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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY59

2006-7-28 01:05  

  DAY59

  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1

  Legitimacy has long been considered essential to an organizations continued existence. Though intangible, like a brand, it amounts to a de facto license to operate conferred on a firm by those it comes into contact with. Legitimacy is earned when there is satisfaction about how companies are governed in terms of inclusivity, transparency and accountability. It is not a static resource, but is built or eroded over time.

  Iraq presents firms with unique legitimacy challenges, not least in terms of identifying those who can confer it in a country where civil society has been repressed for decades. The costs to business of the ongoing conflict are both indirect — the breakdown in governance, trust and tolerance, and the undermining of environmental and economic capital and direct — the higher cost of security and other forms of risk management, lost materials, capital, personnel, litigation, opportunity costs, and the damage to reputation. In May 2000, the Economist described the risks companies face in conflict zones: “pipelines can be blown up by crooked partners. Fragile economies can collapse. And in recent years, firms doing business in counties with unpleasant governments have been pilloried by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), endangering the most priceless of assets, their good name.” An unstable environment is also a disincentive for the substantial investment required over long periods by oil companies, and many gave postponed a decision over Iraq pending the establishment of a legitimate regime. Sir Philip Watts, chairman of Royal Dutch/Shell, exemplified this stance in July: “The safety of our people is paramount. There has to be proper security, legitimate authority and a legitimate process — by which we will be able to negotiate agreement that would be longstanding for decades. We wouldnt go into that situation unless these conditions were satisfied because we are a longterm projects and we need the framework in which we can make this sort of investment decision.”

  The challenges are sufficient to ensure that only those companies prepared to take a longterm view should venture in, and such a venture which will be uniquely exposed should instability endure.

  Stability will not come while the regime is regarded as illegitimate. That illegitimacy is reflected on businesses entering Iraq under government sponsorship and on those that pay insufficient regard to their local partners. Business can begin to break the cycle and earn its own legitimacy by attending to its internals administration, ensuring it is inclusive, transparent and accountable to Iraqis. In this way, companies can also help to confer legitimacy on the interim authority, creating a virtuous circle building towards the stability that firms need to operate profitably for the long term. Conversely, businesses that fail to engage adequately will merely undermine further the Iraqis sense of involvement in their own future and so contribute to the downward spiral of instability.

  1. In the first paragraph, legitimacy is an asset.

  A. gained smoothly and swiftly while trading with other firms

  B. like a credential for transaction business

  C. to retain a companys inclusivity, transparency, and accountability

  D. awarded by government or partners when they are satisfied

  2. How do you understand the first sentence in second paragraph?

  A. Companies in Iraq under dictatorial regime lack legitimacy

  B. Companies in Iraq face more security problems since it is a conflicting zone

  C. The unstable environment deters investment

  D. Stern governance repressed civil society that indirectly harmed commercial development

  3. According to Economists description in May 2000, companies in conflict zones faced following risks EXCEPT.

  A. incredibility of cooperators B. danger of losing its good name

  C. the present political climate in IraqD. uncertainty of economy

  4. What Sir Philip Watts said implies that.

  A. Sir Philip Watts will by no means invest or launch business in Iraq

  B. presently only those companies who plan to take shortterm business dare to set up their business in Iraq

  C. legitimate authority is the key point among all risky factors now in Iraq

  D. most local firms in Iraq are illegitimate and untrustworthy

  5. From the last paragraph, we can conclude .

  A. business entering Iraq can expand prosperously with the guidance of government

  B. temporary government in Iraq can never be trusted

  C. there is still certain leeway for business to establish legitimacy in Iraq

  D. without stability foreign business can survive profitably for long time in Iraq

  Passage 2

  For more than two decades, Americas public schools have been expected to cure societys discontents. In the midfifties, we demanded that our schools create a harmony among races that existed nowhere else in American life. In the midsixties, when our young were engaged in a rebellion that seemed to threaten virtually every ideal we embraced as a nation, we insisted that the schools restore social order and preserve the status quo. In the midseventies, we instructed our schools to go one step further to look first to the wants of the individual, to nurture a childs discovery of self, while at the same time distracting him from his attempts to reduce his school to rubble.

