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考研英语范文阅读(十二)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  Few creations of big technology capture the imagination like giant dams. Perhaps it is humankind's long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought that makes the ideal of forcing the waters to do our bidding so fascinating. But to be fascinated is also, sometimes, to be blind. Several giant dam projects threaten to do more harm than good.

  The lesson from dams is that big is not always beautiful. It doesn't help that building a big, powerful dam has become a symbol of achievement for nations and people striving to assert themselves. Egypt's leadership in the Arab world was cemented by the Aswan High Dam. Turkey's bid for First World status includes the giant Ataturk Dam.

  But big dams tend not to work as intended. The Aswan Dam, for example, stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left—all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity.

  And yet, the myth of controlling the waters persists. This week, in the heart of civilized Europe, Slovaks and Hungarians stopped just short of sending in the troops in their contention over a dam on the Danube. The huge complex will probably have all the usual problems of big dams. But Slovakia is bidding for independence from the Czechs, and now needs a dam to prove itself.

  Meanwhile, in India, the World Bank has given the go-ahead to the even more wrong-headed Narmada Dam. And the bank has done this even though its advisors say the dam will cause hardship for the powerless and environmental destruction. The benefits are for the powerful, but they are far from guaranteed.Proper, scientific study of the impacts of dams and of the cost and benefits of controlling water can help to resolve these conflicts. Hydroelectric power and flood control and irrigation are possible without building monster dams. But when you are dealing with myths, it is hard to be either proper, or scientific. It is time that the world learned the lessons of Aswan. You don't need a dam to be saved.

  51. The third sentence of paragraph 1 implies that ________.

  (A)people would be happy if they shut their eyes to reality

  (B)the blind could be happier than the sighted

  (C)over-excited people tend to neglect vital things

  (D)fascination makes people lose their eyesight

  52. In paragraph 5, “the powerless” probably refers to ________.

  (A)areas short of electricity

  (B)dams without power stations

  (C)poor countries around India

  (D)common people in the Narmada Dam area

  53. What is the myth concerning giant dams?

  (A)They bring in more fertile soil.

  (B)They help defend the country.

  (C)They strengthen international ties.

  (D)They have universal control of the waters.

  54. What the author tries to suggest may best be interpreted as ________.

  (A)“It's no use crying over spilt milk”

  (B)“More haste, less speed”

  (C)“Look before you leap”

  (D)“He who laughs last laughs best”

  答案及试题解析

  CDDC

  51.(C)意为:过于兴奋的人容易忽视极为重要的事情。

  第一段指出,在重大技术所创造的东西中,很少有比大坝更能体现人的幻想的。也许是因为人类长期遭受洪涝和干旱的袭击,使人类(通过筑坝)制服洪水的愿望显得更加令人兴奋不已(该句是一个强调句,基本句型是:it is…… that makes…… so fascinating)。这两句谈的是人们的愿望;本段第三、四句话锋一转,指出愿望与现实往往相反,所以,第三句应该在第一、二句意思的基础上理解。第三句可理解为:但是,兴奋有时候也表现为盲目。而第三句的意思又被第四句进一步阐释为:有些大坝工程为害多于为善(do more harm than good)。盲目建设大坝的危害在第三、五段都举了具体例子加以说明。

  A意为:人们如果无视现实就会感到高兴。

  B意为:盲人比有眼睛的人更幸福。

  D怠为:兴奋使人双目失明。

  52.(D)意为:讷尔默达河大坝周围的平民百姓。

  讷尔默达河位于印度。根据第五段,建设讷尔默达河大坝(Narmada Dam)本来就是一个错误(wrong-headed),但是,世界银行还是向印度贷款,支持大坝建设。银行的顾问指出,大坝将给平民百姓带来苦难,给环境带来破坏,但是,银行方面却一意孤行。大坝的建设也许会给掌权有势的人带来益处。但是,即使这一点也根本没有保障(即:很难保障大坝会给有权势者带来利益)。该句中的the powerless(平民百姓)在意思上应该对应于上一句的the powerful(有权势者)。

  A意为:缺电力的地区。

  B意为:没建电站的大坝。

  C意为:印度周边的穷国。

  定冠词the置于形容词之前经常指一类人,如:the poor穷人,the rich富人,the miserable受苦难的人,the young年轻人,等等。

  53.(D)意为:它们普遍能控制住洪水。

  第一段第一、二句指出,人们幻想大坝来达到控制洪水的目的,但有时意识不到大坝会带来意想不到的后果。第三段也指出,大坝有时有违其建设目的,埃及的阿斯旺高坝(Aswan High Dam)就是一个例子。大坝起到了制服尼罗河洪水泛滥的作用,但也不再有洪水过后留下的肥沃的冲积土壤;换来的只是(all in return for)一个硕大的病态水库,水库被淤泥填满,几乎无法发电。

