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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY9

2006-7-28 01:03  

  1996年全国硕士学位研究生入学考试英语试题

  Part IIIReading Comprehension

  Directions: Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked A, B, C and D. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (40 points)

  Passage 1

  Tightlipped elders used to say, "Its not what you want in this world, but what you get."

  Psychology teaches that you do get what you want if you know what you want and want the right things.

  You can make a mental blueprint of a desire as you would make a blueprint of a house, and each of us is continually making these blueprints in the general routine of everyday living. If we intend to have friends to dinner, we plan the menu, make a shopping list, and decide which food to cook first, and such planning is an essential for any type of meal to be served.

  Likewise, if you want to find a job, take a sheet of paper, and write a brief account of yourself. In making a blueprint for a job, begin with yourself, for when you know exactly what you have to offer, you can intelligently plan where to sell your services.

  This account of yourself is actually a sketch of your working life and should include education, experience and references. Such an account is valuable. It can be referred to in filling out standard application blanks and is extremely helpful in personal interviews. While talking to you, your couldbe employer is deciding whether your "wares" and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.

  When you have carefully prepared a blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have something tangible to sell. Then you are ready to hunt for a job. Get all the possible information about your couldbe job. Make inquiries as to the details regarding the job and the firm. Keep your eyes and ears open, and use your own judgment. Spend a certain amount of time each day seeking the employment you wish for, and keep in mind: Securing a job is your job now.

  51. What do the elders mean when they say, "Its not what you want in this world, but what you get."?

  A.  Youll certainly get what you want.

  B.  Its no use dreaming.

  C.  You should be dissatisfied with what you have.

  D.  Its essential to set a goal for yourself.

  52. A blueprint made before inviting a friend to dinner is used in this passage as .

  A. an illustration of how to write an application for a job

  B. an indication of how to secure a good job

  C. a guideline for job description

  D. a principle for job evaluation

  53. According to the passage, one must write an account of himself before starting to find a job because  .

  A.  that is the first step to please the employer

  B.  that is the requirement of the employer

  C.  it enables him to know when to sell his services

  D.  it forces him to become clearly aware of himself

  54. When you have carefully prepared a blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have something .

  A.  definite to offer B.  imaginary to provide

  C.  practical to supply D.  desirable to present

  Passage 2

  With the start of BBC World Service Television, millions of viewers in Asia and America can now watch the Corporations news coverage, as well as listen to it.

  And of course in Britain listeners and viewers can tune in  two BBC television channels, five BBC national radio services and dozens of local radio station. They are brought sport, comedy, drama, music, news and current affairs,  education,  religion,  parliamentary coverage, childrens programmers and films for an annual license fee of 83 pounds per household.

  It is a remarkable record, stretching back over 70 years - yet the BBC s future is now in doubt. The Corporation will survive as a publiclyfunded broadcasting organization, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programmers are now the subject of a nationwide debate in Britain.

  The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC - including ordinary listeners and viewers - to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping. The reason for its inquiry is that the BBC s royal charter runs out in 1996 and it must decide whether to keep the organization as it is, or to make changes.

  Defenders of the Corporation - of whom there are many - are fond of quoting the American slogan "If it arent broke, dont fix it." The BBC  "arent broke", they say, by which they mean it is not broken (as distinct from the word 'broke',  meaning having no money),  so why bother to change it?

  Yet the BBC will have to change, because the broadcasting world around it is changing. The commercial TV channels - TV and Channel 4 - were required by the Thatcher Governments Broadcasting Act to become more commercial, competing with each other for advertisers, and cutting costs and jobs. But it is the arrival of new satellite channels - funded partly by advertising and partly by viewers subscriptions - which will bring about the biggest changes in the long term.

