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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY9

2006-7-28 01:03  


  Part IIIReading Comprehension

  Directions: Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked A, B, C and D. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (40 points)

  Passage 1

  Tightlipped elders used to say, "Its not what you want in this world, but what you get."

  Psychology teaches that you do get what you want if you know what you want and want the right things.

  You can make a mental blueprint of a desire as you would make a blueprint of a house, and each of us is continually making these blueprints in the general routine of everyday living. If we intend to have friends to dinner, we plan the menu, make a shopping list, and decide which food to cook first, and such planning is an essential for any type of meal to be served.

  Likewise, if you want to find a job, take a sheet of paper, and write a brief account of yourself. In making a blueprint for a job, begin with yourself, for when you know exactly what you have to offer, you can intelligently plan where to sell your services.

  This account of yourself is actually a sketch of your working life and should include education, experience and references. Such an account is valuable. It can be referred to in filling out standard application blanks and is extremely helpful in personal interviews. While talking to you, your couldbe employer is deciding whether your "wares" and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.

  When you have carefully prepared a blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have something tangible to sell. Then you are ready to hunt for a job. Get all the possible information about your couldbe job. Make inquiries as to the details regarding the job and the firm. Keep your eyes and ears open, and use your own judgment. Spend a certain amount of time each day seeking the employment you wish for, and keep in mind: Securing a job is your job now.

  51. What do the elders mean when they say, "Its not what you want in this world, but what you get."?

  A.  Youll certainly get what you want.

  B.  Its no use dreaming.

  C.  You should be dissatisfied with what you have.

  D.  Its essential to set a goal for yourself.

  52. A blueprint made before inviting a friend to dinner is used in this passage as .

  A. an illustration of how to write an application for a job

  B. an indication of how to secure a good job

  C. a guideline for job description

  D. a principle for job evaluation

  53. According to the passage, one must write an account of himself before starting to find a job because  .

  A.  that is the first step to please the employer

  B.  that is the requirement of the employer

  C.  it enables him to know when to sell his services

  D.  it forces him to become clearly aware of himself

  54. When you have carefully prepared a blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have something .

  A.  definite to offer B.  imaginary to provide

  C.  practical to supply D.  desirable to present

  Passage 2

  With the start of BBC World Service Television, millions of viewers in Asia and America can now watch the Corporations news coverage, as well as listen to it.

  And of course in Britain listeners and viewers can tune in  two BBC television channels, five BBC national radio services and dozens of local radio station. They are brought sport, comedy, drama, music, news and current affairs,  education,  religion,  parliamentary coverage, childrens programmers and films for an annual license fee of 83 pounds per household.

  It is a remarkable record, stretching back over 70 years - yet the BBC s future is now in doubt. The Corporation will survive as a publiclyfunded broadcasting organization, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programmers are now the subject of a nationwide debate in Britain.

  The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC - including ordinary listeners and viewers - to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping. The reason for its inquiry is that the BBC s royal charter runs out in 1996 and it must decide whether to keep the organization as it is, or to make changes.

  Defenders of the Corporation - of whom there are many - are fond of quoting the American slogan "If it arent broke, dont fix it." The BBC  "arent broke", they say, by which they mean it is not broken (as distinct from the word 'broke',  meaning having no money),  so why bother to change it?

  Yet the BBC will have to change, because the broadcasting world around it is changing. The commercial TV channels - TV and Channel 4 - were required by the Thatcher Governments Broadcasting Act to become more commercial, competing with each other for advertisers, and cutting costs and jobs. But it is the arrival of new satellite channels - funded partly by advertising and partly by viewers subscriptions - which will bring about the biggest changes in the long term.