  第四段指出,尽管如此,制服洪水的神话还在继续传送。这句话的意思是:人们仍然一味地幻想着通过建坝来控制水:其含义是,尽管大坝的建设有时弊多于利,会给人类带来意想不到的后果,但是,人们建坝的热情还是很高,本段下文提到了斯洛伐克和匈牙利拟在多瑙河上建坝的事。最后一段第二句指出,其实,水力发电也好,治水也好,灌溉也好,未必都只有通过建坝进行。

  A意为:它们带来更肥沃的土地。

  B意为:它们有助于国防。第二段第二句指出,有些人把建设硕大的大坝看作是国家成就的象征,是一个民族独立(assert themselves)的体现,这其实是一种幻想(It doesn't help that……);第四段第二、三、四句指出,本周,在文明的欧洲中心,为了多瑙河上的建坝事宜,斯洛伐克人和匈牙利人几乎就要派驻军队了,该大坝也可能产生其他大坝存在的所有问题,但是,斯洛伐克正在闹独立(is bidding for independence),想脱离捷克,它想通过大坝来证明自己的能力和独立性(prove itself)。可见,人们想通过大坝证明自己的国力和独立性,并非将大坝用于国防。

  C意为;它们增强国际联系。

  54.(C)意为:“三思而后行。”

  该题实际上提问的是作者的观点:作者想通过本文说明什么道理。

  文章指出,人们对大坝的建设存在很多幻想,所以经常事与愿违。在最后一段最后两句,作者指出,该是我们认真吸取阿斯旺大坝的教训的时候了。言外之意,不要再存在理想化心理,我们应该变得更加理智一点,因为,我们未必非要通过大坝来拯救自己(You don't need a dam to be saved.),这一句回溯该段第二句:其实,水力发电也好,治水也好,灌溉也好,未必都只有通过建坝实现。言外之意,应该消除对大坝的迷恋,多动脑筋,积极寻求更好的措施解决我们的问题。

  A意为:“覆水难收。”比喻后悔是没有用的。

  B意为:“欲速则不达。”

  D意为:“笑到最后才算笑得最好。”比喻受到挫折时不要轻易放弃,应该坚持。

  翻译句子

  1、Perhaps it is humankind's long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought that makes the ideal of forcing the waters to do our bidding so fascinating.

  [参考译文]可能正是长期以来人类遭受旱涝摆布的苦难使得人们治理江河供我驱策的理想如此动人心魄。

  [结构剖析]这个句子中包含了一个强调句型,基本结构是it is…… that……,强调部分的关键词是suffering,这个词就是后面that引导的从句的主语,因而这个句子的核心句其实就是Suffering makes the ideal so fascinating.suffering加上前后的修饰、限定成分是humankind's long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought(人类受水旱灾害控制的长期的苦难);ideal后面跟了一个of引导的分词短语:forcing the waters to do our bidding(让河水听我们吩咐[的这个理想]);suffering使得这个ideal如何呢?so fascinating.在掌握了这个整体框架之后,这个句子就很清楚了。

  [阅读重点]通过分析结构我们知道此句强调的是suffering这个使得ideal如此fascinating的这个因果关系。一旦给that引导的从句找到了真正的主语suffering,这个句子的基本结构就出来了。

  2、The Aswan Dam, for example, stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left—all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity.

  [参考译文]例如,阿斯旺大坝使得尼罗河不再洪水泛滥,但是它也夺去了埃及以前所享有的洪水留下的肥沃淤泥——这些换来的就是这么个疾病滋生的水库,现在这个水库积满了淤泥,几乎不能发电了。

  [结构剖析]这个句子首先要注意的是有两个谓语:stopped和deprived;然后可以找出这个句子的核心句:The Aswan Dam stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the silt.第一个silt后面有一个that引导的从句that floods left修饰silt;破折号后面的all代替的是破折号前面所说的the fertile silt,介词短语in return for后面的宾语带了一个which引导的从句,修饰的是这个宾语:a giant reservoir of disease,同时这个从句中还有一个so…… that的结构。如果把这个which引导的从句分解开来就是The reservoir is now full of silt, so it barely generates electricity.