  55. The world famous BBC now faces .

  A.  the problem of new coverage B.  an uncertain prospect

  C.  inquiries by the general public D.  shrinkage of audience

  56. In the passage, which of the following about the BBC is not mentioned as the key issue?

  A.  Extension of its TV service to Far East.

  B.  Programmers as the subject of a nationwide debate.

  C.  Potentials for further international cooperations.

  D.  Its existence as a broadcasting organization.

  57. The BBCs "royal charter" (Line 4, Paragraph 3)  stands for .

  A.  the financial support from the royal family

  B.  the privileges granted by the Queen

  C.  a contract with the Queen

  D.  a unique relationship with the royal family

  58. The foremost reason why the BBC has to readjust itself is no other than .

  A.  the emergence of commercial TV channels

  B.  the enforcement of Broadcasting Act by the government

  C.  the urgent necessity to reduce costs and jobs

  D.  the challenge of new satellite channels

  Passage 3

  In the last half of the nineteenth century "capital" and "labor" were enlarging and perfecting their rival organizations on modern lines. Many an old firm was replaced by a limited liability company with a bureaucracy of salaried managers. The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders. It was moreover a step away from individual initiative, towards collectivism and municipal and stateowned business. The railway companies, though still private business managed for the benefit of shareholders, were very unlike old family business. At the same time the great municipalities went into business to supply lighting,  trams and other services to the taxpayers .

  The growth of the limited liability company and municipal business had important consequences. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners; and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business. All through the nineteenth century, America, Africa, India, Australia and parts of Europe were being developed by British capital, and British shareholders were thus enriched by the worlds movement towards industrialization. Towns like Bournemouth and Eastboume sprang up to house large "comfortable" classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders meeting to dictate their orders to the management. On the other hand "shareholding" meant leisure and freedom which was used by many of the later Victorians for the highest purpose of a great civilization.

  The "shareholders" as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labor was not good. The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away. Indeed the mere size of operations and the numbers of workmen involved rendered such personal relations impossible. Fortunately, however, the increasing power and organization of the trade unions, at least in all skilled trades, enabled the workmen to meet on equal terms the managers of the companies who employed them. The cruel discipline of the strike and lockout taught the two parties to respect each other s strength and understand the value of fair negotiation.

  59. Its true of the old family firms that .

  A.  they were spoiled by the younger generations

  B.  they failed for lack of individual initiative

  C.  they lacked efficiency compared with modem companies

  D.  they could supply adequate services to the taxpayers

  60. The growth of limited liability companies resulted in .

  A.  the separation of capital from management

  B.  the ownership of capital by managers

  C.  the emergence of capital and labor as two classes

  D.  the participation of shareholders in municipal business

  61. According to the passage, all of the following are true except that .

  A.  the shareholders were unaware of the needs of the workers

  B.  the old firm owners hand a better understanding of their workers

  C.  the limited liability companies were too large to run smoothly

  D.  the trade unions seemed to play a positive role

  62. The author is most critical of .

  A.  family film owners B.  landowners

  C.  managers D.  shareholders

  Passage 4

  What accounts for the great outburst of major inventions in early Americabreakthroughs such as the telegraph,  the steamboat and the weaving machine?

  Among the many shaping factors, I would single out the countrys excellent elementary schools; a labor force that welcomed the new technology; the practice of giving premiums to inventors ; and above all the American genius for nonverbal,  "spatial" thinking about things technological .

  Why mention the elementary schools? Because thanks to these schools our early mechanics, especially in the New England and Middle Atlantic states, were generally literate and at home in arithmetic and in some aspects of geometry and trigonometry.

  Acute foreign observers related American adaptiveness and inventiveness to this educational advantage. As a member of a British commission visiting here in 1853 reported, "With a mind prepared by thorough school discipline, the American boy develops rapidly into the skilled workman."

  A further stimulus to invention came from the "premium" system, which preceded our patent system and for years ran parallel with it. This approach, originated abroad, offered inventors medals, cash prizes and other incentives.

  In the United States, multitudes of premiums for new devices were awarded at country fairs and at the industrial fairs in major cities. Americans flocked to these fairs to admire the new machines and thus to renew their faith in the beneficence of technological advance.

  Given this optimistic approach to technological innovation, the American worker took readily to that special kind of nonverbal thinking required in mechanical technology. As Eugene Ferguson has pointed out, "A technologist thinks about objects that cannot be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions; they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process…… The designer and the inventor…… are able to assemble and manipulate in their minds devices that as yet do not exist."

