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考研英语范文阅读(二十五)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  Aimlessness has hardly been typical of the postwar Japan whose productivity and social harmony are the envy of the United States and Europe. But increasingly the Japanese are seeing a decline of the traditional work-moral values. Ten years ago young people were hardworking and saw their jobs as their primary reason for being, but now Japan has largely fulfilled its economic needs, and young people don't know where they should go next.

  The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the male-dominated job market have limited the opportunities of teenagers who are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbing Japan's rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs. In a recent survey, it was found that only 24.5 percent of Japanese students were fully satisfied with school life, compared with 67.2 percent of students in the United States. In addition, far more Japanese workers expressed dissatisfaction with their jobs than did their counterparts in the 10 other countries surveyed.

  While often praised by foreigners for its emphasis on the basics, Japanese education tends to stress test taking and mechanical learning over creativity and self-expression. “Those things that do not show up in the test scores—personality, ability, courage or humanity are completely ignored,” says Toshiki Kaifu, chairman of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party's education committee. “Frustration against this kind of thing leads kids to drop out and run wild.” Last year Japan experienced 2125 incidents of school violence, including 929 assaults on teachers. Amid the outcry, many conservative leaders are seeking a return to the prewar emphasis on moral education. Last year Mitsuo Setoyama, who was then education minister, raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World WarⅡhad weakened the “Japanese morality of respect for parents”。

  But that may have more to do with Japanese life-styles. “In Japan,” says educator Yoko Muro, “it's never a question of whether you enjoy your job and your life, but only how much you can endure.” With economic growth has come centralization; fully 76 percent of Japan's 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extended family have been abandoned in favor of isolated, two-generation households. Urban Japanese have long endured lengthy commutes (travels to and from work) and crowded living conditions, but as the old group and family values weaken, the discomfort is beginning to tell. In the past decade, the Japanese divorce rate, while still well below that of the United States, has increased by more than 50 percent, and suicides have increased by nearly one-quarter.

  63. In the Westerner's eyes, the postwar Japan was________.

  (A)under aimless development

  (B)a positive example

  (C)a rival to the West

  (D)on the decline

  64. According to the author, what may chiefly be responsible for the moral decline of Japanese society?

  (A)Women's participation in social activities is limited.

  (B)More workers are dissatisfied with their jobs.

  (C)Excessive emphasis his been placed on the basics.

  (D)The life-style has been influenced by Western values.

  65. Which of the following is true according to the author?

  (A)Japanese education is praised for helping the young climb the social ladder

  (B)Japanese education is characterized by mechanical learning as well as creativity.

  (C)More stress should be placed on the cultivation of creativity.

  (D)Dropping out leads to frustration against test taking.

  66. The change in Japanese Life-style is revealed in the fact that________.

  (A)the young are less tolerant of discomforts in life

  (B)the divorce rate in Japan exceeds that in the US

  (C)the Japanese endure more than ever before

  (D)the Japanese appreciate their present life

  答案及试题解析

  BDCA

  63.(B)意为:正面的例子。

  第一段第一句指出,战后,日本的生产率与和谐的社会状态是美国和欧洲所羡慕的,其发展目标明确(主句的直译意思是:无目标性一直不是日本的特点)。

  A意为:处于无目标的发展状态下。

  C意为:是西方国家的劲敌。

  D意为:正在走下坡路。

  64.(D)意为:生活方式受西方价值观的影响。

  第一段指出,日本人越来越多地目睹着一场传统的工作道德价值观的沦丧。十年前,年轻人工作努力,将工作看作是生存(being)的重要动力;但是,日本目前在很大程度上满足了其经济发展的需要,年轻人反而不知道下一步的发展目标了。

  在第二、三段,文章探讨了造成这种现象的原因。在第四段第一句,作者指出,这(that指上一段提到的现象)也许更多地是与日本人的生活方式有关(have…… to do with意为:与……有关)。

  A意为:妇女参加社会活动受到限制。第二段第一句的意思是:随着战后进入高生育时期,并随着妇女进入过去男人占统治地位的就业市场,青少年的机会受到限制,他们已经表现出对为爬上严格的社会阶层——如进入好学校或获得好工作——所做出的巨大的个人牺牲提出质疑。