  Clearly, this prolonged and illadvised effort to make the education system the principal tool for social change has contributed to such problems as the sharply increased incidence of functional illiteracy.

  To rehabilitate our schools, we must look to the hard realities of why our system of public education is not working and learn from them.

  Schools are asked to do too much. Racial, economic, and sexual inequalities, poor parenting malnutrition crime, and a lengthy list of other social disorders unquestionably affect an individuals capacity to participate in society. But while education can enhance the students ability to cope with, and to change, the conditions of life around them, it cannot, in and of itself, make them better. In thrusting the schools to the forefront of social change, we have diverted their energies from their basic purposeeducation.

  The issue of acculturation of ethnic minorities provides a case in point. Greater emphasis has been placed on bilingual education in the public schools as the number and variety of ethnic minorities have grown in the nation. We are insisting both that the schools improve the way they teach English, so that language is removed as a barrier to learning and that they increase the number of courses taught in students native tongues, so that the pace of learning begun in their homelands continues uninterrupted. The conflict that such demands create can be seen in Chicago where as a condition of $90 million in aid, the federal government extracted a pledge that the public schools offer bilingual courses in 20 languages, from Arabic to Vietnamese.

  While we do not yet know what affect the study of major courses in a native language has on a childs ability to learn English, we may be allowed the suspicion that it will prove as counterproductive as it sounds, In addition the burden these extra courses place on the schools is obvious.

  Once we stop asking the schools to do too much, they can get on with solving the more acute problem of performing their basic task — that of education — more effectively.

  1. The main idea the author expressing in the first paragraph is that

  A. Americas public schools should restore social order and preserve the status quo when the young were engaged in a rebellion.

  B. Americas public schools were instructed to go one step further to look first to the wants of the individual.

  C. Americas public schools had been expected to cure societys discontents.

  D. American public school was demanded to create a harmony among races that existed nowhere else in American life.

  2. The underlined phrase “status quo” in paragraph 1, Line 5, refers to.

  A. situation or state of affairs as it is now, or as it was before a recent change

  B. possession that is thought to show somebodys high social rank, wealth

  C. persons social, legal or professional position or rank in relation to others

  D. figure of a person, an animal

  3. What causes such problems as the sharply increased incidence of functional illiteracy?

  A. Because public schools stop doing too much which are not their basic task.

  B. Because there are too many ethical minority students in the United States.

  C. Because public school provide bilingual education.

  D. Because public school divert their most energies from their basic purpose — education.

  4. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

  A. Public schools are asked to deal with too many social problems such as racial, economic, and sexual inequalities.

  B. With the growth of number and variety of ethnic minorities in the USA, the public schools offer bilingual education.

  C. The students of ethnic minorities are taught in native tongues in order to keep their identities.

  D. Once the public school stop doing too much, they can perform their basic purpose — education more effectively.

  5. It is suspicious that the bilingual education will prove as .

  A. satisfactory B. counterproductive C. beneficial D.harmful

  Passage 3

  Whoever said that victory has many fathers and defeat is an orphan, surely had never heard of the World Trade Organization (WTO)。 In the case of the hapless multilateral trade body and its longsuffering representatives, the total failure of the opening meeting of the socalled Millennium trade round has lots of people boasting of their role in the melee. Well, thats just brilliant. They are proud of being part of a movement that wants to wreck the most important engine of economic growth, prosperity and overall global rising living standards we have — the freedom of trade and movement of people and goods between nations.

  The 135member WTO is composed of sovereign governments wishing to further this goal and ease the settlement of international trade disputes. From the sounds emanating from Seattle, though, it would now seem the WTO has now replaced the Trilateral Commission and the Freemasons as candidate NO.1 to take over the world.