  55. The world famous BBC now faces .

  A.  the problem of new coverage B.  an uncertain prospect

  C.  inquiries by the general public D.  shrinkage of audience

  56. In the passage, which of the following about the BBC is not mentioned as the key issue?

  A.  Extension of its TV service to Far East.

  B.  Programmers as the subject of a nationwide debate.

  C.  Potentials for further international cooperations.

  D.  Its existence as a broadcasting organization.

  57. The BBCs "royal charter" (Line 4, Paragraph 3)  stands for .

  A.  the financial support from the royal family

  B.  the privileges granted by the Queen

  C.  a contract with the Queen

  D.  a unique relationship with the royal family

  58. The foremost reason why the BBC has to readjust itself is no other than .

  A.  the emergence of commercial TV channels

  B.  the enforcement of Broadcasting Act by the government

  C.  the urgent necessity to reduce costs and jobs

  D.  the challenge of new satellite channels

  Passage 3

  In the last half of the nineteenth century "capital" and "labor" were enlarging and perfecting their rival organizations on modern lines. Many an old firm was replaced by a limited liability company with a bureaucracy of salaried managers. The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders. It was moreover a step away from individual initiative, towards collectivism and municipal and stateowned business. The railway companies, though still private business managed for the benefit of shareholders, were very unlike old family business. At the same time the great municipalities went into business to supply lighting,  trams and other services to the taxpayers .

  The growth of the limited liability company and municipal business had important consequences. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners; and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business. All through the nineteenth century, America, Africa, India, Australia and parts of Europe were being developed by British capital, and British shareholders were thus enriched by the worlds movement towards industrialization. Towns like Bournemouth and Eastboume sprang up to house large "comfortable" classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders meeting to dictate their orders to the management. On the other hand "shareholding" meant leisure and freedom which was used by many of the later Victorians for the highest purpose of a great civilization.

  The "shareholders" as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labor was not good. The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away. Indeed the mere size of operations and the numbers of workmen involved rendered such personal relations impossible. Fortunately, however, the increasing power and organization of the trade unions, at least in all skilled trades, enabled the workmen to meet on equal terms the managers of the companies who employed them. The cruel discipline of the strike and lockout taught the two parties to respect each other s strength and understand the value of fair negotiation.

  59. Its true of the old family firms that .

  A.  they were spoiled by the younger generations

  B.  they failed for lack of individual initiative

  C.  they lacked efficiency compared with modem companies

  D.  they could supply adequate services to the taxpayers

  60. The growth of limited liability companies resulted in .

  A.  the separation of capital from management

  B.  the ownership of capital by managers

  C.  the emergence of capital and labor as two classes

  D.  the participation of shareholders in municipal business

  61. According to the passage, all of the following are true except that .

  A.  the shareholders were unaware of the needs of the workers

  B.  the old firm owners hand a better understanding of their workers

  C.  the limited liability companies were too large to run smoothly

  D.  the trade unions seemed to play a positive role

  62. The author is most critical of .

  A.  family film owners B.  landowners

  C.  managers D.  shareholders

  Passage 4

  What accounts for the great outburst of major inventions in early Americabreakthroughs such as the telegraph,  the steamboat and the weaving machine?

  Among the many shaping factors, I would single out the countrys excellent elementary schools; a labor force that welcomed the new technology; the practice of giving premiums to inventors ; and above all the American genius for nonverbal,  "spatial" thinking about things technological .

  Why mention the elementary schools? Because thanks to these schools our early mechanics, especially in the New England and Middle Atlantic states, were generally literate and at home in arithmetic and in some aspects of geometry and trigonometry.

  Acute foreign observers related American adaptiveness and inventiveness to this educational advantage. As a member of a British commission visiting here in 1853 reported, "With a mind prepared by thorough school discipline, the American boy develops rapidly into the skilled workman."

  A further stimulus to invention came from the "premium" system, which preceded our patent system and for years ran parallel with it. This approach, originated abroad, offered inventors medals, cash prizes and other incentives.

  In the United States, multitudes of premiums for new devices were awarded at country fairs and at the industrial fairs in major cities. Americans flocked to these fairs to admire the new machines and thus to renew their faith in the beneficence of technological advance.

