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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY2

2006-7-28 01:03  

  2003年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语试题(阅读部分)

  Section IIIReading Comprehension

  Directions: Read the following four texts.  Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on ANAWER SHEET 1(40 points)

  Text 1

  Wild Bill Donovan would have loved the Internet. The American spymaster who built the Office of Strategic Services in the World War II and later laid the roots for the CIA was fascinated with information. Donovan believed in using whatever tools came to hand in the "great game" of espionage - spying as a "profession". These days the Net, which has already remade pastimes as buying books and sending mail, is reshaping Donovans vocation as well.

  The last revolution isnt simply a matter of gentlemen reading other gentlemens email. That kind of electronic spying has been going on for decades. In the past three or four years, the world wide web has given birth to a whole industry of pointandclick spying. The spooks call it "open source intelligence", and as the Net grows, it is becoming increasingly influential. In 1995 the CIA held a contest to see who could compile the most data about Burundi. The winner, by a large margin, was a tiny Virginia company called OpenSource Solutions,whose clear advantage was its mastery of the electronic world.

  Among the firms making the biggest splash in the new world is Straitford, Inc., a private intelligenceanalysis firm based in Austin, Texas. Straitford makes money by selling the results of spying(covering nations from Chile to Russia)to corporations like energyservices firm McDermott International. Many of its predictions are available online at www.straitford.com.

  Straifford president George Friedman says he sees the online world as a kind of mutually reinforcing tool for both information collection and distribution, a spymasters dream. Last week his firm was busy vacuuming up data bits from the far corners of the world and predicting a crisis in Ukraine."As soon as that report runs, well suddenly get 500 new internet signups from Ukraine," says Friedman, a former political science professor. "And well hear back from some of them." Opensource spying does have its risks, of course, since it can be difficult to tell good information from bad. That s where Straitford earns its keep.

  Friedman relies on a lean staff in Austin. Several of his staff members have militaryintelligence backgrounds. He sees the firms outsider status as the key to its success. Straitfords briefs dont sound like the usual Washington back and forthing, whereby agencies avoid dramatic declarations on the chance they might be wrong. Straitford, says Friedman, takes pride in its independent voice.

  41. The emergence of the Net has

  A. received support from fans like Donovan.  B. remolded the intelligence services.

  C. restored many common pastimes.    D. revived spying as a profession.

  42. Donovans story is mentioned in the text to

  A. introduce the topic of online spying.  B. show how he fought for the U.S.

  C. give an episode of the information war.  D. honor his unique services to the CIA.

  43. The phrase "making the biggest splash"(line 1,paragraph 3)most probably means

  A. causing the biggest trouble.          B. exerting the greatest effort.

  C. achieving the greatest success.   D. enjoying the widest popularity.

  44. It can be learned from paragraph 4 that

  A. Straitfords prediction about Ukraine has proved true.

  B. Straitford guarantees the truthfulness of its information.

  C. Straitfords business is characterized by unpredictability.

  D. Straitford is able to provide fairly reliable information.

  45. Straitford is most proud of its

  A. official status.       B. nonconformist image.

  C. efficient staff.       D. military background.

  Text 2

  To paraphrase 18thcentury statesman Edmund Burke,"all that is needed for the triumph of a misguided cause is that good people do nothing." One such cause now seeks to end biomedical research because of the theory that animals have rights ruling out their use in research. Scientists need to respond forcefully to animal rights advocates, whose arguments are confusing the public and thereby threatening advances in health knowledge and care. Leaders of the animal rights movement target biomedical research because it depends on public funding, and few people understand the process of health care research. Hearing allegations of cruelty to animals in research settings, many are perplexed that anyone would deliberately harm an animal.

  For example, a grandmotherly woman staffing an animal rights booth at a recent street fair was distributing a brochure that encouraged readers not to use anything that opposed immunizations, she wanted to know if vaccines come from animal research. When assured that they do, she replied,"Then I would have to say yes." Asked what will happen when epidemics return, she said,"Dont worry, scientists will find some way of using computers." Such wellmeaning people just dons understand.

  Scientists must communicate their message to the public in a compassionate, understandable wayin human terms, not in the language of molecular biology. We need to make clear the connection between animal research and a grandmothers hip replacement, a fathers bypass operation, a babys vaccinations, and even a pets shots. To those who are unaware that animal research was needed to produce these treatments, as well as new treatments and vaccines, animal research seems wasteful at best and cruel at worst.

