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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY51

2006-7-28 01:05  

  DAY51

  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1

  Steven Spielbergs first films were made at a time when directors were the most important people in Hollywood, and his more recent ones at a time when marketing controls the industry. That he has remained the most powerful filmmaker in the world during both periods says something for his talent and his flexibility. No one else has put together a more popular body of work, yet within the entertainer there is also an artist capable of The Color Purple and Schindlers List.

  Spielbergs most important contribution to modern movies is his insight that there was an enormous audience to be created if oldstyle Bmovie stories were made with Alevel craftsmanship and enhanced with the latest developments in special effects. Consider such titles as Raiders of the Lost Ark and the other Indiana Jones movies, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, E.T. and Jurassic Park. Look also at the films he produced but didnt direct, like the Back to the Future series, Gremlins, who Framed Roger Rabbit, and Twister. The story lines were the stuff of Saturday serials, but the filmmaking was cutting edge and delivered what films have always promised: they showed us something amazing that we hadnt seen before.

  Spielbergs first important theatrical film was The Sugarland Express, made in 1974, a time when gifted auteurs like Scorsese, Altman, Coppola, De Palma and Malick ruled Hollywood. Their god was Orson Welles, who made the masterpiece Citizen Kane entirely without studio interference, and they too wanted to make the Great American Movie. But a year later, with Jaws, Spielberg changed the course of modern Hollywood history. Jaws was a hit of vast proportions, inspiring executives to go for the home run instead of the base hit. And it came out in the summer, a season the major studios had generally ceded to cheaper exploitation films. Within a few years, the Jaws model would inspire an industry in which budgets ran wild because the rewards seemed limitless, in which summer action pictures dominated the industry and in which the hottest young directors wanted to make the Great American Blockbuster.

  Spielberg cant be blamed for that seismic shift in the industry. Jaws only happened to inaugurate it. If the shark had sunk for good (as it threatened to during the troubled filming), another picture would have ushered in the age of the movie best sellers — maybe Star Wars, in 1977. And no one is more aware than Spielberg of his own weaknesses. When I asked him once to make the case against his films, he grinned and started the list: “They say, 'Oh, he cuts too fast; his edits are too quick; he uses wideangle lenses; he doesnt photograph women very well; hes tricky; he likes to dig a hole in the ground and put the camera in the hole and shoot up at people; hes too gimmicky; hes more in love with the camera than he is with the story.’”

  In the history of the last third of 20th century cinema, Spielberg is the most influential figure, for better and worse. In his lesser films he relied too much on shallow stories and special effects for their own sake. In his best films he tapped into dreams fashioned by our better natures.

  1. In the first paragraph, the author lists three works of Steven Spielberg in order to .

  A. support the point that he is not only an entertainer but also an artist

  B. explain why Spielberg has remained the most powerful filmmaker in the world

  C. indicate that no one can exceed Spielberg

  D. point that Steven Spielberg possesses both talent and flexibility

  2. Steven Spielberg recreated the oldstyle Bmovie with Alevel craftsmanship, which one is Not such kind works?

  A. Close Encounters of the Third KindB. Jurassic Park

  C. Citizen KaneD. Raiders of the Lost Ark

  3. Jaws was a success because .

  A. it initiated a new era of Hollywood filmworldB. it defeated Citizen Kane

  C. it was a huge boxD. it was the first effort of Steven Spielberg

  4. When the author said “Jaws only……in 1977”, he meant that .

  A. the seismic shift was inevitable

  B. Star Wars was much more successful than Jaws

  C. Jaws should not be so hot

  D. Steven was successful just because he inaugurated Jaws

  5. According to the passage, we know that the author .

  A. criticized the filmmaker of his shallow storiesB. totally appreciated him for his talent

  C. affirmed his achievements partiallyD. was ambiguous

  Passage 2

  A center had conducted a research on childrens and adolescents deviant behaviors. A total of 3650 primary 4 to 6 students and 2750 from 1 to 3 students took part in it. Deviant behaviors included: fighting, smoking, gambling, vandalizing, threatening, stealing, shoplifting, eating in class, talking in class, watching pornographic video or magazine, cheating in exam, using foul language, skipping classes, running away from home, drinking, drug abuse, and reading nontextbook materials in class. Participants had to report on the number of times they had done the above actions during the previous half year.