  B意为:更多的工人对自己的工作感到不满。

  C意为:过多地注重基础训练。根据第三段,虽然外国人经常称赞日本教育对基础训练的强调,日本的教育却倾向于强调考试和机械的学习,而忽视丁创造力和自我表达的培养。可见,强调基础的教育是好的,但是忽视创造力和自我表达的培养也是不对的。这里,强调基础是教育的目的,强调考试和机械的学习是日本实现这一目的的方法;目标并没有错(不会导致道德水平的下降),错误的是实现这一目标的方法。

  65.(C)意为:应该更多地强调创造力的培养。

  参阅第64题题解。

  A意为:日本的教育受到赞赏,因为它有助于年轻人爬上社会阶梯。日本的教育受到外国人赞赏的原因是它强调整础教育。参阅第64题对选择项(C)的解释。

  B意为:日本教育既强调机械的学习也强调创造力。参阅第64题对选择项(C)的解释。

  D意为:失学导致了对考试的反感。根据Toshiki Kaifu的看法,对这种东西(指上一句提到的强调考试,忽视个性、能力、勇气或人性教育)的反感使孩子们弃学,变得难以管教。可见,选择项(D)颠倒了因果。参阅第三段。

  66.(A)意为:年轻人更难以忍受生活中的困难。

  根据Yoko Muro的观点,对日本人来说,问题一直不是一个他们能否享受工作和生活的问题,而是一个他们有多大的承受力的问题。例如,城市居民长期以来一直承受着上下班时间长和生活环境拥挤的折磨,但是,随着旧的价值观被摈弃,(与之相关的)困难开始表面化了(tell意为:产生影响;显现出来)。这里的意思是,日本人以前默默地忍受生活的困苦,但是,现在年轻的日本人觉得这种牺牲太大,对此产生了逆反情绪。参阅第四段。

  B意为:日本人的离婚率超过了美国人。根据第四段最后一句,日本人的离婚率仍然大大地(well)低于美国人。

  C意为:日本人比以前需要忍受的东西更多了。

  D意为:日本人喜欢自己目前的生活方式。

  翻译句子

  1、Aimlessness has hardly been typical of the postwar Japan whose productivity and social harmony are the envy of the United States and Europe.

  [参考译文]毫无目标极少能被认为是战后日本——一个生产力的迅猛发展及社会的安定和谐足以让欧美各国眼红的国家的典型特征。

  [结构剖析]whose productivity and social harmony are the envy of the United States and Europe是Japan的定语从句。

  [阅读重点]千万注意hardly是否定词,相当于not.

  2、Last year Mitsuo Setoyama, who was then education minister, raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World War II had weakened the “Japanese morality of respect for parents.”

  [参考译文]去年,当担任教育部长职务的漱户光夫争辩说二战后由美国占领当局引人的自由主义革新削弱了日本民族“尊敬父母的道德品质”的时候,舆论哗然。

  [结构剖析]本句主语是Mitsuo Setoyama,谓语是raised eyebrows,who was then education minister是主语的定语,when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World War II had weakened the “Japanese morality of respect for parents.”是全句的时间状语从句,其中that引导的从句是argued的宾语,该宾语从句中主语是liberal reforms,谓语是had weakened,宾语是the “Japanese morality of respect for parents”,introduced by the American occupation authorities after World War II是liberal reforms的补语。

  [阅读重点]注意raised eyebrows是“瞋目”的意思,此处指“瞪起眼睛,情绪激愤”。

  补充难句翻译

  1、The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the male-dominated job market have limited the opportunities of teen-agers who are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbing Japan's rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs.[参考译文]战后婴儿潮一代的步人成年以及女性打人男性主导的劳动力市场使得青少年的发展机会变得极为有限,他们已经在不停地质疑为了爬上日本国内那通往优秀学校和体面工作的严酷的社会阶梯而做出的巨大的个人牺牲。

  [结构剖析]本句的主语是The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the male-dominated job market,谓语是have limited,宾语是the opportunities of teen-agers,而who are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbing Japan's rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs是宾语的定语从句,该从句中involved in climbing Japan's rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs又是personal sacrifices的补语。