  Given this optimistic approach to technological innovation, the American worker took readily to that special kind of nonverbal thinking required in mechanical technology. As Eugene Ferguson has pointed out, "A technologist thinks about objects that cannot be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions; they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process…… The designer and the inventor…… are able to assemble and manipulate in their minds devices that as yet do not exist."

  This nonverbal "spatial" thinking can be just as creative as painting and writing. Robert Fulton once wrote, "The mechanic should sit down among levers, screws, wedges, wheels, etc., like a poet among the letters of the alphabet,  considering them as an exhibition of his thoughts, in which a new arrangement transmits a new idea."

  When all these shaping forces - schools, open attitudes, the premium system, a genius for spatial thinking - interacted with one another on the rich U. S. mainland, they produced that American characteristic, emulation. Today that word implies mere imitation. But in earlier times it meant a friendly but competitive striving for fame and excellence.

  63. According to the author, the great outburst of major inventions in early America was in a large part due to

  A.  elementary schools B.  enthusiastic workers

  C.  the attractive premium system D.  a special way of thinking

  64. It is implied that adaptiveness and inventiveness of the early American mechanics

  A.  benefited a lot from their mathematical knowledge

  B.  shed light on disciplined school management

  C.  was brought about by privileged home training

  D.  owed a lot to the technological development

  65.  A technologist can be compared to an artist because

  A.  they are both winners of awardsB.  they are both experts in spatial thinking

  C.  they both abandon verbal descriptionD.  they both use various instruments

  66. The best title for this passage might be

  A.  Inventive Mind B.  Effective Schooling

  B.  Ways of Thinking D.  Outpouring of Inventions

  Passage 5

  Rumor has it that more than 20 books on creationism/evolution are in the publishers pipelines. A few have already appeared. The goal of all will be to try to explain to a confused and often unenlightened citizenry that there are not two equally valid scientific theories for the origin and evolution of universe and life. Cosmology, geology, and biology have provided a consistent, unified, and constantly improving account of what happened. "Scientific" creationism, which is being pushed by some for "equal time" in the classrooms whenever the scientific accounts of evolution are evil, is based on religion, not science. Virtually all scientists and the majority of nonfundamentalist religious leaders have come to regard "scientific" creationism as bad science and bad religion.

  The first four chapters of Kitchers book give a very brief introduction to evolution. At appropriate places, he introduces the criticisms of the creationists and provides answers. In the last three chapters, he takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating. He describes their programmes and tactics, and, for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists, the extent of their deception and distortion may come as an unpleasant surprise. When their basic motivation is religious, one might have expected more Christian behavior.

  Kitcher is a philosopher, and this may account, in part, for the clarity and effectiveness of his arguments. The nonspecialist will be able to obtain at least a notion of the sorts of data and argument that support evolutionary theory. The final chapter on the creationists will be extremely clear to all. On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: "This book stands for reason itself."And so it does - and all would be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.

  67. "Creationism" in the passage refers to

  A.  evolution in its true sense as to the origin of the universe

  B.  a notion of the creation of religion

  C.  the scientific explanation of the earth formation

  D.  the deceptive theory about the origin of the universe

  68. Kitchers book is intended to  .

  A.  recommend the views of the evolutionists

  B.  expose the true features of creationists

  C.  curse bitterly at this opponents

  D.  launch a surprise attack on creationists

  69. From the passage we can infer that

  A.  reasoning has played a decisive role in the debate

  B.  creationists do not base their argument on reasoning

  C.  evolutionary theory is too difficult for nonspecialists

  D.  creationism is supported by scientific findings

  70. This passage appears to be a digest of

  A.  a book review B.  a scientific paper

  C.  a magazine feature D.  a newspaper editorial

  51. 「B」问题是:当他们说"its not what you want in this world, but what you get."老者们是什么意思?