  The results clearly showed that secondary school students had a much more serious problem than their primary counterparts. All secondary school students admitted that they had, at one time or another, performed all the above behaviors. The most common deviant behaviors for both primary and secondary school students were: talking in class, and using foul language. Some of the 0.2% of primary students, and 50% secondary students had a problem with drug abuse. Interesting enough, primary school kids tended to “act out” and liked to use physical power to solve problems among peers. Thus, fighting remained a “stable” 4th place among all items. However, when they got older, they would fight less and less, and turned their attentions to something else.

  When adolescents entered puberty, they became more and more interested in sex. Thus, the possibility of watching pornographic video or magazine raised 55% of primary school children and all secondary school students confessed that they had come across pornographic materials and had the chance to watch them. 15% of secondary school students admitted that they could get access to pornographic sources very easily.

  Was there any significant difference between boys and girls? Based on our results, girls were truly better behaved. In primary schools, more boys than girls were reported to be involved in fighting, gambling, using foul language, drinking and reading nontextbook materials. On the contrary, girls seemed to be more talkative than boys, 84.1% of girls and 812% of boys would talk to their classmates in class. As for secondary schools, even though boys were more possible to break rules, the frequency of deviant behaviors between boys and girls were more or less the same, 30% of the students always talked in class. 15% of boys and 10% of girls often used foul language.

  Overall, students behavioral problem was not very serious. However, as children grew up, more and more of them would have deviant behaviors. It was clear that problematic behaviors surfaced when children got older. As they entered secondary schools, they would become especially rebellious.

  1. What is the main idea of the first paragraph?

  A. Children ranging from primary school to secondary school, nowadays, are performing various deviant behaviors.

  B. There were 3650 primary students and 2750 secondary students who had at least one time performed deviant behaviors.

  C. The participators denied that they had done such behaviors.

  D. Primary students seemed to have more serious problems.

  2. From the passage, we know that .

  A. all the secondary school students had more than one time performed certain deviant behaviors

  B.less girls were involved in such behaviors in primary schools

  C.some elder children used to solving problems with physical power

  D. talking in class was an unserious problem that only remained in some primary schools

  3. The passage indicated that one of the external causes for childrens deviant behavior is.

  A. high rate of divorce

  B. excessive contacting with pornographic video and magazine

  C. instigation by other older ones

  D. strong desire to be an adult

  4. The passage above is possibly a part of a .

  A. alchemical course B. newspaper report

  C. fictionD. introduction

  5. If we insert a table of the statistic of children and adolescents deviant behavior, it should be.

  A. between paragraph 1 and 2B. between paragraph 2 and 3

  C. between paragraph 3 and 4D. following the last paragraph

  Passage 3

  Most of the people who appear most often and most gloriously in the history books are great conquerors and generals and soldiers, whereas the people who really helped civilization forward are often never mentioned at all. People think a great deal of killers and destroyers, so much so that on all the highest pillars in the great cities of the world you will find the figure of a conqueror or a general or a soldier. And I think most people believe that the greatest countries are those that have beaten in battle the greatest number of other countries and ruled over them as conquerors. It is just possible they are civilized, but they are not the most civilized. Animals fight; so do savages; hence to be good at fighting is to be good in the way in which an animal or a savage is good, but it is not to be civilized. Even being good at getting other people to fight for you and telling them how to do it most efficiently — this, after all, is what conquerors and generals have done — is not being civilized. People fight to settle quarrels. Fighting means killing, and civilized people ought to be able to find some way of settling their disputes other than by seeing which side can kill off the greater number of the other side, and then saying that that side which has killed most has won. And not only has won, but, because it has won, has been in the right. For that is what going to war means; it means saying that might is right.

