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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY50

2006-7-28 01:05  

  DAY50

  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1

  MOSCOW, Nov. 20While the international space station brings new renown to Russia, the nation is gaining from other explorershackers who launch into cyberspace.

  Russias reputation as home to some of the worlds most gifted and devious hackers was underscored last month when Microsoft Corp. disclosed that passwords to access its coveted source code had been sent from the company network to an email address in St. Petersburg.

  It is by no means clear whether a Russian was behind the breakinthat email account could have been managed remotely. But that doesnt stop Russian hackers“khakeri”, or “vzlomshchiki(housebreakers)”from puffing out their chests at such exploits.

  In a recent poll on a hackeroriented Web site, 82 percent said Russia had the worlds best hacker; only 5 percent said Americans were better.

  But the bravado is laced with frustration.

  Hackers are motivated as much by a lack of opportunity in economically struggling Russia as by criminal leaning, people inside and outside the hacker community say.

  Sergei Pokrovsky, editor of the magazine Khaker, said that hackers in his circle have skills that could bring them rich salaries in the West, but they expect to earn only about $300 a month working for Russian companies.

  Russias higher education traditionally has been strong in mathematics, a skill at the core of hacking, but the Russian market offers few employment opportunities to such knowledgeable people, said Mikko Hypponen, manager of antivirus research at the Finnish(芬兰) company FSecure. “They have too much time on their hands,” said Hypponen, whose company highly values the Russian computer experts it employs.

  Russians have been behind several highprofile — and sometimes highly lucrative — hacking cases. There was the cyberthief known as “Maxus” who stole creditcard numbers from Internet retail trader CD Universe earlier this year and demanded a $100,000 ransom. When denied the money, he posted 25,000 of the numbers on a Web site. Maxus was never caught.

  Mathematician Vladimir Levin was caught and in 1998 was sentenced to three years in prison in Florida for a stunning invasion of the Citibank system in which he pilfered $12 million by transferring digital dollars out of the banks accounts.

  Russians are also believed to be behind the 1998 theft of Global Positioning System software, used for missiletargeting, from U.S. military computers.

  1. From the first two paragraphs, we can know that

  A. Russias international reputation on space station was established on Nov.20.

  B. Russia is notorious for its hackers who launch into cyberspace.

  C. It was confirmed that Russia had stolen the precious source code of Microsoft Corp.

  D. The email address issue proved that Russians reputation as home to some of the worlds most gifted hackers was not so high as people had considered.

  2. When the author said that “that doesnt stop Russian hackers from puffing out their chests at such exploits”, he meant that

  A. Russian hackers became more proud of themselves through the suspected breakin into Microsoft Corp.

  B. Russian hackers grew very angry about the suspicion of their breakin.

  C. Russian hackers admitted frankly that they managed the email account remotely and they were very proud of it.

  D. Russian hackers became reckless in breaking in cyberspace.

  3. Which of the following statements is true about Russian hackers?

  A. They are mainly motivated by a lack of opportunity of employment in Russia.

  B. Their tendency of and interest in committing crime was the most powerful driving force for their breakin.

  C. Because they have too much time on hands, they cant help breaking in cyberspace in order to kill time.

  D. Most of them are elites in mathematics and much appreciated.

  4. Associating with context, we can guess out that “high — profile” means

  A. conspicuous and attracting public attention. B. beneficial.

  C. gaining extremely bad reputation. D. violating the law desperately.

  5. Which of the following statements is true?

  A. 12 million dollars out of Citibank.

  B. Maxus stole many creditcard numbers from Internet retail trader CD Universe and attempted to sell them to others at the price of $100,000.

  C. It is believed that Russians had stolen the Global Positioning system software.

  D. Russians had involved in some hacking cases and gained lots of money.

  Passage 2

  Could laughter really be used as a medicine? A firstof — its — kind study has just started at the Jonsson Cancer Center at the University of California, Los Angeles, to determine if laughter can reduce pain and help treat disease in children and adolescents who have cancer or HIV/AIDS.