  52. 「A」问题是:邀请朋友吃饭之前脑海中打好的这个蓝图在文中用来。

  illustration意为"实例","说明".为了更充分地说明第四段所阐明的道理,文章在第三段举了几方面例子。正像盖房子要设计图纸一样,你也可以在头脑中为自己的愿望绘制一幅蓝图(blueprint)。实际上,在日常生活中,我们不断为自己的行动策划。例如:如果想请朋友吃饭,我们首先要开列一个菜单,决定买什么东西,还要决定买什么东西,还要决定先炒什么菜,等等。这种计划对请客成功与否至关重要。第四段指出,如果你想找份工作,应该取一张纸,简要地描述一下自己。因为,只有当你明确地知道自己的特长(what you have to offer可直译为:你可以提供的东西)后,才能为自己的工作选择做出理智的决断。第四段中所举的例子仅用以说明第二、四段说明的道理。

  53. 「D」问题是:根据文章内容,在一个人找工作之前,他必须把自己的情况写下来这是因为。

  文章第4段第2句中的 "making a blueprint for a job"实际上就是前一句提到的,将自己情况写在纸上。 这样做的目的是什么呢? "For (表原因) when you know exactly what will have to offer, you can intelligently plan where to sell your service ." 可见, "making a blueprint" 的直接效果便是明确地(exactly)知道自身特长,即D项内容。

  54. 「A」问题是:当你仔细地对自己的能力和愿望作出一份蓝图时。








  55. 「B」问题是:世界有名的BBC现在正面临着。

  文章前1、2段讲叙了BBC 70多年来的光辉历史和成就。第3段作者指出,然而 (yet),目前其前景不明(in doubt)。句中的 "doubtful future" 和B项中的 "uncertain prospect"属同义词组。

  56. 「C」问题是:在本文中,以下哪一项关于BBC作为主要问题没有提到?

  文章第一段第一句提到A项内容; 第3段最后一句提到B项;同句中又提到D项内容;惟有C,即进一步进行国际合作的潜力,文章只字未提。

  57. 「C」问题是:文章第4段第4行中,BBC的 "royal charter"指的是。

  文章第4段第4行中的"royal charter"(皇家授权许可证)与C项中的与女王签约契约是同一意思。本题涉及常识,英国是君主立宪制,国王代表国家。此外,当 "queen" 大写时,它指代英国皇室。因此与皇室签约就等于说BBC是国家扶持产业(a publiclyfounded broadcast station)。

  58. 「D」问题是:BBC需重新调整的主要原因正是。








  59. 「C」问题是:事实上,老家族公司。


  60. 「A」问题是:有限公司的发展产生的结果是。

  第二段指出,有限公司及市改企业的发展引起了重大变化。对资本与企业的如此大规模的非个人操纵大大地增加了作为一个阶级的持股人的数量及其地位的重要性。国民生活中这一现象的出现代表了与土地及土地所有者相分离的不由个人负责的财富的出现,而且这也意味着(不由个人负责的财富)几乎在同等程度上与由个人负责的商业管理的分离。在整个19世纪,美洲、非洲、印度、澳大利亚及欧洲的部分国家的发展靠的是英国的资本,因此,在世界走向工业化的过程中英国的股东们大发其财。从以上的论述可以看出,作者认为:有限公司的发展引起了资本与经营的分离,投资者(股东)并不实际参加经营,而是坐吃红利(dividends)或有时参加些间接管理;而真正的管理者未必再是公司的拥有者。这一点从第三段的论述也同样可以看出。  句中"impersonal manipulation of capital" 与A项中的"separation of capital from management"实际上是一个概念。

  61. 「C」问题是:根据本文,以下不正确的是。


  62. 「D」问题是:作者对持批评态度。

  文章中几处在提及大股东阶层人时,作者用词造句上显然注入批评色彩,如:irresponsible (第2段第4行);detached from the responsible(第2段第5行);打上引号的comfortable 和shareholders;had no knowledge of the   lives (第3段第1行);his influence…… was not good (第2、3行)。


