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考研英语范文阅读(十九)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students' career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical educational reform. Very few writers on the subject have explored this distinction—indeed, contradiction—which goes to the heart of what is wrong with the campaign to put computers in the classroom.

  An education that aims at getting a student a certain kind of job is a technical education, justified for reasons radically different from why education is universally required by law. It is not simply to raise everyone's job prospects that all children are legally required to attend school into their teens. Rather, we have a certain conception of the American citizen, a character who is incomplete if he cannot competently assess how his livelihood and happiness are affected by things outside of himself. But this was not always the case; before it was legally required for all children to attend school until a certain age, it was widely accepted that some were just not equipped by nature to pursue this kind of education. With optimism characteristic of all industrialized countries, we came to accept that everyone is fit to be educated. Computer-education advocates forsake this optimistic notion for a pessimism that betrays their otherwise cheery outlook. Banking on the confusion between educational and vocational reasons for brining computers into schools, computer-ed advocates often emphasize the job prospects of graduates over their educational achievement.

  There are some good arguments for a technical education given the right kind of student. Many European schools introduce the concept of professional training early on in order to make sure children are properly equipped for the professions they want to join. It is, however, presumptuous to insist that there will only be so many jobs for so many scientists, so many businessmen, so many accountants. Besides, this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so many international corporations.

  But, for a small group of students, professional training might be the way to go since well-developed skills, all other factors being equal, can be the difference between having a job and not. Of course, the basics of using any computer these days are very simple. It does not take a lifelong acquaintance to pick up various software programs. If one wanted to become a computer engineer, that is, of course, an entirely different story. Basic computer skills take—at the very longest—a couple of months to learn. In any case, basic computer skills are only complementary to the host of real skills that are necessary to becoming any kind of professional. It should be observed, of course, that no school, vocational or not, is helped by a confusion over its purpose.

  59. The author thinks the present rush to put computers in the classroom is ________.

  (A)far-reaching

  (B)dubiously oriented

  (C)self-contradictory

  (D)radically reformatory

  60. The belief that education is indispensable to all children ________.

  (A)is indicative of a pessimism is disguise

  (B)came into being along with the arrival of computers

  (C)is deeply rooted in the minds of computer-ed advocates

  (D)originated from the optimistic attitude of industrialized countries

  61. It could be inferred from the passage that in the author's country the European model of professional training is ________.

  (A)dependent upon the starting age of candidates

  (B)worth trying in various social sections

  (C)of little practical value

  (D)attractive to every kind of professional

  62. According to the author, basic computer skills should be ________.

  (A)included as an auxiliary course in school

  (B)highlighted in acquisition of professional qualifications

  (C)mastered through a life-long course

  (D)equally emphasized by any school, vocational or otherwise

  答案及试题解析

  BDCA

  59.(B)意为:目标不明确。

  第一段指出,有人主张为学生的未来工作而进行计算机课堂教学,有人则主张为教育的根本改革这一更广泛的目的进行计算机课堂教学,在这两种人之间存在着一条看不见的界限。很少有人撰文论述这一区别——或更确切地说是矛盾,但是,这一问题恰恰是主张汁算机课堂教学这一运动的症结之所在。可见,在这两句中已经提到了计算机教学的目的不清的问题。

  在全文的最后一句作者总结说:当然,应该指出的是,无论是职业学校还是普通学校,其办学目的不明确都是无益的。

  A意为:意义深远的。

  C意为:自相矛盾的。

  D意为:根本改革的。

  60. (D)意为:起源于工业化国家的乐观主义态度。

  第二段第三、四、五句指出,我们对一个美国公民的素质有一种既定的认识,认为,如果他不能充分地评价外在因素对其生活和幸福的影响,他的个性是不完整的。但是,情况不总是如此,在法律规定所有孩子必须上学到某个年龄之前(指义务制教育),有些人被普通认为本性上是不适于接受这种教育的。随着乐观主义的思想深入到所有工业化国家,人们开始认为每个人都适于受教育。

  A意为:表明伪装下的悲观主义态度。

  B意为:随着计算机的诞生而存在。

  C意为:深深地植根于主张计算机教育的人们的思想中。computered是本文作者杜撰的一个词,根据第二段最后一句,computered advocate当理解为“主张计算机课堂教学的人”。