  This nonverbal "spatial" thinking can be just as creative as painting and writing. Robert Fulton once wrote, "The mechanic should sit down among levers, screws, wedges, wheels, etc., like a poet among the letters of the alphabet,  considering them as an exhibition of his thoughts, in which a new arrangement transmits a new idea."

  When all these shaping forces - schools, open attitudes, the premium system, a genius for spatial thinking - interacted with one another on the rich U. S. mainland, they produced that American characteristic, emulation. Today that word implies mere imitation. But in earlier times it meant a friendly but competitive striving for fame and excellence.

  63. According to the author, the great outburst of major inventions in early America was in a large part due to

  A.  elementary schools B.  enthusiastic workers

  C.  the attractive premium system D.  a special way of thinking

  64. It is implied that adaptiveness and inventiveness of the early American mechanics

  A.  benefited a lot from their mathematical knowledge

  B.  shed light on disciplined school management

  C.  was brought about by privileged home training

  D.  owed a lot to the technological development

  65.  A technologist can be compared to an artist because

  A.  they are both winners of awardsB.  they are both experts in spatial thinking

  C.  they both abandon verbal descriptionD.  they both use various instruments

  66. The best title for this passage might be

  A.  Inventive Mind B.  Effective Schooling

  B.  Ways of Thinking D.  Outpouring of Inventions

  Passage 5

  Rumor has it that more than 20 books on creationism/evolution are in the publishers pipelines. A few have already appeared. The goal of all will be to try to explain to a confused and often unenlightened citizenry that there are not two equally valid scientific theories for the origin and evolution of universe and life. Cosmology, geology, and biology have provided a consistent, unified, and constantly improving account of what happened. "Scientific" creationism, which is being pushed by some for "equal time" in the classrooms whenever the scientific accounts of evolution are evil, is based on religion, not science. Virtually all scientists and the majority of nonfundamentalist religious leaders have come to regard "scientific" creationism as bad science and bad religion.

  The first four chapters of Kitchers book give a very brief introduction to evolution. At appropriate places, he introduces the criticisms of the creationists and provides answers. In the last three chapters, he takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating. He describes their programmes and tactics, and, for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists, the extent of their deception and distortion may come as an unpleasant surprise. When their basic motivation is religious, one might have expected more Christian behavior.

  Kitcher is a philosopher, and this may account, in part, for the clarity and effectiveness of his arguments. The nonspecialist will be able to obtain at least a notion of the sorts of data and argument that support evolutionary theory. The final chapter on the creationists will be extremely clear to all. On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: "This book stands for reason itself."And so it does - and all would be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.

  67. "Creationism" in the passage refers to

  A.  evolution in its true sense as to the origin of the universe

  B.  a notion of the creation of religion

  C.  the scientific explanation of the earth formation

  D.  the deceptive theory about the origin of the universe

  68. Kitchers book is intended to  .

  A.  recommend the views of the evolutionists

  B.  expose the true features of creationists

  C.  curse bitterly at this opponents

  D.  launch a surprise attack on creationists

  69. From the passage we can infer that

  A.  reasoning has played a decisive role in the debate

  B.  creationists do not base their argument on reasoning

  C.  evolutionary theory is too difficult for nonspecialists

  D.  creationism is supported by scientific findings

  70. This passage appears to be a digest of

  A.  a book review B.  a scientific paper

  C.  a magazine feature D.  a newspaper editorial

  51. 「B」问题是:当他们说"its not what you want in this world, but what you get."老者们是什么意思?

  这句话出现在文章的第一段,是个谚语,意思是你所想的不算数,重要的是你所得到的。不知道这个谚语的,也可以通过第2段推出这句话的意思。不难看出,第二段与第一段的关系是转折,心理学家认为你定(do表示强调)得到你所想的,如果你知道你所想的是什么,并且合理。很显然,不管那句谚语讲的是什么,它绝对否认了一个人所想的,即B项内容。

