered by the quagmire.

  C. residents in Africa have to leave their motherland and the cities will be deserted.

  D. fifty years later, there may be no Bangladesh on the earth any longer.

  2. According to the passage, the main course of climate disaster is

  A. the sharp growth of the population in the world.

  B. the serious air pollution and water pollution.

  C. the rapid increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the air.

  D. the global warming.

  3. George Bush thinks that the Climate Change 2001 reports

  A. is reasonable and the experts and scientists views are seasonable warns to those counties.

  B. is dubious and he takes no serious consideration to it.

  C. is suspicious and he is going to make some investigation by himself.

  D. is quite all right and he will take some effective steps.

  4. From the passage we know the Kyoto protocol

  A. is a contract among developing countries.

  B. is a statement which expropriates the United States rights.

  C. is a contract which restricts developed countrys rights.

  D. is a statement which tends to ameliorates the climate condition.

  5. After reading this passage, we can infer that the last sentence indicates

  A. as far as the calamitous consequences are concerned, the scientists are at the loss what to do.

  B. united States should be condemned if the climate condition gets worse.

  C. the terrible consequences which scientists have been informed are only the beginning of the disaster.

  D. the climate disasters have been out of control.

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:

  Passage 1


  And Enron, which is in the process of moving its core……这句话的意思是:安然公司正在将核心的能源资产从破产中转移出来,重新成立一个新公司,并物色一个新名字。

  1. 「C」文章主要讲名字是一个公司成功与否的关键因素。A认为管理好一个公司需要有效的战略,太笼统;B只说明改名的原因很多,没有抓住最主要的;D只指出改名这一现象,没有深入本质原因。

  2. 「D」PWC咨询公司的“星期一”招牌战略并没有达到预期的效果,其负责人认为“星期一”代表一个星期的开端,是一个新的起点,但是大多数人却认为“星期一”预示着辛苦劳累的一周要开始了。

  3. 「B」文章中没有提到有的公司为了避免和其他公司同名而改名。

  4. 「C」从文章可知,公司的知名度和其投入的宣传资金一样重要。文章的中心意思是一个好的名字是公司成功的关键,所以公司的名字是要经过慎重选择的。

  5. 「A」“substantial” 和 “hefty” 都是“大量的,可观的”的意思;B “splendid” 是“壮丽的,堂皇的”的意思;C “terrific”是“极好的,极端的”的意思;D “marvelous”是“极好的,极妙的”的意思。

  Passage 2


  an evil whose possibility spreads well beyond that which weapons of mass…… 这句话的意思是:这种祸害可能造成的危害会远远超过大规模杀伤性武器可能遗留给各个民族国家,继而又惊人而可怕地赋予极端主义分子的那种破坏。

  1. 「D」“Luddite” 是19世纪初英国工人运动的一个派别“卢德派”,它极力阻挠雇主使用节省劳动力的机械,后来泛指一切反对机械化和自动化的人或派别。答案A和B 分别是指地名和国家的名字;答案C是指支持发展新技术的组织。

  2. 「C」从文章第二、三段可以看出作者担忧的是机器将逐步取带人并控制整个世界。答案A和B说机器人实际上已经控制了整个世界,是错误的。答案D 认为机器将把人类从地球上驱逐出去,文章并没有这样的观点。

  3. 「D」文章的最后一句话是作者在警示人们现在是主动掌握并有效控制机器的时候了。答案A,B和C 认为人类应该通过停止发展新科技甚至破坏机器来遏止这种状况,是错误的。

  4. 「B」从文章最后一段可以看出作者认为人类世界正处于极度危险的边缘。A,模糊不清,文章中提到离这一天还有30年;C,机器将比大规模杀伤性武器更危险;D,人类还没有到束手无策的境地。

  5. 「B」作者主要在这篇文章中表明了他对人类无计划、无节制地使用机器的极度忧虑,他认为前景不容乐观。答案A 是“乐观”的意思;答案C是“有信心”的意思;答案D是“漠不关心”的意思。

  Passage 3


  Such hypermarketed movies can open big at the box office……subsequent weeks这句话的意思是:这种花巨资进行宣传的影片开始放映时票房收入可能很高,但接下来的几周很难保持旺盛的势头。

  1. 「C」从第一段第二句话可知美国电影业存在的根本性问题是电影业中的轰动战略正造成影片刚开始上映时票房极高,随后便急剧下降。

  2. 「A」文章告诉我们,影院经营者所面临的危险问题是:电影放映的第一个周末,票房收入极高,随后便迅速减少。影院经营人赚的钱多数来自第二周以后的票房收入。而电影制片厂得到的是第一周的大部分票房收入。

  3. 「B」文章可以看出 “blockbuster” 是指尽可能多的、市场销路看好的热门影片投入电影院。答案A是制作一部精工细作的高质量影片来吸引观众;答案C是指上映大力度宣传过的影片,不是所有宣传得好的影片都有好的市场销路的;答案D中的大量影片所指不明。

  4. 「C」从文章最后一段可以看出,可行的办法就是停止使用轰动战略并实施加以修改过的制度从而平衡两者的利益。答案A中大量制造大片并立即上映是错误的;答案B提高电影质量从而增加观众数量不能从根本上改变现行不完善的制度;答案D诉诸法律,文中没有提到这一点。

  5. 「A」“revamp”是“更新,修改”的意思:“renew” 也是“更新,翻新”的意思:“replace” 是“代替”的意思:“revert”是“恢复”的意思:“review”是“回顾,重新考虑”的意思。

  Passage 4


  Bangladesh is almost totally inundated and the East Indies have been ……这句话的意思是:孟加拉几乎全部被淹没了,而东印度群岛已被没至只有零星几个岛屿了。

  1. 「D」第一段是专家对2050年世界环境的预测,从最后一句可知孟加拉几乎全没,而D就是世界上不会再有这个国家。B和C两项没有注明时间;A项中的台风,文中没有提到。

  2. 「C」从文章第四段可知造成全球升温的恶劣气候的主要原因是大气中二氧化碳含量过高。A和B两项中的人口过量和水污染文中都没有提到;D,全球升温是结果不是原因。

  3. 「B」从第三段可知,布什认为这份报告是有疑问的,而不予考虑。

  4. 「D」从第四段可知《京都议定书》是一份就减少发达国家温室气体排放,从而保护世界环境达成的协议书。A,这份协议的缔约方不只是发展中国家;B和C中权利所指不明。

  5. 「C」最后一句话是说全球升温还只是气候灾难的一个开始,警示人们如果不采取行动的话,情况还会恶化。A,科学家们还没有到束手无策的地步;B,环境恶化不是美国一个国家的责任;D,气候灾难还没有发展到无法控制。