  有限责任公司的发展壮大和市政企业的介入产生了重要的影响。这种大规模、非个人性质的资金运作大大增加了股东这一社会阶层的人数和重要性。而股东阶层在社会生活中象征着财富,与土地及土地拥有者的责任分离开来;同时,财富也和企业经营管理责任分离开来。整个二十世纪,美洲、非洲、印度、澳大利亚以及欧洲的部分国家都是在英国的资金扶持下发展起来的,因此英国的股票持有者的腰包就在全球工业化的浪潮中充实了起来。Bournemouth和Eastboume 等城市就居住了一大批"闲适"阶层。他们有收入,又不用工作,除了拿红利和偶尔出席一次股东会议把他们的命令传达给管理人之外,他们和社会上的其他人几乎没有什么联系。另一方面,"持有股票"意味着闲适和自由,这也是维多利亚时代很多人对社会文明的最高期望。


  63. 「D」问题是:根据作者看法,在美国早期的大量主要发明的涌现很大程度上归功于。

  文章第2段,作者列出美国早期出现的发明创造热的几个因素。在讲到"空间思维"能力时,作者用了"above all",这表明了"spatial  thinking" 较其他几个因素更为重要。此外,spatial在文中是在引号中出现。可见这种思维方式是不一般的,即D项内容。A,B,C项内容均是促成因素,但不是主要原因。

  64. 「A」问题是:文章暗示了早期美国机械学中的适应性和创造性。

  文章第4段第1句,讲到美国人的适应力和创造力与他们教育优势有关。句中 "教育优势"(education and advantage)指的正是前段所述内容。文章并没有谈到B选项出现的学校严格管理的问题。

  65. 「B」问题是:一个技术工作人员可以用艺术家相比,那是因为。


  66. 「A」问题是:本文最好的题目可能是。







  在美国的全国博览会和各大城市举办的工业博览会上,大量的奖金被颁发给新 发明的设备。美国人蜂拥而去欣赏这些新的发明,这也更坚定了他们对科技进步带来的益处的信心。

  有了这种对科技创新的乐观看法,美国工人很自然地就喜欢上了在机械技术中特别需要的那种独特的非文字性的思考方法。正如Eugene Ferguson指出的那样:"技术专家对物体的思考是不能被抽象成清晰的文字叙述的;在他们脑海中进行的是图像化,而非文字化的过程……设计师和发明家……能在大脑里组装和操纵其实并不存在的设备。"

  这种非文字性的"空间思维"方式和绘画、写作一样富有创造性。Robert  Fulton 曾经写道:"机械师应当坐在一堆杠杆、螺丝、楔子、轮子中间,就像诗人坐在一堆字母中间一样,把这些工具看成是他思想的展示,每一种新的组合方式就表达了他的一个新想法。"


  67. 「D」问题是:文中"creationism"指的是。

  关键在于注意到作者对于"creationism"使用的几个修饰词,bad religion, bad science.具有deception(欺骗性)。所以选择D.

  68. 「B」问题是:Kitchers 的书作用或目的在于。

  只要把这本书的内容搞清楚即可。前四章简单介绍创世论,并不失时机的批判;而最后三章深刻揭露痛批创世论,所以选B——"暴露创世论者的真实嘴脸".并不是C中的"狠狠咒骂"(curse bitterly),和D的"出其不意的袭击"(surprise attak)

  69. 「B」问题是:从文中可以推理。





  70. 「A」问题是:文章显然是的摘要。




  Kitcher是位哲学家,这也许部分解释了他的论证为何如此清晰和有效。普通读者至少能够了解什么样的数据和论证是支持进化理论的。他书中最后几章对创世论者的批判非常清楚,所有人都能读懂。在这本书的封面上,Stephen Jay Gould 写道:"这本书是理性的代表。"确实如此,在创世论和进化论辩论中,理性是惟一合格的评判。