  52. 「A」问题是:邀请朋友吃饭之前脑海中打好的这个蓝图在文中用来。

  illustration意为"实例","说明".为了更充分地说明第四段所阐明的道理,文章在第三段举了几方面例子。正像盖房子要设计图纸一样,你也可以在头脑中为自己的愿望绘制一幅蓝图(blueprint)。实际上,在日常生活中,我们不断为自己的行动策划。例如:如果想请朋友吃饭,我们首先要开列一个菜单,决定买什么东西,还要决定买什么东西,还要决定先炒什么菜,等等。这种计划对请客成功与否至关重要。第四段指出,如果你想找份工作,应该取一张纸,简要地描述一下自己。因为,只有当你明确地知道自己的特长(what you have to offer可直译为:你可以提供的东西)后,才能为自己的工作选择做出理智的决断。第四段中所举的例子仅用以说明第二、四段说明的道理。

  53. 「D」问题是:根据文章内容,在一个人找工作之前,他必须把自己的情况写下来这是因为。

  文章第4段第2句中的 "making a blueprint for a job"实际上就是前一句提到的,将自己情况写在纸上。 这样做的目的是什么呢? "For (表原因) when you know exactly what will have to offer, you can intelligently plan where to sell your service ." 可见, "making a blueprint" 的直接效果便是明确地(exactly)知道自身特长,即D项内容。

  54. 「A」问题是:当你仔细地对自己的能力和愿望作出一份蓝图时。

  参阅53题题解。

  说话谨慎的老一辈人过去常说:"在这个世界上不是你想要什么就能得到什么。"

  心理学告诉我们:只要你知道自己想要什么,并且这种愿望是合适的,你就能得到你想要的东西。

  你可以在脑海中勾画一张自己愿望的蓝图,就像盖房子时画的设计图一样。我们每个人在每天的生活中,都在不断地勾画这样的蓝图。如果我们要请朋友来吃晚餐,我们就会设计菜单,列出需要买的东西,决定先做什么菜,这些计划工作对任何一顿饭来说都是必要的。

  同样的,如果你想找一份工作,那么拿出一张纸,简单地介绍一下自己。在为工作设计蓝图时,先从自己开始,因为只有明确地知道自己的能力,才能聪明地推销自己。

  这份个人简历实际上是对自己职业生涯的简单介绍,它的内容应该包括教育背景、以往的经历和别人的推荐。这样的一份简历是很有价值的。在填写标准的职业申请表时可以用它来参考,而且在面试时也极有帮助。在和你谈话时,你的未来老板就在考虑你的教育、经历和其他资质是否值得他来聘用你,而你的这些能力必须清楚地展示在简历上,并且内容要前后一致。

  当你已经精心设计好了符合你的能力和愿望的蓝图时,你要推销的就是很实际的内容了,这时你就可以去寻找一个职位。搜集有关你未来可能的职业的一切信息,打听关于这份工作和这个公司的有关细节。用眼去看,用耳去听,然后用自己的头脑来判断。每天花一定时间去寻找自己希望的工作,同时要记住:找工作就是你现在的工作。

  55. 「B」问题是:世界有名的BBC现在正面临着。

  文章前1、2段讲叙了BBC 70多年来的光辉历史和成就。第3段作者指出,然而 (yet),目前其前景不明(in doubt)。句中的 "doubtful future" 和B项中的 "uncertain prospect"属同义词组。

  56. 「C」问题是:在本文中,以下哪一项关于BBC作为主要问题没有提到?

  文章第一段第一句提到A项内容; 第3段最后一句提到B项;同句中又提到D项内容;惟有C,即进一步进行国际合作的潜力,文章只字未提。

  57. 「C」问题是:文章第4段第4行中,BBC的 "royal charter"指的是。

  文章第4段第4行中的"royal charter"(皇家授权许可证)与C项中的与女王签约契约是同一意思。本题涉及常识,英国是君主立宪制,国王代表国家。此外,当 "queen" 大写时,它指代英国皇室。因此与皇室签约就等于说BBC是国家扶持产业(a publiclyfounded broadcast station)。

  58. 「D」问题是:BBC需重新调整的主要原因正是。

  文章最后一段作者讲到BBC必须重新调整,因为电视广播业在不断革新。最后一句又指出带来最大变化的,无疑是卫星电视频道的开播,即D项内容。

  随着BBC全球电视网的开通,数以万计的亚洲和美洲人现在可以收看和收听到BBC的新闻节目了。

  当然,英国的观众和听众可以享受两个BBC电视频道,5个BBC全国广播台和几十个地方广播电台。人们可以收听收看到体育、喜剧、戏剧、音乐、新闻时事、教育、宗教、国家政治、儿童节目等,每个家庭在交纳了每年83英镑的有线电视费后,还可以收看到电影。

