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英汉翻译原理14

2006-07-05 09:32

  Unit 14

  I、课外练习参考译文:

  词典中能查词,这可以追溯到一位名叫诺。韦伯斯特的人。他编纂了第一本美国英语词典。

  诺。韦伯斯特1758年出生于康涅狄格州的西哈特福德,他一生热爱词语。韦伯斯特曾就读于耶鲁大学,后来当了教师,又从事写作。

  1782年韦伯斯特在纽约州的戈申教小学。他发现教学使用的课本中缺了点什么,而他觉得这又十分重要。韦伯斯特教学中使用的课本来自英国。这些课本用于英国儿童的教学不失为好教材,但没有考虑美国文化。要知道当时美国刚从英国赢得独立,美国人仍然用英国人的方法教育孩子。韦伯斯特想对学生进行具有浓厚美国特色的教育。

  为了实现这一想法,他在1783年出版了一本学生拼写用书,书的全名叫《美式拼写课本》。这本拼写入门当时很受欢迎,几年间销售了一亿多册,直到20世纪还销售了好多年。

  出了这本拼写课本以后,韦伯斯特萌发了编写美国词语用法词典的念头。韦伯斯特在1806年出版了第一本词典,名叫《英语简明词典》。韦伯斯特想用这本词典帮助确定美国英语的拼写规则,词典中收录了大约一千个词语。

  韦伯斯特在编写第一本词典的过程中就在酝酿编写一部更加宏大的词典。1807年他着手编纂《美国英语词典》。这部重要著作的第一版在1928年出版时,韦伯斯特已经70高龄了。

  II、英汉翻译基本原理第五讲:有哪些常用的翻译技巧?(续)

  三、被动语态的译法:

  (二)译成汉语被动句:

  1、借助“被(…)+ 动词”、“给(…)+ 动词”或“由(以)…+ 动词”的结构

  「例141」His passport was confiscated by the police.

  「例142」

  「译文」他的护照被警方没收了。

  「译文」

  「例143」Any minute we would surely be spotted by enemy planes flying in and out of the airfield.

  「例144」

  「译文」我们随时都会被出入机场的敌机发现。

  「译文」

  「例145」Black people were first brought to America from Africa as slaves.

  「例146」

  「译文」黑人最初是被当作奴隶从非洲贩运到美国的。

  「译文」

  「例147」The dishes were all removed before I had finished eating.

  「例148」

  「译文」我还没有吃完盘子就都给收掉了。

  「译文」

  「例149」The teacher was sacked for slapping a schoolboy.

  「例150」

  「译文」那位教师因为打了一名男生耳光给解雇了。

  「译文」

  「例151」The spaceship will be totally controlled by an on-board electronic computer.

  「例152」

  「译文」这艘宇宙飞船将完全由机载电子计算机控制。

  「译文」

  「例153」Our future is built, bit by bit, minute by minute, by the actions of human beings.

  「例154」

  「译文」我们的未来世界是由人类一点一滴地、一分一秒地创造出来的。

  「译文」

  「例155」Members of Congress, the President, state officials, and those who govern counties and cities, are elected by popular vote. Heads of federal departments are named by the President, and judges are either elected directly by the people or are appointed by elected officials.

  「例156」

  「译文」国会议员、总统、州政府官员以及县长、市长均由民众投票选举。联邦政府各部部长由总统任命,法官由人民直接选举,或由当选官员任命。

  「译文」

  2、借助“为…所 + 动词”或“是…(所)+ 动词 + 的”的结构

  「例157」The late 1960's was a period of revolt against traditional values. Parents' ideas were scorned by their children, who accused them of being too concerned with money.

  「例158」

  「译文」20世纪60年代后期是对传统观念造反的年代。父母的想法为孩子们所不齿;孩子们指责他们过于看重金钱。

  「译文」

  「例159」These very elements and compounds are needed to continue life, and nature is fairly efficient in recycling them.

  「例160」

  「译文」这些元素和化合物正是生命延续所需要的,而大自然能够相当有效地将其循环利用。

  「译文」

  「例161」Each transaction is carried out in public, and the information sent electronically to every brokerage office of the nation.

  「例162」

  「译文」每笔交易都是公开进行的,并通过电子设备把交易资料发往全国各地的每一家经纪人事务所。

  「译文」

  3、借助“得到…+ 名词”、“受(遭)到…+ 名词”或“予(加)以…+ 名词”的结构

  「例163」This phenomenon can only be explained by assuming that the earth's surface is curved.