  [阅读重点]此句理解的关键有三个:一是找到两个谓语:stopped和deprived;二是要明白all指的是前面所说的the fertile silt;三就是which引导的从句修饰的是the reservoir of disease这个名词短语。

  补充难句翻译

  1、It doesn't help that building a big, powerful dam had become a symbol of achievement for nations and people striving to assert themselves.[参考译文](即使这样的教训)也无法阻止修建高大雄伟的水坝已经成为那些力争得到自我肯定的国家和人们的伟大成就的象征。

  [结构剖析]这个句子中第一个单词it指代的是文章中上面的一句话,即“从大型水坝中得到的教训是不一定大的就是好的”。help后面是一个从句,在这个从句中,主语是一个现在分词短语,核心句是Building a dam had become a symbol of achievement.分词短语striving to assert themselves是修饰nations and people的限定成分。

  [阅读重点]注意it doesn't help的意思,此处意为“无法阻止”。

  2、This week, in the heart of civilized Europe, Slovaks and Hungarians stopped just short of sending in the troops in their contention over a dam on the Danube.[参考译文]本周在文明的欧洲腹地,斯洛伐克人和匈牙利人为了多瑙河上的一处水坝引起的争端,差一点就派出了部队。

  [结构剖析]这个句子理解上的困难可能出现在短语上。撇开前面的时间状语和地点状语不看,这个句子的核心句其实是Slovaks and Hungarians stopped sending troops.这里有两个短语需要理解:short of差一点就;send in派遣。后面的in their contention over a dam说的是他们sending in the troops的原因。再加上前后的状语短语,就有了一个完整理解。

  [阅读重点]这个句子的短语和介词非常重要,除了结构分析中所说的两个短语之外,in the contentions,over a dam,on the Danube都对句子理解非常重要。

  3、Proper, scientific study of the impacts of dams and of the cost and benefits of controlling water can help to resolve these conflicts.[参考译文]对于水坝的影响作用、水坝控制水流的成本和收益进行恰当而科学的研究能够有助于解决这些冲突。

  [结构剖析]这个句子的核心句是Study can help to resolve conflicts.但是理解的重点却在study后面的修饰成分,因为study后面有两个并列关系的of,说明了study的内容:study of the impacts of dams和study of the cost and benefits of controlling water.第三个of修饰的是the cost and benefits两个名词,of后面是个动名词短语。这个修饰成分解决了,后面的句子就好理解了,再注意一下help to do sth.的用法。

  [阅读重点]主要是四个of的用法,注意哪两个of是并列关系(of the impacts和of the cost and benefits)。

  语言点详解

  l.capture the imagination令人神往[大纲词汇]capture v./n.捕获,俘虏;:。夺得,攻占[经典例句]The huge poster on the wall captured his attention.

  2.at the mercy of在…的支配下[大纲词汇]mercy n.仁慈,怜悯,宽恕at the mercy of在…的支配下[经典例句]The captives were left at the mercy of their enemies.

  3.drought旱灾[大纲词汇]drought n.旱灾,干旱[经典例句] Many people were forced to flee home by the drought.

  4.do our bidding听我们的命令[大纲词汇]bid见bid for[衍生词汇]bidding n.命令,请求;召唤,邀请;出价do the bidding of sb听命于某人[经典例句]He did the bidding of his father without questioning his purpose.

  5.fascinating迷人的[大纲词汇]fascinate v.迷住,强烈吸引[衍生词汇]fascinating a.迷人的[经典例句]His description of the future is fascinating.

  6.do harm造成损害[大纲词汇]harm n./v.伤害,损害,危害[经典例句] Smoking does great harm to people's health.

  7.strive to努力[大纲词汇]strive v.奋斗,努力[经典例句]He always sets up a higher goal for himself and strives to attain it.

  8.assert themselves显示他们的权威[大纲词汇] assert v.断言,宣称[扩充词义]assert oneself坚持自己的权利,显示自己的权威[经典例句]By 1206 Genghis Khan had asserted himself as overall chief of the Mongol tribes.

  9.cement巩固[大纲词汇] cement v.胶合;巩固,加强; n.水泥;胶泥,胶接剂[经典例句] Their marriage has cemented the friendship of the two families.

  10.bid for企图获取……[大纲词汇]bid v.祝愿;命令,吩咐;报价,投标; n.出价,投标[扩充词义]bid n.企图,努力,争取[经典例句]The senators were hostile to his bid for power.

  11.deprive of剥夺[大纲词汇]deprive v.夺去,使丧失[经典例句]The traitor was deprived of his citizenship.

  12.silt淤泥[扩充词汇] silt n.泥沙,淤泥

  13.in return for作为回报[大纲词汇]return v./n.返回,回来;归还,送还;回答in return(for)作为回报,作为报答[经典例句]What can I do in return for your kindness?