  The study called “Rx Laughter” is being led by Dr. Margaret Stuber, a cancer researcher and professor in the department of psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences at the UCLA Neuropsychiatry Institute. The study will initially focus on what makes healthy children laugh, using classic cartoons, television shows and classic comedy films, and then gauging the reactions of the children.

  The study will then use the programs that induce the most laughter to test immune system responses in young patients. If a positive biological response to laughter is found, the cartoons, TV shows and films could be incorporated into the alleviate stress and fear and promote faster healing, according to the researchers.

  “We ultimately hope to help children who are hospitalized and receiving treatment for cancer and AIDS, serious illnesses in which the immune system is vital, and improving it could be lifesaving,” said Stuber.

  “We have a pretty good idea about the impact that laughter and humor can have on a persons wellbeing,” said researcher Dr. Lonnie Zeltzer, professor of pediatrics and anesthesiology and director of the pediatric pain program at the Mattel Childrens Hospital at UCLA. “But no one has really looked with any depth at the possible biologic links among health, having a good sense of humor and even the act of laughter itself. Well study the impact that both humor and laughter have on the immune system and pain transmission and control”。

  Stuber and Zeltzer will head up Rx Laughter, founded over a year ago by Sherry Hilber, a Beverly Hills entertainment executive who is its executive director. Hilber said classic films featuring Abbott & Costello, the Marx Brothers, W. C. Fields, Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton have been selected for the study. Classic television shows such as Mork & Mindy, Lets Make A Deal and The Flintstones are also on the roster.

  “Our choices will be refined over the next few years,” said Hilber. “When you watch something privately, you might laugh differently than you would within a group, and these things need to be taken into consideration because this has never been tested in a hospital before.”

  If the study proves that laughter and medicine do prompt positive physiological responses, the researchers hope to integrate them into treatment procedures for young patients. Stuber concluded that such integration of conventional medicine and laughter would represent a philosophical and structural change in the way medicine is practiced at UCLA.

  1. The most appropriate title for this passage is

  A. study to Explore Laughter As Adjunct to Medical Treatment.

  B. laughter May Really Be Used As a Medicine.

  C. the Impact of Laughter and Humor.

  D. the Integration of Conventional Medicine and Laughter.

  2. The direct aim of “Rx Laughter” is

  A. to save lives of children by improving their immune systems.

  B. to reduce pain and fear in children who suffered from serious illnesses.

  C. to test what makes healthy children laugh.

  D. to test immune system responses in children.

  3. From the passage we can know that

  A. Children will be saved from dying once their immune system is improved.

  B. People have noticed the impact laughter have on their healthy condition.

  C. No one has ever thought that there can be any biological relation between health and laughter.

  D. Laughter will be combined with medicine as a medical treatment at UCLA.

  4. The word “alleviate” in paragraph 3 can be replaced by

  A. remove.B. overcome.C. ease.D. avoid.

  5. We can infer from the text that Beverly Hills is probably

  A. a kind of tool for entertainment.

  B. a place where famous film stars assemble.

  C. a medical institution.

  D. a research company.

  Passage 3

  Lets hear for wrinklesfor those fabulous frown lines and highkicking crowsfeet. What crucial moods they so subtly express! With a slight tightening of the skin between the eyebrows, bosses can communicate killer exasperation. Moms, salesclerks and 30ish women at single bars can signal displeasure without raising their voices. And consider the alpha male: why, Clint Eastwood with an unlined face would just be……Dick Clark. Wrinkles were surely what George Orwell had in mind when he wrote that at 50 everyone has the face he deserves.

  That Orwellhe said so in 1984. Today, when youth is a secular religion and a huge industry, you can choose your favorite age and, with the help of wonder drugs, stay there. So lets join the 21st century and hear it for Botox, which may soon guarantee that at 50 everyone will have the face she, or he, can afford.