  「例164」

  「译文」只有假设地球表明呈曲线状,这一现象才能得到解释。

  「译文」

  「例165」People are also troubled because of the participative mood that exists today. This participative phenomenon can be seen in every part of contemporary life.

  「例166」

  「译文」人们受到困扰的另一个原因是当今存在的参与情绪。这种积极参与现象在现代生活中到处可见。

  「译文」

  「例167」The area will have to be protected from too frequent, or too intense, or too careless visiting.

  「例168」

  「译文」这一地区一定要加以保护,不允许过于频繁、过于集中或过于随便地参观访问。

  「译文」

  四、长句的翻译

  (一)英汉语句的结构差异

  「例169」The principal of a great Philadelphia high school is driven to cry for help (1) in combating the notion (2) that it is undemocratic (3) to run a special program of studies for outstanding boys and girls (4)。

  「例170」

  「译文」费城的一所名牌中学为一些出类拔萃的男女学生开设一套特别课程(4),有人认为这种做法不民主(3),结果校长不得不大声疾呼求助人们(1)同这种观念作斗争(2)。

  「译文」

  「例171」It was an old woman(1), tall and shapely still(2), though withered by time(3), on whom his eyes fell(4)when he stopped and turned(5)。

  「例172」

  「译文」他站住,转过身来(5),定睛一看(4),是个年迈妇女(1),个子很高,依然一副好身材(2),虽然受岁月折磨而显得憔悴(3)。

  「译文」

  III、课堂练习(运用各种翻译技巧,将下列句子译成流畅通顺的汉语):

  1.They were given a hearty welcome.

  2.

  3.She was arrested for shoplifting but was released on bail.

  4.

  5.Most letters from his wife are read to him by the nurse in the hospital.

  6.

  7.We found him in a small, businesslike office and the office was protected by some iron bars.

  8.

  9.Los Angeles is full of beautiful girls working as waitresses, hoping to be discovered by a movie agent.

  10.

  11.Perhaps the most important aspect of science fiction's role in the modern world is best summed up in a single word: change.

  12.

  13.Ticket and reservation counters, as well as the future passenger space shuttles, most likely will be located at several airports around the world.

  14.

  15.Individual rights and freedom are assured in the Constitution and are listed in the first 10 amendments called “the Bill of Rights”, which were added in 1791.

  16.

  IV、课堂练习参考译文:

  1.他们受到了热烈的欢迎。

  2.

  3.她因偷窃店铺商品被捕,但后来得到保释。

  4.

  5.他妻子给他的信件大多数是由医院里的护士念给他听的。

  6.

  7.我们在一间井井有条的小办公室里见到了他,办公室装有防护铁栅栏。

  8.

  9.落杉矶到处都是当女招待的漂亮姑娘,她们盼着有制片代理人来发现她们。

  10.

  11.科幻小说在现代社会中最重要的作用也许可以用一句话来贴切地加以概括:揭示变化。

  12.

  13.未来的航天客机以及航天客机的售票订票处都很可能设在世界各地的一些机场内。

  14.

  15.个人的权利和自由在宪法中得到保障,并载入1971年增补的最初10项修正案,统称“人权法案”。

  16.

  V、课外练习(将以下短文译成汉语,注意运用各种翻译技巧时译文流畅通顺):

  Transplant surgeons work miracles. They take organs from one body and integrate them into another, granting the lucky recipient a longer, better life. Sadly, every year thousands of other people are less fortunate, dying while they wait for suitable organs to be found. The terrible constraint on organ transplantation is that every life extended depends on the death of someone young enough and healthy enough to have organs worth transplanting. Such donors are few. The waiting lists are long, and getting longer.

  Freedom from this constraint is the dream of every transplant surgeon. So far attempts to make artificial organs have been disappointing: nature is hard to mimic. Hence the renewed interest in trying to use organs from animals.

  Doctors in India have just announced that they have successfully transplanted a heart from a pig into a person. Pressure to increase the number of such xenotransplants(异种器官移植)seems to be growing. In Europe and America, herds of pigs are being specially bred and genetically engineered for organ donation. During 1996 at least two big reports on the subject —— one in Europe and one in America —— were published. They agreed that xenotransplants were permissible on ethical grounds. and cautiously recommended that they be allowed. America's Food and Drug Administration has already published draft guidelines for xenotransplantation.

  The ethics of xenotransplantation are relatively unworrying. People already kill pigs both for food and for sport; killing them to save a human life seems, if anything, easier to justify.However, the science of xenotransplantation is much less straightforward. (264 words)

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