  14.short of差一点就[大纲词汇]short a.短的,矮的;(of)缺乏,不足; n.[pl.]短裤[扩充词义]short of少于,不及,为达到[经典例句] I met Mary just short of the door.

  15.send in派出[大纲词汇]send in呈报,提交,送来[经典例句]They sent in the police to break up the demonstration.

  16.In the contention over在他们争夺…中[大纲词汇]contend v.斗争,竞争;坚决主张[衍生词汇]contention n.争夺,竞争;口角,争吵[经典例句]The companies mobilized all kinds of resources in their contention over the project

  17.give the go-ahead to准许做…

  [扩充词汇]go-ahead n.许可;前进;有进取心give the go-ahead to sth准许做某事[经典例句]The manager didn't give the go-ahead to recruit new workers.

  18.wrong-headed判断错误的[扩充词汇] wrong-headed a.判断错误的;坚持错误的,执迷不悟的[构词方法] -headed后缀,表示“有一头的”,“…头脑的”[联想记忆]cool-beaded a.头脑冷静的[经典例句]He never realized that his judgement was wrong-headed.

  19.hardship困苦[大纲词汇] hardship n.艰难,困苦[构词方法]-ship后缀,表示“性质”,“状态”,“地位”,“权利”[联想记忆]friendship n.友谊partnership n.伙伴关系leadership n.领导[经典例句]Their company has gone through economic hardship.

  20.destruction破坏[大纲词汇]destruction n破坏,消灭destructing a.破坏性的[经典例句]The earthquake caused serious destruction to the city.

  21.far from远非[大纲词汇]far from远非,远离[经典例句]The world is far from perfect.

  22.impact影响[大纲词汇]impact v./n.冲击,碰撞;效果,影响[经典例句]Currency depreciation has great impact on foreign trade.

  23.hydroelectric水电的[构词方法]hydro-表示“水”,“液体”[联想记忆]hydrobiology n.水生物学hydrocooler n.水冷器hydroscope n.水中望远镜

  24.irrigation灌溉[扩充词汇]irrigate v.灌溉irrigation n.灌溉[经典例句]Irrigation is needed to make crops grow in dry area.

  25.monster巨大的[大纲词汇]monster n.怪物,妖怪[扩充词义]monster a.巨大的,庞大的[经典例句]The region was attacked by a monster storm a few days ago.

  26.fertile肥沃的[大纲词汇]fertile a.肥沃的,富饶的;能繁殖的[经典例句]The tribe moved to an area of fertile land.

  全文翻译

  在重大技术所创造的东西中很少能像大型水坝这样让人痴迷的。可能正是因为人类长期遭受旱涝灾害的摆布才使得人们治理江河、供我驱策的理想如此令人痴迷。但让人着迷有时也就使人盲目。有几个巨型大坝项目就有弊大于利的危险。

  建造大坝的教训是:大的未必总是美的。但这个教训也无法阻止修建高大雄伟的大坝已成为那些力争得到自我肯定的国家和人民的伟大成就的象征。埃及由于建造了阿斯旺大坝而巩固了在阿拉伯世界的领导地位。土耳其在力图跻身第一世界的努力中也包括修建阿塔特克大坝。

  但大坝不会像预期的那样产生效果。以阿斯旺大坝为例,它阻止了尼罗河洪水泛滥,但也使埃及失去了洪水冲击过后留下的肥沃土壤,换回来的是这么一个疾病滋生的水库。现在这个水库积满了淤泥,几乎不能发电了。

  不过,控制水的神话还在继续。本周,在文明的欧洲腹地,斯洛伐克人和匈牙利人就为了多瑙河上的一处水坝引起争端,差点动用了军队。这个大型工程可能会出现大坝上所有的常见问题。但斯洛伐克正在要求脱离捷克而独立,现在他们需要建一个大坝来证明自己的实力。

  与此同时,世界银行已经贷款给印度来建造问题很多的纳尔马达大坝。尽管世界银行的顾问说,该大坝将给平民带来苦难,而且也会破坏那里的环境,但世界银行已经这样做了。大坝会给有权有势者带来利益,但这种利益却没有保障。

  对于水坝的影响作用、水坝控制水流的成本和收益进行恰当而科学的研究能够有助于解决这些冲突。水利发电,治理洪水以及灌溉即使不建大型水坝也是可能的,不一定非要建大坝。但当你相信神话时就很难做到合理或科学。现在是世界吸取阿斯旺大坝教训的时候了。我们不需要建一座将被拯救的大坝。

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