  Botox: short for botulinum toxin. The name wont make you smile, but the injection can keep you from frowning. A decade ago, the toxin that causes botulism (a form of food poisoning) was a treatment only for spasmodic procedure, with more than a million injections in 2000 (according to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery), 89% of them to women. Botox is just the thing to erase worry and anger lines, to take years and cares off the most fretful visage. And all for $300 — $1000 a shot, compared with a $15000 facelift. “Advertisers can present this as a facelift in a bottle,” says Norman Shorr, a Beverly Hills plastic surgeon. “This is a true miracle drug. It really works”。

  The Food and Drug Administration may shortly agree. Botox, made by the Irvine, California, pharmaceutical firm Allergan, is expected to win FDA approval — but only for removing frown lines, not for the full facial makeover. According to a source close to Allergan, if the company had applied for multiple places to use Botox, it would have been required to conduct more expensive clinical testing. Either way, doctors will still inject you all over.

  Any miracle has skeptics, and Botox has earned its share. Dr. Robert Butler, president of the International Longevity Center, worries that “no one will look as if they have facial expressions” and that repeated use of the drug, which requires an injection every few months, could “create a psychological dependence”。 Downmarket clinics could flourish, offering the drug for $100 by diluting it, thus causing creepy side effects. Dr. Debra Jaliman, a dermatologist who teaches a Botox course at Manhattans Mount Sinai, is a proponent of the drug but has corrected nasty complications from other doctors misapplied injection: “Eyelid droop; slurred speech, as if theyve had a stroke; drooped mouth; asymmetrical forehead; eyes that dont shut”。

  Warning wont scare off the folks in Hollywood. “I live in a town completely devoted to vanity,” says writer actress Carrie Fisher, 45, who has been Botoxing for five years. “It irons out the wrinkles. Youd never know I was manicdepressive.” Danny Bonaduce, 42, a child actor (The Partridge Family) turned co — host of The Other Half, was accompanying his wife to a Botox session when her doctor asked him if he wanted some. “Three days after I did it, Dick Clark said to me, 'You look 10 years younger!’。 With Botox, people cant really tell what youve done, just that you look better”。

  But the trend has spread beyond the beautyfanatic media world. Patty Reimerdes, 50, a divorced mother of two from Queens, New York, had her first Botox procedure last week and pronounces herself pleased. Reimerdes says she doesnt mind being 50: “I just dont want to look 50”。 And so what if your face freezes up a little? As Fisher notes, “Its good for poker”。

  Of course, if everyone gets Botoxed, the minority now using the drug will lose its competitive edge; no one will look younger or more serene than anyone else. But then, who cares if youre unhappy, as long as youre incapable of showing it?

  1. Whats the main idea of the first paragraph?

  A. Wrinkles can easily betray that you are not in a good mood.

  B. We should listen to others talk about wrinkles.

  C. Everyone deserves a face with wrinkles when he gets old.

  D. We can express displeasure by just tightening the skin.

  2. Whats FDAs opinion about the use of Botox?

  A. Approving by limiting the scope of its use.

  B. Approving just for a short time.

  C. Approving at the condition that Botox will spend more money on research.

  D. Disapproving on any condition if Botox is going to be applied to the full facial makeover.

  3. What can we learn from the first sentence of paragraph 5?

  A. Botox has gained a lot of money though it is much criticized.

  B. Usually there are always some people who will express doubts on miracles, but Botox is an excerption.

  C. Botox, like any other miracles, is warned against its drawbacks by some people.

  D. Botox has gained as much reputation as any other miracles.

  4. According to Dr.Robert Butler, which of the following consequences of using Botox is true?

  A. Peoples faces will be unable to move.

  B. Botox of low quality and low price will be provided and thus may induce disastrous bad effects.

  C. Some doctors may apply the injection wrongly.

  D. People will be involved in a psychological illness.

  5. What is the authors attitude towards Botox?

  A. sarcasticB. approving C. neutralD. criticizing

  Passage 4

  “I have great confidence that by the end of the decade we shall know in vast detail how cancer cells arise,” says MIT microbiologist Robert Weinberg, one of the first to pinpoint the gene responsible for a specific cancer. But, he cautions, “some people have the idea that once one understands the cause, the cure will rapidly follow. Consider Pasteur. He discovered the causes of many kinds of infections, but it was fifty or sixty years before cures were available”。

  With as many as 120 varieties in existence, discovering how cancer works is not easy. The quest gained momentum in the early 1970s, when researchers pinpointed an oncogene for the first time. Oncogenes, which are cancercausing genes, are inactive in normal cells. Anything from cosmic rays to radiation to diet to a spontaneous mutation may activate a dormant oncogene, but how remains unknown. If several oncogenes are goaded into action, the cell, unable to turn them off, becomes cancerous.