  [阅读重点]age是“时代”,表示这一代已经成为社会的主力军;baby boom指在战后的“生育高峰,婴儿潮”;questioning的意思是“质问,质疑”;involved in指“与某事有关,由某事引起”。

  2、With economic growth has come centralization; fully 76 percent of Japan's 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extended family have been abandoned in favor of isolated, two-generation households.[参考译文]随着经济的增长,出现了集中化:全国1 .19亿公民,其中整整76%的人口定居城市;在这里,原来的社区和多代同堂的大家庭已被摒弃,取而代之的是与外界疏于往来的、只由两代人组成的核心家庭。

  [结构剖析]has come centralization是一个倒装结构,原形为centralization has come.Where引导的定语从句修饰cities.

  [阅读重点]本句中须弄清一些词汇的含义,如:centralization集中化;community礼俗社会;extended family多代同堂式的家庭;in favor of由…取代;households家庭。

  语言点详解

  1.aimlessness无目的[大纲词汇] aim n.目的,目标[衍生词汇] aimless a.无目的的aimlessness n.无目的[经典例句]The young generation tends to be affected by aimlessness.

  2.harmony和睦[大纲词汇]harmony n.协调,和谐;融洽[经典例句]There are perfect harmony between the two brothers.

  3.envy羡慕[大纲词汇]envy v./n.羡慕;嫉妒[衍生词汇]envious a.羡慕的,嫉妒的[经典例句]His new house was the envy of his friends.

  4. work-moral工作道德

  5.being生存[大纲词汇]being n.生物,人;存在,生存[经典例句」No one can deprive others of their being.

  6.man-dominated男人占优势的[大纲词汇] dominate v.支配,统治,控制;占优势[经典例句] Many feminists believe that we are still in a male-dominated society.

  7.sacrifice牺牲[大纲词汇] sacrifice n.牺牲,献身,牺牲品;祭品,供物;v.(for,to)牺牲,献出;献祭[经典例句]Parents will always make sacrifice to their children.

  8.rigid严格的[大纲词汇] rigid a.刚性的;刻板的;严厉的[经典例句]Rigid traditions melt away.

  9. social ladder社会阶梯

  10.dissatisfaction不满[大纲词汇] dissatisfy v.(with,at)使不满,使不平[衍生词汇]dissatisfaction n.不满[经典例句]We detected his dissatisfaction from his appearance.

  11.counterpart对应的人[大纲词汇] counterpart n.对应的人(物)[经典例句] The organization has established contacts with its counterparts in more than twenty countries.

  12.basic基本原则[大纲词汇]basic a.基础的,基本的[扩充词义] basic n.[pl.]基本原理,基本原则,基本规律,基本因素[经典例句]He has mastered the basics of cooking.

  13.self-expression自我表现[扩充词汇]self-expression n.(在言行、文学艺术作品方面的)自我表现,个性表现[经典例句]The art teacher encouraged self-expression in the children.

  14.show up体现[大纲词汇]show up使呈现,使醒目;出席,到场[经典例句]The advantage of the technology will show up in the long run.

  15.frustration失败[大纲词汇]frustrate v.挫败,阻挠,使灰心[衍生词汇]frustration n.挫败,阻挠;受挫;失败,失意[经典例句]He got drunk due to frustration over his work.

  16.incident事件[大纲词汇] incident n.事件,事变[经典例句]The incident of plane crash will not change our plan.

  17.assault攻击[大纲词汇]assault n./v.攻击,袭击[经典例句] We made an assault on the enemy fort.

  18.amid在…之中[扩充词汇]amid prep.在…中间,在…之中[经典例句] He sat amid the ruins of his house.

  19.outcry强烈抗议[扩充词汇] outcry n.喊叫,呼号;强烈抗议,呐喊[经典例句]The newspaper editorials caused a public outcry against their indifference.

  20.raise eyebrows竖起眉毛表示怀疑[大纲词汇]eyebrow n.眉毛[扩充词汇]raise eyebrows竖起眉毛表示怀疑、惊奇[经典例句]The manager raised his eyebrow to his plan.