  Everybody has his favorite Seattle story. The citys police chief will have plenty of time to think about his, having now resigned in disgrace over the loss of control of downtown Seattle. The Seattle business community may be more inclined to brood over theirs; the poor fools invested $9 million to attract the meeting to their fine city. What stands out more? I would nominate the union of steel workers who were marching in protest. Its an image that will boggle the mind for years to come.

  The debate now is over just how effective this antiglobalist coalition will turn out to be. In the heat of the moment, it always looks as though the world as we know it is coming to an end. But the overwhelming likelihood is that we have not actually seen a replay of the antiVietnam War movement, which had much clearer focus, obviously, though its consequences were farreaching. How long, after all, can you protest against cheap imports when those same imports are all over your house?

  No, the real reason for the disaster in Seattle is political, and reports coming out of the meeting point to President Clinton as a major culprit, which may be both good and bad. Taking the long view, other trade rounds have had difficult beginnings, too. It took years to get the Uruguay Round under way, which finally happened in 1986. Thankfully, we will soon be electing another president, and it should be someone whose actions match his rhetoric.

  Still, it is a disgrace that the worlds greatest trading nation, i.e, the United States, is currently led by a man whose motivations are so narrowly political and egocentric that he has now wrecked any chance of entering the history books as a champion of free trade.

  1. According to the passage, which of the following statement is TRUE?

  A. The WTO has already replaced the Trilateral Commission and the Freemason to take over the world.

  B. The opening meeting of the socalled Millennium trade round was successful.

  C. People who wanted to wreck the WTO felt very guilty about their behavior.

  D. The Seattle business community invested $9 million to attract the meeting to their fine city.

  2. Which of the following goals that the WTO wants to achieve are NOT mentioned in the passage?

  A. It wants to promote the world economic growth and bring about prosperity.

  B. It can ease the settlement of international trade dispute.

  C. We will have more expensive imports from other countries.

  D. We have the freedom of trade and movement of people and goods between nations.

  3. Whats the real reason for the disaster in Seattle?

  A. The police chief in Seattle has resigned in disgrace because of his incompetence to control the chaos.

  B. A lot of people are part of a movement that wants to wreck the WTO.

  C. The President Clinton has his wrong political attitude.

  D. The Seattle business community lost too much money on this meeting.

  4. The meaning of the underlined word “melee” is.

  A. a large noisy uncontrolled crowd

  B. a state of untidiness, dirtiness or lack of organization

  C. happy or showing enjoyment

  D. a persons appearance, esp, the typical expression on their face

  5. The author has a(n)attitude towards the President Clintons handling the WTO issue.

  A. critical B. objective C. optimistic D. satisfying

  Passage 4

  Most people would agree that, although our age far surpasses all previous ages in knowledge, there has been no correlative increase in wisdom. But agreement ceases as soon as we attempt to define“wisdom”and consider means of promoting it. I want to ask first what wisdom is, and then what can we done to reach it.

  There are, I think, several factors that contribute to wisdom. Of these I should put first a sense of proportion; the capacity to take account of all the important factors in a problem and to attach to each its due weight. This has become more difficult than it used to be owing to the extent and complexity of the specialized knowledge required of various kinds of technicians. Suppose, for example, that you are engaged in research in scientific medicine. The work is difficult and is likely to absorb the whole of your intellectual energy. You have no time to consider the effect which you discoveries or inventions may have outside the field of medicine. You succeed (let us say), as modern medicine has succeeded, in enormously lowering the infant death rate, not only in Europe and America, but also in Asia and Africa. This has the entirely unintended result of making the food supply inadequate and lowering the standard of life in the most populous parts of the world. To take an even more spectacular example, which is in everybodys mind at the present time: you study the composition of the atom from a disinterested desire for knowledge. And incidentally place in the hands of powerful lunatics the means of destroying the human race. In such ways the pursuit of knowledge may become harmful unless it is combined with wisdom; and wisdom in the sense of comprehensive vision is not necessarily present in specialists in the pursuit of knowledge.