  在过去的70年里,这是一项相当了不起的成绩。但是BBC的未来却前景不明。至少目前,BBC公司还是由政府资助的。但是现在它的职能、它的规模和它的节目内容在英国上下引起了广泛的争议。

  这场争论是由英国政府引起的,政府邀请任何人——包括普通的听众和观众——对BBC发表意见,评论它的长处和短处,甚至人们是否认为BBC还值得保留。政府之所以这样做,是因为BBC和女皇签订的协约在1996年就要到期了,所以国家必须决定是否要对它做出调整,还是最好维持原状。

  BBC众多支持者喜欢引用一句美国人的口号"如果它还没有'坏',就不用去修它".而他们认为BBC还没有坏,那干嘛这么麻烦去改变它呢?

  但是BBC必须改变,因为整个广播电视界都在改变。比如,撒切尔政府的广播电视法案要求商业电视频道——TV和4频道——变得更加商业化,竞争广告赞助商,削减成本,减少工作人员。但是从长远来说,最大的改变是随着新的卫星电视频道而来的,卫星频道的资金部分来自广告赞助,部分来自观众交纳的费用。

  59. 「C」问题是:事实上,老家族公司。

  第一段第二、三句指出,许多老公司被拥有各级拿薪水的经理的有限(责任)公司所取代。这一变化通过一大批专业人员的使用,适应了新时代技术的要求、防止了效率的下降。而效率的下降使许多家族公司破产,因为第二、三代继承人已不像公司的创立者那样精力充沛了。因此说老公司与现代公司比缺乏效率,即C选项。

  60. 「A」问题是:有限公司的发展产生的结果是。

  第二段指出,有限公司及市改企业的发展引起了重大变化。对资本与企业的如此大规模的非个人操纵大大地增加了作为一个阶级的持股人的数量及其地位的重要性。国民生活中这一现象的出现代表了与土地及土地所有者相分离的不由个人负责的财富的出现,而且这也意味着(不由个人负责的财富)几乎在同等程度上与由个人负责的商业管理的分离。在整个19世纪,美洲、非洲、印度、澳大利亚及欧洲的部分国家的发展靠的是英国的资本,因此,在世界走向工业化的过程中英国的股东们大发其财。从以上的论述可以看出,作者认为:有限公司的发展引起了资本与经营的分离,投资者(股东)并不实际参加经营,而是坐吃红利(dividends)或有时参加些间接管理;而真正的管理者未必再是公司的拥有者。这一点从第三段的论述也同样可以看出。  句中"impersonal manipulation of capital" 与A项中的"separation of capital from management"实际上是一个概念。

  61. 「C」问题是:根据本文,以下不正确的是。

  文章最后一段第一句正是A项内容;第2句可以找到B项内容;同段第4句又提到D项内容。C项,即有限公司太大以至于经营艰难,文中没有给出支持它的迹象。

  62. 「D」问题是:作者对持批评态度。

  文章中几处在提及大股东阶层人时,作者用词造句上显然注入批评色彩,如:irresponsible (第2段第4行);detached from the responsible(第2段第5行);打上引号的comfortable 和shareholders;had no knowledge of the   lives (第3段第1行);his influence…… was not good (第2、3行)。

  二十世纪后期,"资本"和"劳动力"两大敌对阵营在更加现代化的条件下,在不断地发展壮大。许多老式的公司被有限责任公司所代替,这些新型公司雇用拿薪水的经理人来进行管理。这种变化是符合新时代的工业需要的,它将职业化元素引入企业,防止了那种在老式家族企业中经常出现的在第一代创始人之后的两三代人中工作效率下降,从而妨害公司前途的现象发生。这种机制逐渐摆脱了依靠个人的积极性,而转向集体制和由国家、市政掌管的企业。尽管铁路公司仍然是为股东牟利的私有企业,但和那些老式的家族企业有很大的区别。同时,市政当局入主企业,为纳税人提供电力、交通和其他服务。