  But we must not expect too much. After all, the race of men has only just started. From the point of view of evolution, human beings are very young children indeed, babies, in fact, of a few months old. Scientists reckon that there has been life of some sort on the earth in the form of jellyfish and that king of creature for about twelve hundred million years; but there have been men for only one million years, and there have been civilized men for about eight thousand years at the outside. These figures are difficult to grasp; so let us scale them down. Suppose that we reckon the whole past of living creatures on the earth as one hundred years; then the whole past of man works out at about one month, and during that month there have been civilizations for between seven and eight hours. So you see there has been little time to learn in, but there will be oceans of time in which to learn better. Taking mans civilized past at about seven or eight hours, we may estimate his future, that is to say, the whole period between now and when the sun grows too cold to maintain life any longer on the earth, at about one hundred thousand years. Thus mankind is only at the beginning of its civilized life, and as I say, we must not expect too much. The past of man has been on the whole a pretty beastly business, a business of fighting and bullying and gorging and grabbing and hurting. We must not expect even civilized peoples not to have done these things. All we can ask is that they will sometimes have done something else.

  1. In the first sentence, the author says that

  A. most history books were written by conquerors, generals and soldiers.

  B. history books tell us far more about conquerors and soldiers than about those who helped civilization forward.

  C. no one who really helped civilization forward is mentioned in any history book.

  D. conquerors, generals and soldiers should not be mentioned in history books.

  2. In the authors opinion, the countries that ruled over a large number of countries are

  A. certainly not the greatest in any way.

  B. neither the greatest nor the most civilized.

  C. possibly the most civilized but not the greatest.

  D. possibly the greatest in some but not the most civilized.

  3. The author says that civilized people

  A. should not have any quarrels to settle.

  B. should not fight when there are no quarrels to settle.

  C. should settle their quarrels without fighting.

  D. should settle their quarrels by seeing which side can kill off the greater number of the other side.

  4. “From the point of view of evolution, human beings are very young children indeed.” The author says this in order to show that

  A. very young children are not civilized.

  B. evolution does not help civilization forward.

  C. human beings are still at the beginning of their life on this earth.

  D. human beings have learnt very little in a very long time.

  5. “We must not expect even civilized people not have done these things.” This suggests that

  A. those who have done any fighting and bullying cannot be considered civilized.

  B. there is nothing wrong if civilized people do some fighting and bulling.

  C. even civilized people have done some fighting and bullying.

  D. civilized people have never done any fighting and building.

  Passage 4

  Since the 1970s, Americas Gifted & Talented programs have been used to enhance the curriculum of students included in either category in order to challenge and strengthen their unique abilities. These students are usually provided with a separate class with specialized lessons in all areas and a teacher with a special degree in gifted education. It is important that the teacher be a gifted student who would know what the students must face as “above average” members of their school. The job market for gifted education offers a wide range of opportunity and gifted teachers are needed all over the country.

  One of the earliest programs for gifted and talented students was set up in 1974, at the Old Donation Center, in Virginia Beach. Students scoring within the top 3% of students on an assessment test are referred to here to be further challenged. These students are considered gifted and have special teachers and classes to promote development of their talents and minds. Programs like this began to pop up around the nation in the 70s; however, gifted students were looked down upon by teachers, parents, and peers. Many people considered them to be “freaks” because they were different. They didnt understand the implications of the terms “gifted” and “talented”。 Most people simply expected gifted students to act more maturely or to be geniuses, even though gifted students are the same as other children in their needs as human beings. Some gifted students were forced to grow up too fast and some simply ignored the fact that they were smarter than others, thus, they were lost in the shuffle. The irony of it all is that giftedness seems to run in families and the children of these repressed gifted students are, themselves, gifted.