  Much can be done. Scientists could "adopt" middle school classes and present their own research. They should be quick to respond to letters to the editor, lest animal rights misinformation go unchallenged and acquire a deceptive appearance of truth. Research institutions could be opened to tours, to show that laboratory animals receive humane care. Finally, because the ultimate stakeholders are patients, the health research community should actively recruit to its cause not only wellknown personalities such as Stephen Cooper, who has made courageous statements about the value of animal research, but all who receive medical treatment. If good people do nothing there is a real possibility that an uninformed citizenry will extinguish the precious embers of medical progress.

  46. The author begins his article with Edmund Burkes words to

  A. call on scientists to take some actions.

  B. criticize the misguided cause of animal rights.

  C. warn of the doom of biomedical research.

  D. show the triumph of the animal rights movement.

  47. Misled people tend to think that using an animal in research is

  A. cruel but natural.         B. inhuman and unacceptable.

  C. inevitable but vicious.     D. pointless and wasteful.

  48. The example of the grandmotherly woman is used to show the publics

  A. discontent with animal research.  B. ignorance about medical science.

  C. indifference to epidemics.       D. anxiety about animal rights.

  49. The author believes that, in face of the challenge from animal rights advocates, scientists should

  A. communicate more with the public.  B. employ hitech means in research.

  C. feel no shame for their cause.     D. strive to develop new cures.

  50. From the text we learn that Stephen Cooper is

  A. a wellknown humanist.           B. a medical practitioner.

  C. an enthusiast in animal rights.    D. a supporter of animal research.

  Text 3

  In recent years, railroads have been combining with each other, merging into super systems, causing heightened concerns about monopoly. As recently as 1995,the top four railroads accounted for under 70 percent of the total tonmiles moved by rails. Next year, after a series of mergers is completed, just four railroads will control well over 90 percent of all the freight moved by major rail carriers.

  Supporters of the new super systems argue that these mergers will allow for substantial cost reductions and better coordinated service. Any threat of monopoly, they argue, is removed by fierce competition from trucks. But many shippers complain that for heavy bulk commodities traveling long distances, such as coal, chemicals, and grain, trucking is too costly and the railroads therefore have them by the throat.

  The vast consolidation within the rail industry means that most shippers are served by only one rail company. Railroads typically charge such "captive" shippers 20 to 30 percent more than they do when another railroad is competing for the business. Shippers who feel they are being overcharged have the right to appeal to the federal governments Surface Transportation Board for rate relief, but the process is expensive, time consuming, and will work only in truly extreme cases.

  Railroads justify rate discrimination against captive shippers on the grounds that in the long run it reduces everyones cost. If railroads charged all customers the same average rate, they argue, shippers who have the option of switching to trucks or other forms of transportation would do so, leaving remaining customers to shoulder the cost of keeping up the line. Its theory to which many economists subscribe, but in practice it often leaves railroads in the position of determining which companies will flourish and which will fail. "Do we really want railroads to be the arbiters of who wins and who loses in the marketplace?" asks Martin Bercovici, a Washington lawyer who frequently represents shipper.

  Many captive shippers also worry they will soon be hit with a round of huge rate increases. The railroad industry as a whole, despite its brightening fortuning fortunes, still does not earn enough to cover the cost of the capital it must invest to keep up with its surging traffic. Yet railroads continue to borrow billions to acquire one another, with Wall Street cheering them on. Consider the 10.2 billion bid by Norfolk Southern and CSX to acquire Conrail this year. Conrails net railway operating income in 1996 was just 427 million, less than half of the carrying costs of the transaction. Whos going to pay for the rest of the bill? Many captive shippers fear that they will, as Norfolk Southern and CSX increase their grip on the market.

