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美国商务部长唐·埃文斯:中国的(贸易)长城

2006-07-07 18:09

  President Bush believes that open markets and a level playing field are vital to job creation and economic growth. That is why the president rejects economic isolationism and why this administration is continuing to aggressively engage with China. Last week, along with Secretary of Labor Elaine Chao, I led the president's Export Council to China to advance economic engagement, expand access for U.S. exports and address areas of trade concern.

  China is America's fastest-growing export market and our third-largest trading partner. Two-way trade exceeds $190 billion and over the last three years American exports to China increased 76%. But maintaining any relationship requires commitment and candor. We are working closely with the Chinese government to ensure that trade takes place through open markets and on a level playing field.

  Two months ago, the Bush administration hosted Chinese Vice Premier Wu Yi in Washington for the Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade. The meetings produced positive breakthroughs that will expand opportunities for U.S. businesses. They also resolved seven potential World Trade Organization cases on high-technology products, agriculture and intellectual-property protection. These breakthroughs will expand opportunities for American workers and businesses.

  While pursuing cooperation with China, the Bush administration has not and will not hesitate to enforce America's trade laws. We filed the first-ever WTO enforcement action against China, for its discriminatory taxation of U.S. semiconductors. We imposed the first safeguard actions against Chinese textile and apparel imports, and roughly half of all U.S. antidumping cases filed in 2003 were against unfair Chinese imports. However, while some would prefer to litigate for litigation's sake, we are focused on achieving real results, in real time.

  Earlier this year, the Bush administration declined to accept two petitions that could have had a highly adverse impact on the Sino-U.S. trading relationship. We did so, in part, because of a belief that dialogue with the Chinese government is the best chance to produce results.

  U.S. support for free trade depends on a fair showing from its trading partners. China needs to act on trade barriers because economic distortions compromise long-term potential. Resolving these problems is in the interests of both countries. American companies have the right to expect that their trading partners will treat intellectual property theft as a crime. Estimates show the computer software piracy rate to exceed 90% in China —— costing U.S. industry $2.4 billion in 2002. Sound trading relationships depend on partnership —— not piracy.

  China must significantly reduce government micromanagement of the economy and introduce a far higher level of transparency, among many changes, before its transition to a market-driven economy can make meaningful progress. Market forces will not govern China's economy until the state improves the regulatory system and releases control over raw materials, the financial system, real estate, utilities and large enterprises within China.

  In northeastern China, the state still owns or controls a majority interest of roughly 90% of all enterprises. Not surprisingly, that region now supplies only 8% of China's output —— down from 14% in 1981. Government control over the means of production radically distorts economic conditions, undermines efficient capital usage and compromises long-term potential. In addition, it creates a tilted playing field.

  Last year, I advised China to lift its capital controls so that its entrepreneurs could experience greater financial freedom. Capital controls also compromise prosperity by misallocating a country's wealth. The unsound banking practices funded through the capital controls are equally troubling. China's state-run banks routinely extend loans to state-owned enterprises that are not expected to be repaid. As a result, there is a disturbing level of nonperforming loans in the portfolios of China's state-run banking system. Today, the big four state banks in China are, essentially, insolvent.

  Clearly, there is much work to be done to open China's economy and curb government subsidies. That is why we traveled to China with a clear message: The U.S. has opened its markets to you; now you must open your markets to us. The Bush administration is determined because we know that American workers excel on even terms and we recognize that open markets spur economic growth and create jobs in America.

  布什总统相信,开放的市场和公平的竞争环境对创造就业机会和经济增长极其重要。这就是为什么布什总统反对经济孤立主义以及本届政府积极保持与中国接触的原因。上星期,我率领美国总统出口委员会(President's Export Council)成员与劳工部长赵小兰(Elaine Chao)一起出访中国,争取促进经济交往,扩大美国对中国的出口,并提出与贸易有关的关注。

  中国是美国发展最快的出口市场,也是我们的第三大贸易夥伴。双方的贸易额已超过1900亿美元,美国对中国的出口在过去的三年内增长了76%.但是,维持任何关系都需要承诺和坦诚。我们正在与中国政府紧密合作,确保贸易在开放的市场和公平竞争的环境中进行。

  两个月前,布什政府在华盛顿接待了前来参加美中商贸联合委员会(Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade)会议的中国副总理吴仪。会议为美国企业扩大商机带来了积极的突破。会议也解决了七项原本可能需要经世界贸易组织处理的有关高科技产品、农业和知识产权保护的争端。这些突破性进展将扩大美国工人和企业的机会。

  布什政府在与中国合作的同时,从来没有、今后也不会在贯彻实施美国贸易法方面有任何迟疑。我们向世界贸易组织首次提出对中国采取制裁行动的诉求, 因为它对美国的半导体产品征收歧视性关税。我们对中国的纺织品和服装也首次采取了防范行动。在2003年美国提出的所有反倾销案中,几乎一半是针对不公平的中国进口产品。虽然有些人宁可为诉讼而诉讼,但我们致力于迅速取得实质效果。

  今年早些时候,布什政府没有接受两项可能对中美贸易关系造成严重负面影响的申诉。我们这样做的部份原因是相信只有同中国政府进行对话,才最有可能取得成效。

  美国对自由贸易的支持取决于美国的贸易夥伴进行公平贸易的表现。中国需要采取行动消除贸易壁垒,因为扭曲经济的措施有损于长远的发展潜力。解决这些问题符合两国的利益。美国企业有权期待他们的贸易夥伴将盗版定为犯罪。据估计,中国的电脑软件盗版率超过了90%,在2002年给美国企业造成了24亿美元的损失。健康的贸易关系取决于夥伴关系,而不是盗版。

  中国向市场经济的过渡要取得实质进展,必须实行包括大幅度减少政府对经济的微观管理和大大增加透明度在内的多项改革。只有国家改善管理体制并放松对国内原材料、金融系统、房地产、公用事业和大型企业的控制,市场力量才能主宰中国的经济。

  在中国东北,国家仍然拥有或控制着大约90%的企业的多数股权。因此,毫不奇怪,这个地区的产值现只占中国总产值的8%,低于1981年的14%.政府对生产方式的控制从根本上扭曲了经济,降低了资本使用率并损害了长期发展潜力。此外还造成了不公平竞争。

  去年,我建议中国取消对资本的管制,以使中国的企业家在金融方面享有更大的自由。资本管制还造成国家财富分配不均,从而损害了国家的繁荣。资本管制在银行系统中造成的不良行为也同样令人不安。中国国有银行常常向没有偿还能力的国有企业提供贷款。因此,中国国有银行系统中存在着令人担忧的大量呆帐。今天,中国四大国有银行已经基本不具备清偿能力。

  要开放中国经济并削减政府补贴,显然要做大量的工作。因此,我们前往中国访问并传达了明确的信息:美国已经向你们开放了市场,现在你们必须向我们开放市场。布什政府的立场坚定,因为我们知道美国工人能在公平竞争中有卓越表现,而且我们认识到开放的市场能刺激经济发展并增加美国的就业机会。

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