  Comprehensiveness alone, however, is not enough to constitute wisdom. There must be, also, a certain awareness of the ends of human life. This maybe illustrated by the study of history. Many eminent historians have done more harm than good because they viewed facts through the distorting medium of their own passions. Hegel had a philosophy of history which did not suffer from any lack of comprehensiveness. Since it started from the earliest times and continued into an indefinite future. But the chief lesson of history which he sought to inculcate was that from the year A.D.400 down to his own time Germany had been the most important nation and the standardbearer of progress in the world. Perhaps one could stretch the comprehensiveness that constitutes wisdom to include not only intellect but also feeling. It is by no means uncommon to find men whose knowledge is wide but whose feelings are narrow. Such men lack what I am calling wisdom.

  1. According to the author, several factors mentioned in the text that contribute to “wisdom” EXCPET.

  A. the capacity to take account of all the important factors in a problem

  B. a good knowledge of history

  C. comprehensive knowledge as well as wide feeling

  D. the specialized knowledge

  2. What does the underlined word “disinterested” mean in the sentence?

  A. unbiased , not influenced by personal feeling or interests

  B. not like

  C. unwilling, reluctant

  D. give a false appearance

  3. By saying that “wisdom in the sense of comprehensive vision is not necessarily present in specialists in the pursuit of knowledge”, the author means that

  A. every specialist in the pursuit of knowledge has the wisdom in the sense of comprehensive.

  B. not every specialist in the pursuit of knowledge has the wisdom in the sense of comprehensive.

  C. now specialists with the sense of comprehensive vision dont pursuit wisdom.

  D. wisdom in the sense of comprehensive vision is a kind of knowledge.

  4. Which of the following statement is NOT true?

  A. The success of modern medicine incidentally results in the food shortage.

  B. Some scientific researches may become harmful if they are in the hands of powerful lunatics.

  C. Its very usual to find men whose knowledge is wide but whose feelings are narrow.

  D. Many eminent historians have done more harm than good because of lack of comprehensiveness.

  5. From the passage, it can be inferred that Hegel was a

  A. historian B. philosopher C. poet D. writer

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:

  Passage 1

  这是一篇经济类文章,讲述了合法性企业发展的问题。通过介绍Iraq 当前政权不合法、环境因素险恶等不利条件,说明在伊境内创办企业的重大风险。

  第二段第一句:伊拉克境内企业的合法性面临前所未有的挑战,特别是考虑它们是在一个社会文明被压制了几十年之久的国家里进行协商活动,其鉴别难度更大。

  1. 「B」B项是“it amounts to a de facto license to operate conferred on a firm by those it comes into contact with”的另一种说法。

  2. 「A」见难句解析。

  3. 「C」C中关于伊拉克当前的政治状况不在经济学家的分析中,其他项的“合作伙伴可信度低;名誉丧失的危险;经济不确定性”都有原文依据。

  4. 「C」legitimate authority 在Watts的整段话中被重点强调。另外,Watts的言论背景在文中也有介绍,“many have postponed a…establishment of a legitimate regime”。

  5. 「C」最后一段介绍了企业在伊拉克目前情况下如何求取生存,获得一定的合法性,正是C项的意思。A,B,D均为错误项。

  Passage 2

  社会要求美国学校治愈社会的种种不满意现状,把教育制度变成社会变革的主要手段,这些使得学校偏离了教学这一基本目标,双语言教育加重了学校负担。作者希望学校回归本位。

  1. Clearly, this prolonged and illadvised effort to make the education system the principal tool for social change has contributed to such problems as the sharply increased incidence of functional illiteracy. 很明显, 教育制度变成了社会变革的主要手段,这种持久且不明智的努力已引发了诸如半文盲剧增等一系列问题。

  2. We are insisting both that the schools improve the way they teach English, so that language is removed as a barrier to learning and that they increase the number of courses taught in students native tongues, so that the pace of learning begun in their homelands continues uninterrupted. 我们不仅主张各学校改进教授英语的方法,以使语言不再是学习的障碍;同时也主张增加用学生们自己的母语教授的课程数量,以便使学生们对他们在祖国开始的学习进度得以继续而不被打断。