  61.(C)意为:几乎不具有实际价值。意即不适用于其国家。

  第三段第三句指出,此外,对于像我们这样偌大一个国家(指美国)来说,经济遍布这么多的州,涉及如此多的跨国公司,这种做法(指欧洲式的职业教育)很难培养出所需要的各类专业人员。

  A意为:取决于学员开始接受培训的年龄。candidate这里指参加培训的人。

  B意为:值得在社会各界进行尝试。

  D意为:对各种专业人员来说都具有吸引力。

  62.(A)意为:应该作学校的辅助课程。

  第四段第六句指出,无论如何,在成为任何一类专业人员所需要的众多真才实学中,计算机基础技能只是一种辅助技能。这里的complementary和选择项A中的auxiliary是同义词。

  B意为:在获得专业素质的过程中加以强调。在最后一段作者指出,学习计算机基本技能很简单,不需要花太多的时间。可见,作者并不认为从职业培训的角度来学习计算机基础知识多么深奥难懂,因此也不需要“强调”。

  C意为;花毕生的时间去掌握。根据最后一段,在作者看来,现在掌握计算机基础技能非常简单,不需要花毕生的时间学习各种软件程序,掌握基础计算机技能最多只需要一两个月。

  D意为:无论是职业学校还是普通学校都强调。有关文章最后一句话的意思参阅第59题题解。

  翻译句子

  1、With optimism characteristic of all industrialized countries, we came to accept that everyone is fit to be educated.

  [参考译文]随着工业化给国家带来的特有乐观精神,我们已经接受人人都适合受教育的观念。

  2、In any case, basic computer skills are only complementary to the host of real skills that are necessary to becoming any kind of professional.

  [参考译文]不管怎样,基本的计算机技能只是对成为专业技术人员所需的各种实际技能的补充。

  补充难句翻译

  ①An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students' career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical educational reform.[参考译文]有些人为了学生的就业前景为教室里放置电脑而辩,有些人为教育的彻底改革中更为广泛的理由为教室里放置电脑而辩,这两群人之间有一条无形的界线。

  [结构剖析]这是本篇首句,对于本文理解至关重要。在结构上这是个简单句,复杂之处在于divides后面所跟的两个作宾语的those.those后面跟的都是由arguing引导的作为限定成分的现在分词短语,结构相似。注意短语中介词用法,on the behalf of和本句最后一个for都有“因为……的原因”的意思。

  [阅读重点]主要把两个those后面的限定成分弄清楚,就知道了两种论点的不同之处,还要注意的是本句的介词所代表的意思。

  ②An education that aims at getting a student a certain kind of job is a technical education, justified for reasons radically different from why education is universally required by law.[参考译文]旨在为学生搞个工作的教育是一种技术教育,其所存在的合理性迥然不同于教育之所以为法律普遍规定的理由。

  [结构剖析]首先看这个句子的主语an education,它带了一个that引导的定语从句,其中that在这个从句中作主语,谓语是aims at,后面跟了一个动名词短语作介词宾语;这个句子的谓语是is,后面作表语的是名词a technical education,在这之后是一个过去分词justified引导的短语修饰上句的表语名词,这个短语中作为介词宾语的reasons带了一个形容词 different前导的短语,其中from后面跟的介词宾语是个why引导的从句。

  [阅读重点]理解这个句子的关键,一是明白主语所带从句的含义,再是表语所带的过去分词短语,尤其是其中why引导的介词宾语从句。

  ③Rather, we have a certain conception of the American citizen, a character who is incomplete if he cannot competently access how his livelihood and happiness are affected by things outside of himself.[参考译文]我们更应该具有的是作为美国公民的某种观念,这个公民人物如果不能很恰当地认识到自己的生存和幸福是如何受到自身之外的事物的影响,那么其公民特征就是不完整的。

  [结构剖析]这个句子的难点在于conception后面所跟的限定成分,尤其是 citizen后面的部分,在这里a character复指的是the American citizen,其后是一个who引导的定语从句,是个主从复合句,其中主句是who is incomplete,从句是if引导的条件从句,这个条件从句中的谓语动词access跟了一个how引导的宾语从句。