  有限责任公司的发展壮大和市政企业的介入产生了重要的影响。这种大规模、非个人性质的资金运作大大增加了股东这一社会阶层的人数和重要性。而股东阶层在社会生活中象征着财富,与土地及土地拥有者的责任分离开来;同时,财富也和企业经营管理责任分离开来。整个二十世纪,美洲、非洲、印度、澳大利亚以及欧洲的部分国家都是在英国的资金扶持下发展起来的,因此英国的股票持有者的腰包就在全球工业化的浪潮中充实了起来。Bournemouth和Eastboume 等城市就居住了一大批"闲适"阶层。他们有收入,又不用工作,除了拿红利和偶尔出席一次股东会议把他们的命令传达给管理人之外,他们和社会上的其他人几乎没有什么联系。另一方面,"持有股票"意味着闲适和自由,这也是维多利亚时代很多人对社会文明的最高期望。

  这些"股东"并不了解那些在他们持有股份的公司里劳动的工人们的生活、想法和需要,而且他们对资方和劳方之间的关系也没有什么好的影响。经理人受雇替公司工作,他们和工人的接触更直接一些。但即使是这样,现代经理人对工人的了解和过去那种老式家族企业中用家长制进行管理的企业主相比,也远远不如。确实,现代企业的规模和和工人的数量也使得这种熟悉和了解不可能实现。然而幸运的是,至少在所有技术行业中,工会的组织和力量不断发展壮大,使工人和公司的管理者能在平等的条件下对话。罢工和停工的严重后果使双方谁也不能小看对方的力量,同时也理解了公平谈判的作用。

  63. 「D」问题是:根据作者看法,在美国早期的大量主要发明的涌现很大程度上归功于。

  文章第2段,作者列出美国早期出现的发明创造热的几个因素。在讲到"空间思维"能力时,作者用了"above all",这表明了"spatial  thinking" 较其他几个因素更为重要。此外,spatial在文中是在引号中出现。可见这种思维方式是不一般的,即D项内容。A,B,C项内容均是促成因素,但不是主要原因。

  64. 「A」问题是:文章暗示了早期美国机械学中的适应性和创造性。

  文章第4段第1句,讲到美国人的适应力和创造力与他们教育优势有关。句中 "教育优势"(education and advantage)指的正是前段所述内容。文章并没有谈到B选项出现的学校严格管理的问题。

  65. 「B」问题是:一个技术工作人员可以用艺术家相比,那是因为。

  第八段指出,这种非语言的"空间"思维在创造力方面可以与绘画和写作相比。正如Fulton指出的:"正像诗人坐在字母中一样,技工应该坐在杠杆、螺钉、楔子、轮子等中间,把它们看作自己思想的展现。在这个展现过程中,每一个新的排列方式都传达一种新的思路。"可见,进行形象的空间思维是这两种人的共同特征。

  66. 「A」问题是:本文最好的题目可能是。

  文章第一、二段是自问自答,提出了本文旨在论证的问题;第三、四段指出了教育的影响;第五、六段指出了奖励制度带来的鼓励的影响;第七、八段探讨了早期美国人特有的思维方式所起的决定性作用;最后一段是全文的总结。可见,本文主要探讨了早期美国人的创造热情及其根源。B,D项只是文章涉及的内容,并非重点。C项概念太大,也与作者意图脱轨。

  是什么造成了美国早期涌现出来的大量的发明创造,比如电视、蒸汽船和织布机?

  在众多的原因中,我特意指出以下几个:美国优秀的小学教育;欢迎新技术的劳动力;为发明人提供奖金的政策;其中最重要的是,美国人的那种非文字的,空间的思维方式。

  我为什么要提到小学教育?因为正是这些学校使得我们早期的机械师,尤其是在新英格兰和大西洋中部地区,都具有了读写能力,精通算术,对几何学和三角学也有所了解。

  敏锐的外国观察家把美国人的高度适应性和创造性与这种教育上的优势联系起来。1853年访问过美国的一位英国人说:"经过学校严密的训练,美国的男孩子很快就能成长为熟练的工人。"