  The exact mechanisms involved are still mysterious, but the likelihood that many cancers are initiated at the level of the genes suggests that we will never prevent all cancers. “Mutations are a normal part of the evolutionary process,”“says oncologist William Hayward of Memorial SloanKettering Cancer Center, recipient of the 1985 BristolMyers Award for Distinguished Achievement in Cancer Research. Environmental factors can never be totally eliminated; as Hayward points out, ”we can not prepare a vaccine against cosmic rays“。

  The prospects for cure, though still distant, are brighter. J. Michael Bishop, a microbiologist at the University of California, San Francisco, and one of the discoverers of the first protooncogene, the “switch” that turns normal cells cancerous, suggests the following approach:“First, we need to understand how the normal cell controls itself. Second, we have to determine whether there are a limited number of genes in cells, which are always responsible for at least part of the trouble. If genetic damage is at the heart of every cancer, which are the active genes? If we can understand how cancer works, we can counteract its action”。

  For Robert Weinberg, the most likely method to yield results in the long term is to discover the biochemical reactions in a cell that go away. “We will discover in the next several years the biochemical changes that oncogenes induce in the cell.” He says, “this will make it possible to begin to develop, in a rational way, various pharmacological approaches to the problem”。

  “Well need new information in basic cell biology at the Harvard University School of Public Health. ”But if one takes it out as far as fifty or a hundred years, I think we should be able to get rid of it“。

  1. When Robert mentioned Pasteur, he indicated that

  A. the cure would rapidly follow, once the cause had been found.

  B. it would be a long time before cures are available, though we had gotten the cause.

  C. it was impossible for us to understand the cause of cancer.

  D. we were at a loss to conquer cancer.

  2. Which of the following statements is WRONG about oncogenes?

  A. Oncogenes, which are inactive in normal cells, may cause cancer.

  B. They may be activated by anything, including cosmic rays, radiation, diet, and a spontaneous mutation.

  C. How they are activated remains unknown.

  D. Any slightest change of oncogene will make the cell cancerous.

  3. It can be learned from paragraph 3 that

  A. we would prevent all kind of cancer if the vaccine against cosmic rays were found.

  B. some unstable environmental factors make the mutation possibly occur.

  C. by the words of William, we learn that none of cancers can be prevented, for mutations are normal.

  D. cosmic rays is the most important environmental factor.

  4. J. Michael Bishop suggested several approaches including

  I. Understand how the normal cell controls itself.

  II. Determine whether there are a limit number of genes in cells, which are always responsible for at least part of the trouble.

  III. Discover the biochemical reaction in a cell that goes away.

  A. I and IIB. II and III C. I, II and IIID. II only

  5. According to the whole passage we learn that the attitude of the author toward the approaches of the cancer is

  A. pessimistic. B. useless. C. optimistic.D. critical.

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:

  Passage 1

  本文主要讲网络黑客和人们对俄罗斯黑客可能参与其中的怀疑。

  Russias reputation as home to some of the worlds most gifted and devious hackers was underscored last month when Microsoft Corp. disclosed that passwords to access its coveted source code had been sent from the company network to an email address in St. Petersburg. 俄罗斯一向被人看做是世界上最有才能、最狡猾的一些黑客的故乡。由于上月微软公司披露,进入其让人垂涎的资源码的指令被人从该公司的网络传到了圣彼得堡的一个email地址,人们对这一点更加确信无疑。

  1. 「B」文章第一段a darker sort of notice就指出俄国的不光彩的名称,第二段更明确解释了。其余三项表述都错误。

  2. 「A」that doesnt stop Russian hackers from puffing out their chests at such exploits是说俄罗斯黑客为此冒险而更加趾高气扬。