  51.  According to those who support mergers railway monopoly is unlikely because

  A. cost reduction is based on competition.

  B. services call for crosstrade coordination.

  C. outside competitors will continue to exist.

  D. shippers will have the railway by the throat.

  52. What is many captive shippers attitude towards the consolidation in the rail industry?

  A. Indifferent.       B. Supportive.

  C. Indignant.        D. Apprehensive.

  53. It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that

  A. shippers will be charged less without a rival railroad.

  B. there will soon be only one railroad company nationwide.

  C. overcharged shippers are unlikely to appeal for rate relief.

  D. a government board ensures fair play in railway business.

  54. The word "arbiters"(line 7,paragraph 4)most probably refers to those

  A. who work as coordinators.    B. who function as judges.

  C. who supervise transactions.   D. who determine the price.

  55. According to the text, the cost increase in the rail industry is mainly caused by

  A. the continuing acquisition.     B. the growing traffic.

  C. the cheering Wall Street.      D. the shrinking market.

  Text 4

  It is said that in England death is pressing, in Canada inevitable and in California optional small wonder. Americans life expectancy has nearly doubled over the past century. Failing hips can be replaced, clinical depression controlled, cataracts removed in a 30minuts surgical procedure. Such advances offer the aging population a quality of life that was unimaginable when I entered medicine 50 years ago. But not even a great healthcare system can cure death - and our failure to confront that reality now threatens this greatness of ours.

  Death is normal; we are genetically programmed to disintegrate and perish, even under ideal conditions. We all understand that at some level, yet as medical consumers we treat death as a problem to be solved. Shielded by thirdparty payers from the cost of our care, we demand everything that can possibly be done for us, even if its useless. The most obvious example is latestage cancer care. Physicians - frustrated by their inability to cure the disease and fearing loss of hope in the patient - too often offer aggressive treatment far beyond what is scientifically justified.

  In1950, the U.S. spent 1.27 billion on health care. In 2002, the cost will be 154 billion. Anyone can see this trend is unsustainable. Yet few seem willing to try to reverse it. Some scholars conclude that a government with finite resources should simply stop paying for medical care that sustains life beyond a certain age - say 83 or so. Former Colorado governor Richard Lamm has been quoted as saying that the old and infirm "have a duty to die and get out of the way", so that younger, healthier people can realize their potential.

  I would not go that far. Energetic people now routinely work through their 60s and beyond, and remain dazzlingly productive. At 78,Viacom chairman Sumner Redstone jokingly claims to be 53.Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day OConnor is in her 70s,and former surgeon general C. Everett Koop chairs an Internet startup in his 80s.These leaders are living proof that prevention works and that we can manage the health problems that come naturally with age. As a mere 68yearold,I wish to age as productively as they have.

  Yet there are limits to what a society can spend in this pursuit. As a physician, I know the most costly and dramatic measures may be ineffective and painful. I also know that people in Japan and Sweden countries that spend far less on medical care, have achieved longer, healthier lives than we have. As a nation, we may be over funding the quest for unlikely cures while under funding research on humbler therapies that could improve peoples lives.

  56. What is implied in the first sentence?

  A. Americans are better prepared for death than other people.

  B. Americans enjoy a higher life quality than ever before.

  C. Americans are overconfident of their medical technology.

  D. Americans take a vain pride in their long life expectancy.

  57. The author uses the example of caner patients to show that

  A. medical resources are often wasted.

  B. doctors are helpless against fatal diseases.

  C. some treatments are too aggressive.

  D. medical costs are becoming unaffordable.

  58. The authors attitude to ward Richard Lamms remark is one of

  A. strong disapproval.      B. reserved consent.

  C. slight contempt.        D. enthusiastic support.

  59. In contrast to the U.S., Japan and Sweden are funding their medical care

  A. more flexibly.         B. more extravagantly.

  C. more cautiously.       D. more reasonably.

  60. The text intends to express the idea that

  A. medicine will further prolong peoples lives.

  B. life beyond a certain limit is not worth living.

  C. death should be accepted as a fact of life.

  D. excessive demands increase the cost of health care.

  41. 「B」问题是:网络的出现

  文章第一段最后一句,简化后便是 "Net is reshaping Donovans vocation." 句中 "reshape" 和B项中的 "remold" 属同义词,在句中意思是翻新。 "Donovans vocation"在上下文中指的也正是前句所提到的 "spying as a profession" 和 "great game of espionage" 这又与B项中的 "intelligent service"是一个意思,故选B.文章第一段第一句用的是虚拟语气, 这表明Bill Donovan 在Internet 问世前就已经去世了,故不能选A;  C项内容只是对Net 附带的描绘,不是作者要讲关于它出现的主要意图; D 项中用了 "revive" 这个词, 但常识告诉我们,间谍这一行从问世以来,一直就没有中停过,又何谈 "revive"?