  [阅读重点]对这个句子的理解关键在于后半部分对the American citizen的解释,尤其是if引导的条件从句的含义,是整篇文章的重点内容。

  ④Besides, this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so many international corporations.[参考译文]另外,在我们这么一个大国里,经济延展到这么多的州、涉及到这么多的国际公司,因而要按照数量培养出所需的各类专业人员是不大可能的。

  [结构剖析]这里的主语this指的是前面所说的professional training,后面不定式短语中动词produce的宾语是professional,前面的成分是修饰这个词的短语,接着是他点状语,其中 country带了两个修饰成分,前一个是形容词词性的短语as large as ours,后一个是where引导的定语从句,这个从句的主语the economy有两个谓语动词:is和involves,后面都用了相似的结构so many,表示强调。

  ⑤But, for a small group of students, professional training might be the way to go since well-developed skills, all other factors being equal, can be the difference between having a job and not.[参考译文]但是,对一小部分学生来说,职业教育也许是条可取的路径,因为在其他因素相同的情况下,技能的娴熟是得到工作与否的关键。

  [结构剖析]该句是个主从复合句,前面for引导的短语表示的是对象,注意主句的表语the way跟了一个不定式to go,从句由since引导,这个从句的主干结构是skills…… can be the difference,其中difference带了一个介词短语between…… and……,and后面的not可以补足为not having a job.再者就是中的插入成分,all other factors being equal,这是一个独立主格结构,在本句中作为插入短语,起到限制的作用。

  [阅读重点]理解好since后面的原因状语从句是这个句子的关键,当然还要注意for后面所跟的对象,以及主句不太确定的语气:might be the way.

  语言点详解

  1.invisible无形的[大纲词汇]invisible a.看不见的,无形的[经典例句] He kept himself invisible in his residence.

  2.campaign运动[大纲词汇]campaign n.战役;运动[经典例句]The school launched a campaign to raise money for a new library.

  3.aim at目标在于[大纲词汇] aim v.(at)目的在于,旨在;瞄准,针对;n.目标,目的[经典例句]The book aim at teaching basic skill of life.

  4.justify证明…是正当的[大纲词汇]justify v.证明…是正当的,认为有理[经典例句]Your state of anxiety doesn't justify you being so rude to me.

  5.livelihood生活[大纲词汇] livelihood n.生活;生计[经典例句] He earned his livelihood by painting.

  6.pursue从事[大纲词汇]pursue v.追赶,追踪;继续,从事pursuit n.追赶,追求;职业,工作[经典例句]These students pursue regular morning exercise.

  7.optimism乐观[扩充词汇]optimism n.乐观(主义)[经典例句]We look to the future with optimism.

  8.forsake放弃[扩充词汇]forsake v.遗弃,抛弃;摒弃[经典例句]He was forsaked by his friends.

  9.pessimism悲观[扩充词汇]pessimism n.悲观(主义)[经典例句] His pessimism infected everyone in the meeting.

  10.betray背弃[大纲词汇]betray v.背叛,出卖;暴露,流露,泄露[衍生词汇]betrayal n.背叛,出卖;暴露[经典例句]The spy betrayed his motherland.

  11.bank on依赖[大纲词汇]bank n.岸,堤;银行,库; v.存人银行[扩充词汇]bank on把希望寄托于……,依赖;指望[经典例句]You can bank on him to help.

  12.vocational职业的[大纲词汇]vocation n.职业,行业[衍生词汇]vocational a.职业的,行业的[经典例句]He sent his son to a vocational school of carpentry.

  13.early on在初期[扩充词汇]early on在初期,早先[经典例句]She turned his down quite early on.

  14.presumptuous放肆的[扩充词汇]presumptuous a.专横的;傲慢的;冒昧的;放肆的[经典例句] It would be presumptuous for anybody to offer such a view.

  15.acquaintance了解[大纲词汇]acquaintance n.相识,熟人acquaint v.(sb with)使认识,使了解[经典例句]I had some previous acquaintance with the subject.

  16.pick up学会[大纲词汇]pick up获得,学会[经典例句]He picked up English when he was still young.

  17.complementary补充的[大纲词汇]complement v./n.补充,补足(物)[衍生词汇]complementary a.补充的[经典例句]The economic of the two countries are highly complementary.