  But what exactly is a “gifted” student? Students (elementary & secondary) are given a repertoire of tests. These tests check IQ, psychomotor ability, specific academic aptitude/performing arts. The main requirement, the IQ, is tested by a standardized IQ test. Ratings are given to each bracket of IQ scores:

  85-99 Lower normal

  100-114 Upper normal

  115-129 Bright

  130-144 Gifted

  145-159 Highly gifted

  160+Above profoundly gifted

  If a student receives a rating of “gifted” of higher(130+), he/she is considered to be a gifted student and is introduced into the designated programs. These students are given the opportunity to choose classes that are meant to teach them how to use their minds for critical thinking, reasoning, and artistic pursuits. Students in these classes are also exposed to culture, literature, and other subject areas that are not usually covered in “normal classes”。 The gifted classes are mainly in an open format allowing the student to create the parameters of his/her work and allowing them to be creative in their learning experience. Each class is presided over by a teacher that has specialized degrees in gifted education. Almost every school in the United States has a need for a gifted class, making job opportunities endless; there are never enough.

  1. Gifted students are different from others for

  A. they grow much faster than others.

  B. they get higher marks in exams of every subject.

  C. they are taught in special classes.

  D. they are much more intelligent.

  2. When the author said, in the second paragraph, that “thus, they were lost in the shuffle”, he meant.

  A. some of the gifted students were repressed

  B. some people were confused by gifted students

  C. some teachers were not gifted themselves

  D. some parents repressed gifted students themselves

  3. In the given test, the gifted were checked except for .

  A. psychomotor abilityB. EQ

  C. skills in the visual and performing artsD. leadership

  4. The classes that the gifted took were regarded different from the “normal” class except for.

  A. it taught students how to think critically

  B. it provided the gifted with culture, literature and some other interesting subjects

  C. it always remained in an open format

  D. the teacher there should possess some extraordinary experience

  5. According to the passage, the author.

  A. agrees on the gifted class

  B. claims that the existence of gifted class would reduce the job opportunities

  C. thinks that every teacher who presides the gifted class should have at least one sparkle in character

  D. thinks that the gifted class discouraged the ungifted students.

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:

  Passage 1

  这是一篇文化艺术领域的文章, 作者介绍了大导演史蒂芬·斯皮尔伯格对电影艺术发展的贡献, 以及他在创作中的不足之处, 但作者对其总体是肯定的。

  1. That he has remained the most powerful filmmaker in the world during both periods says something for his talent and his flexibility. 他始终是世界上最具实力的电影制片商, 这说明他既具有电影制作才能, 又具有良好的灵活变通能力。

  2. No one else has put together a more popular body of work, yet within the entertainer there is also an artist capable of The Color Purple and Schindlers List.目前还没有人制作出比他的电影更受欢迎的作品。 但他不仅仅是一位娱乐影片制作者, 同时还是一位电影艺术家, 给时人奉献出诸如《紫日》与《辛德勒的名单》等电影艺术品。

  3. Spielbergs most important contribution to modern movies is his insight that there was an enormous audience to be created if oldstyle Bmovie stories were made with Alevel craftsmanship and enhanced with the latest developments in special effects. 斯皮尔伯格对于现代电影业最重要的贡献在于, 他洞察到只有将老式二流电影故事以一流的技巧, 辅以最新的特技效果拍摄而成的电影才会吸引大批观众。

  4. Jaws was a hit of vast proportions, inspiring executives to go for the home run instead of the base hit.《大白鲨》大获成功, 激励着电影经理们撇开安全打,去尝试本垒打。

  5. ……in which summer action pictures dominated the industry and in which the hottest young directors wanted to make the Great American Blockbuster. 夏季动作片占据主导地位, 还有就是一个个最为活跃的年轻导演们跃跃欲试, 纷纷想拍出 “大美国巨资影片”。