  发明创造的另外一个动力来源于"奖金"制度,它出现于我们的专利制度之前,并且一度和专利制度并行。这一政策发源于国外,它为发明人提供奖章、奖金和其他一些奖励。

  在美国的全国博览会和各大城市举办的工业博览会上,大量的奖金被颁发给新 发明的设备。美国人蜂拥而去欣赏这些新的发明,这也更坚定了他们对科技进步带来的益处的信心。

  有了这种对科技创新的乐观看法,美国工人很自然地就喜欢上了在机械技术中特别需要的那种独特的非文字性的思考方法。正如Eugene Ferguson指出的那样:"技术专家对物体的思考是不能被抽象成清晰的文字叙述的;在他们脑海中进行的是图像化,而非文字化的过程……设计师和发明家……能在大脑里组装和操纵其实并不存在的设备。"

  这种非文字性的"空间思维"方式和绘画、写作一样富有创造性。Robert  Fulton 曾经写道:"机械师应当坐在一堆杠杆、螺丝、楔子、轮子中间,就像诗人坐在一堆字母中间一样,把这些工具看成是他思想的展示,每一种新的组合方式就表达了他的一个新想法。"

  当所有这些因素——教育,开放的态度,奖金制度,空间思考的才能——在美国富饶的土地上相互作用时,就产生了美国特有的性格:效仿。今天,这个词只意味着模仿,但是在早些时候,它意味着友好但充满竞争地努力去争取名誉和成功。

  67. 「D」问题是:文中"creationism"指的是。

  关键在于注意到作者对于"creationism"使用的几个修饰词,bad religion, bad science.具有deception(欺骗性)。所以选择D.

  68. 「B」问题是:Kitchers 的书作用或目的在于。

  只要把这本书的内容搞清楚即可。前四章简单介绍创世论,并不失时机的批判;而最后三章深刻揭露痛批创世论,所以选B——"暴露创世论者的真实嘴脸".并不是C中的"狠狠咒骂"(curse bitterly),和D的"出其不意的袭击"(surprise attak)

  69. 「B」问题是:从文中可以推理。

  A选项扭曲了短文最后一句话中reason的意思,reason是"理智"或"理性",而A选项中的reasoning是推理的意思。

  C的意思于原文相反——对于非专业的人士来说进化论太难了。而文中最后一段的第二句话即提到由于论证清楚明白,所以非专业人士也能对进化论有个大概的了解。

  D项显然有违常理。

  B选项的意思是创世论不是基于推理论证的基础之上的,符合题意。

  70. 「A」问题是:文章显然是的摘要。

  详见译文,本文介绍了Kitcher的一书。

  传闻说出版商筹划的二十多本关于创世论和进化论的书中有一些已经出版面世了。这些书的目的都是为了向糊涂无知的大众解释一个问题,那就是在关于宇宙和生命的起源和进化的问题上,没有两种同样正确的科学理论。宇宙学、地质学和生物学构成了一个连贯而统一的体系,不断完善对过去发生的事情的解释。一些人试图在课堂里推行"科学"创世论,每当对进化进行科学解释的时候,他们就开始讲这种理论、科学创世论是建立在宗教的基础上的,并非科学。实际上,无论是科学家还是大多数非原教旨主义宗教领袖都开始认为"科学"创世论既不是科学也不是宗教。

  Kitcher的书在前四章中对进化做了简单的介绍。在合适的地方,他介绍了对创世论者的批判并给出了回答。在最后三章中,他终于显露出本意,给创世纪一顿痛击。他描述了这些的伎俩,对那些不熟悉创世论者的人来说,这些人对真相的欺骗和歪曲程度让人不快和震惊。因为既然这些人的最初动机是宗教,他们本应该采取更加符合基督教徒的行为。

  Kitcher是位哲学家,这也许部分解释了他的论证为何如此清晰和有效。普通读者至少能够了解什么样的数据和论证是支持进化理论的。他书中最后几章对创世论者的批判非常清楚,所有人都能读懂。在这本书的封面上,Stephen Jay Gould 写道:"这本书是理性的代表。"确实如此,在创世论和进化论辩论中,理性是惟一合格的评判。

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