  21. liberal reform自由主义改革[大纲词汇]liberal a.慷慨的,大方的;丰富的,富足的;自由的,思想开明的[经典例句]He is not satisfied with the liberal translation of his work.

  22.occupation职业[大纲词汇] occupation n.占领,占据;占用;职业,工作[经典例句]Young people are trained in vocational schools for their future occupation.

  23.weaken削弱[大纲词汇]weak a.虚弱的,软弱的;差的,不够标准的;淡薄的,稀的[衍生词汇]weaken v.使虚弱,使单薄[经典例句]The difficulties didn't weaken his decision to finish the work.

  24.have more to do with和…有更大关系[大纲词汇] have(something)to do with和…有(点)关系[经典例句]His failure had a lot to do with his conceit.

  25.endure承受[大纲词汇] endure v.忍受,持久,持续endurance n.忍耐(力),持久(力),耐久(力)[经典例句]She can no long endure his prejudice.

  26.centralization集中[大纲词汇]central a.中心的,中央的,中枢的;主要的[衍生词汇]centralize v.使集中centralization n.集中,集于中心[经典例句]The centralization of power will lead to dictatorship.

  27.commute乘公交车辆上下班[大纲词汇]commute v./n.乘公交车辆上下班,经常乘车(或船等)往返于两地[经典例句]It is an hour's commute to the university.

  28.divorce离婚[大纲词汇]divorce n./v.离婚,分离[经典例句] The couple has separated and a divorce is inevitable.

  29.on the decline衰落[大纲词汇] decline v./n.下倾,下降,下垂,衰落,斜面,倾斜; v.拒绝,谢绝[扩充词汇] on the decline衰落[经典例句] The Roman Empire was on the decline at the beginning of the first century.

  30.exceed超过[大纲词汇] exceed v.超过,胜过;越出[经典例句] The output this month exceeded what we anticipated.

  全文翻译

  战后日本的生产率和社会的和谐为美国和欧洲所称羡,因此漫无目标很难说是战后日本的特色。但是,日本人正在经历传统工作道德价值观的日益衰退。10年前,日本人工作勤奋,将工作视为他们存在的主要理由,但现在日本大体上已经满足了其经济需求,年轻人却不知道他们下一步的目标在哪里。

  战后婴儿出生高峰期的到来及妇女进入男性主宰的就业市场,限制了青少年的发展机遇,这些青少年已经开始质疑在进好学校,找好工作,攀登日本等级森严的社会阶梯的过程中所做出的沉重的个人牺牲是否值得。在最近一次调查中发现与62.7%的美国学生相比较,只有24.5%的日本学生对学校生活完全满意。此外,与被调查的其他10个国家的工人相比,对自身工作表示不满的日本工人多得多。

  虽然日本的教育因强调基础知识而经常受到外国人的赞扬,但是它往往强调考试和机械学习,而不重视创造性和自我表现。“在考分中得不到体现的那些东西——个性、能力、勇气或人性——完全被忽视,”执政的自民党教育委员会主席Toshiki Kaifu说,“对这类事情灰心丧气,致使孩子辍学、放荡不羁。”去年日本发生了2125起校园暴力事件,其中包括929起袭击老师事件。在一片抗议声中,许多保守党领导人正在力图回复到战前,强调道德教育;去年,当时任教育大臣的Mitsuo Setoyama就提出责难,他申辩说二战后美国占领当局引进的自由改革削弱了“日本人尊敬父母的道德观”。

  但是,那也许与日本人的生活方式关系更大。“在日本,”教育家Yoko Muro说,“问题绝对不是你是否喜欢自己的工作和生活,而仅仅是你能承受多大的负荷。”随着经济的发展,居住集中化也跟着来了,在日本1亿1900万人当中,足有76%住在城市,在那里社区和几世同堂的大家庭已经成为过去,而取而代之的是单门独户的两代之家。城市里的日本人长期忍受着漫长的上下班来回路程和拥挤不堪的居住条件,随着旧的群体家庭道德观的削弱,令人不舒服的结果开始显现出来。在过去10年中,日本的离婚率,尽管仍远在美国之下,已经上升了 50%,而自杀事件则上升了近1/4.

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