  15.far-reaching深远的[扩充词汇] far-reaching a.深远的,广泛的[联想记忆]far-ranging a.广泛的far-sighted a.有远见的

  19.dubiously值得怀疑地[大纲词汇] dubious a.有问题的,靠不住的;(值得)怀疑的;犹豫不决的[经典例句]They are dubiously serious about the whole affair.

  20.reformatory革新的[大纲词汇] reform v./n.改革,改造,改良[衍生词汇]reformatory a.改革的;革新的[经典例句]The new policies are moderately reformatory.

  21.indispensable必不可少的[扩充词汇]indispensable a.(to)必不可少的,必需的[经典例句]Water is indispensable to mankind.

  22.indicative of表明[大纲词汇] indicate v.指出,指示;表明,暗示indication n.指出,指示;迹象,暗示[衍生词汇]indicative a.(of)指示的,象征的,暗示的[经典例句]A headache is sometimes indicative of eyestrain.

  23.in disguise伪装[大纲词汇] disguise n./v.伪装,假装[经典例句]He went to the house in disguise.

  24.come into being出现[扩充词汇] come into being出现,产生,形成[经典例句]Automobiles came into being only a hundred years ago.

  25.along with与……一起[大纲词汇] along prep,沿着; ad.向前along with与,一起[经典例句] She came to the dancing party along with her husband.

  26.originated from起源于[大纲词汇] originate v.(in,from)起源,发生;首创,创造[经典例句]Her book originated from a short story.

  27.candidate报考者[大纲词汇]candidate n.候选人,候补者;报考者[经典例句]There are three candidates for the vacancy.

  28.auxiliary辅助的[大纲词汇]auxiliary a.辅助的,补助的[经典例句]An auxiliary propeller was installed to provide more power.

  29.highlight强调[大纲词汇]highlight v.使显著,使突出;强调;n,最精彩的部分,最重要的事件[经典例句]Growing economic problems were highlighted by a slowdown in old output.

  30.acquisition获得[大纲词汇] acquisition n.获得;获得物acquire v.获得,取得;学到[经典例句]The children made substantial progress in the acquisition of basic skills.

  全文翻译

  对于计算机课堂教学,人们在观点上存在着一条无形的界限:一种是以学生的就业前景为理由,另一种是以激进的教育改革为理由。很少有人就这一区别——事实上是矛盾——进行撰文探讨,但它却是促使计算机进入课堂的活动出问题的关键。

  旨在使学生胜任某种工作的教育是职业教育,它存在的理由与法律所规定的普及教育之间有很大差别。根据法律要求,所有儿童都必须就学至十几岁,其目的并非简单地增加他们的谋职能力。我们更应该具有的是作为美国公民的某种观念,即他必须准确判断自身的生活和幸福是如何受到外界影响的,否则他的公民特征就是不完整的。但是情况并不总是如此;在法律要求所有儿童必须上学至一定年龄之前,人们普遍认为有些儿童天生就适合接受这种教育。随着工业化给国家带来的特有乐观精神,我们已经接受人人都适合受教育的观念。倡导计算机教育的人抛弃了这一乐观理念,取而代之的是与他们乐观外表相悖的悲观论调。基于将计算机引入课堂的“教育理由”和“谋职理由”的混淆,主张计算机教育的人常常只强调毕业生的就业前景,而忽略了他们的教育成就。

  对适当的学生实行职业教育也有道理。欧洲的许多学校很早就引进职业培训的概念,以确保儿童具备欲从事的职业所需的技能。然而,去臆断科学家、商人、会计职位的数量是武断的。此外,在我们这么大的一个国家里,经济延展到这么多的州,涉及到这么多的国际公司,因而要按照数量培养出所需要的各类专业人员是不太可能的。

  但是对少数学生而言,职业培训也许是可取之路,因为在其他因素相同的情况下,熟练的技能是能否得到工作的关键。当然,目前计算机的基本操作非常简单。不需要花毕生的时间去熟悉各种不同的软件程序的使用。当然如果想成为一名计算机工程师,事情就完全不同了。基本的计算机技能最长也只需一两个月即学会。不管怎样,基本的计算机技能只是对成为专业技术人员所需的各种实际技能的补充。当然应该看到的是,不管是职业学校、还是普通学校,混淆计算机教学的目的,都不会受益。

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