  42. 「A」问题是:在文中Donovan 故事的提起,是用来

  Donovan这个名字在作者展开文章后,就从此消失。 很显然作者提到他的目的是引导读者接触到本文的主要话题,即on line spying.C、B项文章没有提到;D项内容不是文章重点。

  43. 「C」问题是:文章第三段第一行中 "making the biggest splash" 的意思有可能是

  文章在谈过"net spying" 这一行业在美国欣欣向荣后,第三段第一句作者讲到 "Among the firms making the biggest splash in the new world is Straitford.". 这句话到底是什么意思?下一句——"Straitford makes money by selling the results of spying".可见,"making the biggest splash" 和 "making money" 在上下文中指的是同一个意思。这也正是C项内容(achieving the greatest success)。

  44. 「D」问题是:文中第四段我们可以推断出

  文章第四段最后两句中提到 "opensource spying" 也有它的风险,因为判断信息的真假往往十分困难。这也正是Straitford 在这种情况下还能赚到钱的原因所在。换句话说,Straitford 可以提供来源可靠的信息,即D项内容。 "earn ones keep" 意思是赚钱。

  45. 「B」问题是:Straitford 最以为自豪。

  文章最后一段讲到Straitford以他独立的声音而自豪。而这 "independent voice" 是与前句中 "usual Washington back and  forth"形成对比,来显示Straitford 的 "unusual".这与B项 内容相符。Nonconformist的意思是"不遵守常规者".

  Wild Bill Donovan应该会爱上网络。这位在二战期间建立了战略业务部,并且随后为中央情报局打下根基的美国间谍头子总是为信息所神往。Donovan坚信在谍 报(间谍作为职业)活动中,应当运用任何可利用的(来进行谍报活动)。如今的网络,不仅再造了像买书和发邮件这样的消遣,也正在翻新Donovan的老本 行。

  这一次的革命已不仅仅是一位绅士窃读另一位绅士的邮件那么简单了。像那样的电子特务都问世好几十年了。在过去约三四年中,从环球网(万维网)产生了一个完 善的"点击"式间谍产业。间谍们称之为"开放资源情报业",而随着网络的发展,它变得越来越有影响。1995年间,中央情报局举行了一个看谁能收集到最多 关于Burundi情报的这样一个竞赛。一个来自弗吉尼亚的名叫OpenSource Solutions 的小小情报公司以大比分优势最终成为赢家,而这家公司的显著优势便是它对网络世界的精通。

  Straitford,一个在得克萨斯Austin的情报分析公司,是在这个新兴行业中取得巨大成功的公司之一。Straitford通过将获得的情报 (覆盖面从Chile到Russia)卖给像McDermott International 这样的能源服务公司来赚钱。它的许多预报都可以从www.straitford.com 上得到。

  Straitford 总裁George Friedman 讲到他把网络世界视为信息获取和散发的工具,这也正是一个间谍头子的梦。上周,他的公司从世界各地收集来情报,并预告了Ukraine的一次危机。"报告 一发出,我们便收到了500名来自Ukraine的网民登录我们的网站。"Fredman, 一位前政治学教授讲道,"他们还将会与我们联系。"当然,由于很难辨别真假情报,开放资源间谍业具有它的冒险性。但这正是Straitford 维持其生计之处。

  Friedman 在Austin 仅依靠几个雇员而已。其中有几位还有军事情报背景。他认为公司的外在形象是它成功的关键。Straitford 的理念却不像华府那样扭扭捏捏;在对外公开情报时,他们总会担心出错。 "Straitford 以它独立的声音而骄傲。"Friedman 说道。

  46. 「A」问题是:作者引用Edmund Burke 的话展开全文,其目的是

  Edmaund 的这句话意思是 "一个造就愚蠢的事业胜利所需的,正是人们对它的开始无动于衷。"紧接着,下一句作者便指出 "one such cause"正在试图结束生物医学的研究。很明显,作者在文章开头引用名言,一是为了吸引读者注意,更重要的是呼吁科学家们对现今的这个 "one such cause"马上采取行动,即A项内容