  3. 「D」从文章倒数第四段尤其是最后一句可以得出此结论。其余三项表述都有错误。

  4. 「A」high — profile意为出风头。

  5. 「D」倒数第三段有说明。

  Passage 2

  本文是对笑能否作为一种医学辅助疗法而做的研究。

  If a positive biological response to laughter is found, the cartoons, TV shows and films could be incorporated into the alleviate stress and fear and promote faster healing, according to the researchers. 据研究人员说,如果发现笑所引起的生物学上的反应是令人满意的,那么在对小病人的治疗过程中,就会同时利用卡通片,电视节目和影片,以缓解紧张和恐惧,加速康复。

  1. 「A」通观全文,A项表述最贴切全面,其余表述都片面或离题。

  2. 「B」从文章第三段可得出结论。A是最终目的,不是直接目的。C,D都不是目的。

  3. 「B」文章第五段已说明。A,B,C表述错误。

  4. 「C」alleviate指缓解

  5. 「B」Beverly Hills是美国加洲南部城市,好莱坞影星聚集地。从后面的内容也可以推断出它是与影片有关的娱乐场所。Passage 3

  本文讲的是一种新的“神奇药物”-Botox,它能消除皱纹、忧虑,或许还能改变你的性格。

  1. Lets hear for wrinklesfor those fabulous frown lines and highkicking crowsfeet. 让我们为皱纹——为那些惊人的抬头纹和高挑的眼角纹——而欢呼鼓掌吧。

  2. Any miracle has skeptics, and Botox has earned its share. Dr. Robert Butler, president of the International Longevity Center, worries that “no one will look as if they have facial expressions” and that repeated use of the drug, which requires an injection every few months, could “create a psychological dependence”。 任何奇迹都会有人怀疑,“保妥适”也不例外。国际长寿中心主席罗伯特·巴特勒博士担心“人人看上去都没有了面部表情”,还担心重复使用该药物(它要求每隔数月就注射一次)会使人产生“心理依赖”。

  3. Downmarket clinics could flourish, offering the drug for $100 by diluting it, thus causing creepy side effects价廉次质的还可能靠此生意兴隆,将稀释的药物以100美元的价格售出,从而导致骇人听闻的副作用。

  1. 「A」其余三项表述错误。

  2. 「A」从第四段第一句话得知。关键是理解shortly(很快)的意思。B、C、D表述都错。

  3. 「C」由第五段可得答案。

  4. 「B」由第五段及难句解析3可知。

  5. 「B」由原文最开始的表述和最后一段可知作者态度是赞成拥护的。

  Passage 4

  这是一篇有关治疗癌症的自然科学文章, 作者提出了癌症治愈的可能性, 剖析致癌原因, 从而说明癌症治愈的艰巨性,但总体是乐观的。

  1. ……but the likelihood that many cancers are initiated at the level of the genes suggests that we will never prevent all cancers. 但是许多癌症很可能起始于基因因素,这表明我们永远也不能做到对一切癌症的预防。

  2. Second, we have to determine whether there are a limited number of genes in cells which are always responsible for at least part of the trouble. 第二, 我们必须确定细胞内是否存在一定数量的基因,至少是引起癌症的部分起因。

  3. For Robert Weinberg, the most likely method to yield results in the long term is to discover the biochemical reactions in a cell that go away. 对罗伯特·温伯格来说, 长期有效的最可行的办法是去发现细胞内异常的生化反应。

  4. “But if one takes it out as far as fifty or a hundred years, I think we should be able to get rid of it”。如果我们展望今后五十年或一百年, 我认为我们一定能够摆脱癌症。

  1. 「B」从第一段最后一句话可得出答案。

  2. 「D」文章第三段指出:癌基因在正常细胞中并不活跃,所以D的说法是错误的。

  3. 「B」此段最后一句话指出,如果有几个癌基因被激活,那么这个癌细胞由于不能阻止这些癌基因的作用就会癌变。其余选项表述有误。

  4. 「A」文章倒数第三段有详细解释。

  5. 「C」通过文章最后的话,我们可以看出作者是持乐观态度的。

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