  1. 「A」从文中第一段很容易看出。

  2. 「C」从文中可以发现Citizen Kane 并不是由斯皮尔伯格导演的电影。

  3. 「A」文章第四段中间部分指出了影片的成功表现在它一举改变了好莱坞的发展方向。

  4. 「A」作者说这句话是对该段落第一句的展开解释。

  5. 「C」从文章最后一句可以推断出来。

  Passage 2

  这是一篇关于儿童和青少年不良行为的报道,作者概述了青少年的不良行为, 并且在不同年龄段、不同性别之间作比较, 最后作者指出儿童和青少年的不良行为还尚不严重。

  5.5% primary school children and all secondary students confessed that they had come across pornographic materials and had the chance to watch them.百分之五点五的小学生和所有的初中生都承认他们曾经接触过甚至有机会看过一些色情的资料。

  1. 「A」只有A项全面而符合题意,其余的都包含在此项中。

  2. 「B」只有B是正确的,可以在第四段中找到,其余的都错误。

  3. 「B」在第三段中给了明确答案。

  4. 「B」从行文风格可知这是一篇新闻报道,而不是学术、小说或介绍之类的文章。

  5. 「A」第二段第一句就提到the result, 所以只能将研究的表格插在一二段之间。

  Passage 3

  这是一篇有关人类文明发展的社科文章。 作者指出,人类崇尚武力, 这并不符合文明的标准, 但正因为人类处于文明发展的初级阶段, 所以作者仍然报以乐观的态度。

  1. People think a great deal of killers and destroyers, so much so that on all the highest pillars in the great cities of the world you will find the figure of a conqueror or a general or a soldier. 他们在人们的心目中地位如此高大, 以至于在世界各国的大城市里所有最高的柱形纪念碑上,你都能找到征服者、将军或军人的塑像。

  2. And I think most people believe that the greatest countries are those that have beaten in battle the greatest number of other countries and ruled over them as conquerors.我想,大多数人会认为,最强大的国家应当是那些打败最多国家并以征服者统治战败国的国家。

  3. Fighting means killing, and civilized peoples ought to be able to find some way of settling their disputes other than by seeing which side can kill off the greater number of the other side.开战即意味着杀戮, 而文明民族应设法找到某种解决争端的方式, 而不应是看哪一方能杀死对方更多数量的人。

  4. Scientists reckon that there has been life of some sort on the earth in the form of jellyfish and that kind of creature for about twelve hundred million years. 科学家推断, 地球上以水母以及此类生物形式存在的某种生命已延续了约12亿年。

  1. 「B」A项错误,C项片面绝对,D项纯属主观猜测。

  2. 「D」从第一段第三句可以明显看出作者的观点。

  3. 「C」从第一段后部分可知只有C正确,其它表述都是错误的。

  4. 「C」此结论是通过前文得出的,而且通过句子本身也可以直接理解。

  5. 「C」即使是文明人类,我们也不能期望他们没做这些(不文明的)事情。

  Passage 4

  这是一篇有关天才儿童教育的文章,作者提出智商高的学生应另外给予授课,因为一般的课堂会埋没以至压制他们的天分。

  1. The job market for gifted education offers a wide range of opportunity and gifted teachers are needed all over the country. 特殊教育形成的就业市场为全国各地的天才教师提供了更为广阔的就业机会。

  2. Students scoring within the top 3% of students on an assessment test are referred to here to be further challenged.在评估测试中,得分最高的3%的学生将聚集在这儿,接受进一步的挑战。

  3. Some gifted students were forced to grow up too fast and some simply ignored the fact that they were smarter than others, thus, they were lost in the shuffle.有些天才被迫超负荷学习,而他们比别人更聪明的事实也被有些人忽视,这些都是不合理的方式,都会压制天才。

  1. 「D」从第二段“Students scoring within the top 3%……are considered gifted”可得知。

  2. 「A」结合这一整句,可知有天赋的学生是被迫太快地长大的,他们受到了压抑。

  3. 「B」从第三段可知,只有B没有包含在测试内容中。

  4. 「D」从文章最后一段后部分可以看出只有D不是理由。

  5. 「A」文章最后一句明确表明了作者的赞成态度。

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