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2006-07-16 10:07   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |


  ……, the cops Mirandize you.

  …… how to Shepardize a Case.


  一。 Mirandize

  一九六三年,一个有前科的中学退学生,名叫埃内斯托·米兰达(Ernesto Miranda),因涉嫌强奸和绑架妇女在亚利桑那州被捕,警官随即对他进行了审问。在审讯前,警官没有告诉米兰达有权保持沉默,有权不自认其罪。经过连续两小时的审讯,米兰达承认了罪行,并在供词上签了字。后来在法庭上,检察官向陪审团出示了米兰达的供词,作为指控他犯罪的重要证据。米兰达的律师则坚持认为,根据宪法美国宪法第五修正案,米兰达供词是无效的。最后,陪审团判决米兰达有罪,法官判米兰达二十年有期徒刑。此案后来上诉到美国最高法院。一九六六年,最高法院以五比四一票之差裁决地方法院的审判无效,理由是警官在审问前,没有预先告诉米兰达应享有的宪法权利。最高法院在裁决中向警方重申了审讯嫌犯的规则:第一,预先告诉嫌犯有权保持沉默。第二,预先告诉嫌犯,他们的供词可能用来起诉和审判他们。第三,告诉嫌犯有权请律师在受审时到场。第四,告诉嫌犯,如果请不起律师,法庭将免费为其指派一位律师。这些规则后来被称为"米兰达忠告"(Miranda Warnings)。


  上文的the cops Mirandize you.即可译为警察向你宣读米兰达忠告


  Miranda Warnings

  1. You have the right to remain silent.

  2. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law.

  3. You have the right to have an attorney present before any questioning.

  4. If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed to represent you before any questioning.

  Do you understand these rights?


  美国有五十个州,州与州之间的法律体系都不尽相同,由此产生的案例也浩如烟海,故法官,律师,学者在援引法律或案例时都伤透了脑筋,直到一八七三年,有个叫弗兰克。谢巴德(Frank Shepard)的人,为美国法学界发明一种援引(注释)的方法,即著名的谢巴德援引法(Shepard's Citations),这种方法是将所有公开发表的法律数据收集起来并做好索引,这样,法律工作者就能很容易地提取并援引自己想要的法律信息,如下面两个例子就是采用的谢巴德援引法:

  1.Greer v. Northwestern National Insurance Co., 109 Wash.2d 191,743 P.2d 1244 (1987) ,这是案例援引,即指Greer诉Northwestern National Insurance Co.案在下面两个地方可以找到:Washington Reports第109卷第2系列第109页;或West'sPacific Reporter第743卷第2系列第1244页,因为给出了两个地址,这种援引又叫平行援引(parallel citations)

  2.Mich.Comp. Laws S 208.23 (1995),这是法律援引,即该法律在1995年密歇根州法律汇编中可以找到。

  现在,以弗兰克。谢巴德(Frank Shepard)命名的公司已经成成立,这个公司有30多位律师,专门从事谢巴德援引工作,在美国的法律界有着举足轻重的作用。


  上文的how to Shepardize a Case即可译为如何援引一个案子……

  关于谢巴德援引法(Shepard's Citations),请参见下面的英文解释:




  In the law, a researcher "cites" a particular case, statute, or other document to support or give authority to an argument or point s/he wishes to make. A "cite" or "citation", then, is simply the mentioning of, or reference to, some legal document with an indication as to where the cited document can be found and, if desired, read and analyzed. In this manner, one's opponents or other researchers can check the accuracy and validity of the arguments or statements one makes. The "cite" or "citation" usually gives the name of the document, the volume number, the name of the set of books where published, and a page number. (Depending on the material, some citations may provide title or section or part numbers matching the way in which the material is organized.)


  Let's say you are using a specific case, Franken v. Muth, to support an argument. You would be terribly embarrassed if your opponent pointed out in reply that your case was overruled last year and is no longer considered good law. Shepard's Citations (popularly called "citators") help to avoid such situations, because you can "Shepardize" the Franken case (the document in hand)。 By "shepardizing" one's document in hand, a researcher can locate cites to most (if not all) later documents (cases, statutes, regulations, commentary) that have cited the document in hand.

  In our example, you would want to find later cases (and other material) that have cited Franken v. Muth, because one of those later cases may have overruled Franken, or in some way altered or impaired its effectiveness ("authority") as legal precedent. Likewise, if you are relying on a specific statute, you would want to know if a later statute amended or repealed your statute, or if any court had struck it down as unconstitutional.


  Although a Shepard's Citator does not not exist for every type of law material (e.g., no Shepard's for Prosser on Torts), Shepard's Citators do exist for cases, statutes, constitutions, regulations, administrative agency decisions, city charters and ordinances, court rules, treaties, the Restatements, and a plethora of other legal materials. For example, if you need to Shepardize a case published ("reported") in the Northeastern Reporter, 2d series, get the Shepard's Northeastern Reporter Citations. If the document in hand is a Delaware statute, get the Shepard's Delaware Citations. If the document in hand is an Indiana trial court rule, get the Shepard's Indiana Citations. Although some law libraries place Shepard's at various locations, our library shelves all units of Shepard's Citations in one place.


  Shepard's units are usually divided into two basic sections: one for court decisions ("reports") and one for materials that are not court reports (constitutions, session laws, codes, treaties, city ordinances, etc.)。 Check spines or covers of the various pieces.


  Once you have found the correct unit of Shepard's, check the listing on the cover of the latest paper supplement to be sure you have all the pieces needed. (Obviously, if you are shepardizing a recent case, you may not need earlier volumes.) Read the volume spine (or cover) to make sure you are in the correct part of the unit (example: cases?? statutes?? court rules??)。 Once you open a volume (or pamphlet), read the heavy black print across the top of the page, matching it with that of the document in hand. Where the item you are Shepardizing is published in more than one edition or series, be sure the year or series or edition numbers at the top of a Shepard's page match your document. At the top of the page, one will also find the volume number (or article or section or title numbers) that you should match with the numbering of your document. In Shepard's, a volume number may change in the middle of a page, but the change is indicated in legible, black print.

  Here and there across the pages, you will see smaller numbers in heavy black print, often between two dashes or after a "section" symbol. Match these numbers to the page (or section or part) numbers of the document in hand. Once you have found a match, Shepard's will usually give a string of letters and numbers in the column below the page (or section or part) number. These letters and numbers are the "citations" for later documents that have cited the item you are shepardizing. For example, you may find "685 FS 1220 Cir.9". This indicates a later case from the U.S. Court of Appeals, 9th Circuit, published in volume 685, pp. 1220 et seq., of a series called Federal Supplement. (For abbreviations, check the Tables of Abbreviations, at the front of Shepard's bound volumes.) The very small numbers and letters in front of, or after, each citation tell you how the later material treated your document in hand. For example, a small "f" indicates the later case "followed" the case being shepardized, an "o" that it was overruled. Sometimes, when shepardizing a case, one will find very small numbers inserted within cites for later cases and printed somewhat above the line. These very small numbers (example: 3) indicate the later case cited the document in hand specifically for the rule of law laid out in headnote number "X" of the case being shepardized (headnote 3 in our example)。 Be sure to check all Shepards' volumes/pamphlets that cover time periods after the date of your document.

  Shepards' Citations are an excellent tool for checking the validity of documents you rely on, for finding parallel citations, and for finding additional material similar to the material in hand.

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