  1. 「C」第一段是总分结构, 第一句话概括了整段大意,而选项A, B, D 分别是对C选项的补充说明。

  2. 「A」“status quo” 的中文意思是指现状或原来的状况, 即选项A; 选项B是 “status symbol” 的英文解释; 选项C是 “status” 的英文解释; 选项D是 “statue” 的英文解释。

  3. 「D」选项 A, B, C 都不是主要原因, 第二段提到教育制度变成了社会变革的主要手段,而这种持久且不明智的努力已引发了诸如半文盲剧增等一系列问题, 第四段说学校的大部分精力从教育这一基本任务上转移到了别处。

  4. 「C」选项A见第四段第一句; 选项 B见第五段第二句; 选项D见最后一段; 学校主张用学生自己的母语授课, 不是为了让他们保留自己的身份,而是便于学生对他们在祖国开始的学习进度得以继续而不被打断。所以C是错的。

  5. 「B」答案可在第六段最后一句中找到。

  Passage 3

  本文描述世界贸易组织前期会谈的艰难历程,美国总统狭隘的政治动机和搞自我中心主义导致西雅图会议的失败。

  1. In the case of the hapless multilateral trade body and its longsuffering representatives, the total failure of the opening meeting of the socalled Millennium trade round has lots of people boasting of their role in the melee. 对这个不幸的多国贸易会谈的彻底失败,许多人却在鼓吹他们在导致其失败中所起的作用。

  2. It took years to get the Uruguay Round under way, which finally happened in 1986. Thankfully, we will soon be electing another president, and it should be someone whose actions match his rhetoric. 人们几年后才走出1986年乌拉圭会谈的阴影。值得庆幸的是,我们马上就要选出一位新总统,新总统应该是一位言行一致的人。

  1. 「D」第二段最后一句说:来自西雅图会议的声音似乎证明 “世界贸易组织”已经取代了 “三边会议”和 “经济互助组织”而成为最有权威的组织来管理世界经济秩序。A项过于绝对肯定。从第一段的 “the total failure of the opening meeting……” 可看出这次会议是失败的而不是成功的。B错,人们为成为击败世贸组织这台重要机器运动的一员而感到骄傲而不是内疚。选项C错。

  2. 「C」我们应该有更多便宜的进口货物而不是昂贵的进口货物, 所以选项C错了, 其他选项可在文中找到。

  3. 「C」文中第五、六段指出:西雅图会议失败的真正原因是目前美国总统狭隘的政治动机, 搞自我中心主义。

  4. 「A」“melee”的意思是 “混乱的人群,混战”。A正确。

  5. 「A」答案可参考第3题。

  Passage 4

  作者对智慧下了新的定义,指出智慧不仅包括知识上的全面,也包括情感上的宽容。

  To take an even more spectacular example, which is in everybodys mind at the present time: you study the composition of the atom from a disinterested desire for knowledge. And incidentally place in the hands of powerful lunatics the means of destroying the human race. 举一个更引人瞩目而且现在人人关心的例子吧:你原本只是出于一种对知识客观无私的渴望去研究原子的构造,可到头来却将毁灭整个人类的工具交给了大权在握的战争狂。

  1. 「B」从文中第二段可找到答案,A,C,D都包含在智慧的范围里,而在文中没提到B项是智慧的一个因素。

  2. 「A」“disinterested” 意为 “公正不阿的, 无偏见和私欲的”; “dislike” 意为“不喜欢, 反感”; “disinclined” 意为 “不情愿, 勉强”; “disguised” 意为 “伪装, 假扮”。

  3. 「B」原句意为“并不是每个求知的专家人士都具有把握全局的智慧”。选项A,C,D与原意不符。

  4. 「D」A见第二段第七句, B见第二段第九句, C见第三段倒数第二句。许多历史学家带给人们的是坏处多于好处, 因为他们是透过个人情感看待史事, 不是缺少全面的知识。所以D错。

  5. 「B」可从最后一段第五行找到答案。黑格尔是德国的著名哲学家。

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