  47. 「B」问题是:受误导的民众倾向于认为在研究中使用动物这种行为是

  文章第一段的最后两句作者讲到动物权利运动的领导人将目标锁定在生物医学研究上,原因是研究主要经费来自于民众,而且很少人了解研究的过程 (这表明攻击生物医学研究是蓄意的)。在下一句里,作者指出这样攻击的结果便是流传研究所内虐待动物。许多人(指民众)大为疑惑,为什么研究人员要故意伤 害动物。可见,受误导的民众认为研究人员的行为(指在研究中使用动物)是野蛮、无法接受的,即B项内容。

  48. 「B」问题是:老奶奶 的例子在文中是用来表明公众

  文章第二段作者举老奶奶的例子来说明上段中提到很多人受了误导是因为"few people understand the process of health care research"(第一段第六~七行)。这个例子非常有趣,讲的是一个老奶奶发传单,鼓励人们不要接受任何和动物研究有关的免疫注射。当问到如果流行病 又开始蔓延怎么办,她回答说:"不用担心,科学家们会通过电脑找到办法的。"对于这个例子,作者感叹道:"such wellmeaning people just dont understand.".这个例子充分说明了大众对医学研究还缺乏认识,即B项内容。

  49. 「A」问题是:作者认为在面临来自动物权利创导者的挑战中,科学家们应该

  在讲完外因后,作者从文章第三段起开始指出科学家们也有责任向公众宣传科学研究这方面的知识。而且宣传的方式一定要让人觉得他们同样富有同情心,表达方式 简单易懂(因为前面提到造成公众误解的原因是他们根本不知道研究过程)。这表明科研工作者对动物研究和人类医学之间关系的宣传力度本来就不够,他们与大众 接触也不多,即A项内容。

  50. 「D」问题是:从文中我们可以得出Stephen Cooper 是

  文章最后一段六到七行作者提到像Stephen cooper这样的名人也对动物研究的价值作了勇敢声明。可见,不管Stephen是做什么出名的,他一定是动物研究的支持者,即D项内容。

  引用18世纪演说家Edmund Burke 的话:"一个造就愚蠢的事业胜利所需的,正是人们对它的开始无动于衷。" 一个像这样的事业现在正试图结束生物医学上的研究,原因是动物具有的权利可中止它在研究中的使用。科学家们需要给动物权利鼓吹者以猛烈的还击,他们的诡辩 正使公众困惑,从而危及了我们在健康知识和护理上的进步。动物权利运动的领导者将目标锁定在生物医学研究上,因为它依赖于公众的拨款,而且很少有人了解健 康保健研究的过程。听到动物在研究所中受到残忍待遇的宣传,许多人怀疑动物被故意伤害。

  比如说,一位老大娘在动物权利者的小亭子里散发鼓励人们不要用疫苗。她想搞清楚疫苗是否来源于动物研究。当问到她是否也反对免疫治疗法时,她的回答是肯定 的。她又被问到:如果流行病又开始蔓延怎么办?她回答说:"不用担心,科学家们会通过电脑想出办法来的。"像这样出于好心的人们,根本就搞不懂。

  科学家们必须以富有同情心和可以理解的方式与公众交流信息,使用具有人情味的言语而不是分子生物学的术语。我们必须向公众清楚地表明奶奶臀部替换,爸爸的 分流手术,一个男孩的疫苗,甚至一个宠物的预防针,它们与动物研究之间的关系。对于那些不了解动物研究是这些治疗和新的治疗与疫苗的必需,动物研究似乎是 轻则浪费,重则残忍。

  有很多可以做。科学家们可以借用中学课堂来展示他们的研究。他们应当及时回复报编的来信,以免动物权利保护者的使人受误导的信息,逃脱人们的视线,从而披 上"真理"的外衣。研究所也可以为游人开放,证明实验室的动物是受到人道的对待。最后,因为事情最终关系到病人,健康研究应当主动积极地吸收到 Stephen Cooper 这样的名人,他就动物研究的价值发表了鼓舞人心的声明。如果我们还是无动于衷,那么不了解情况的大众将很有可能扑灭医学进步上宝贵的余烬。

  51. 「C」问题是:根据那些支持铁路货运产业合并的人,垄断可能性不大因为

  文章第一段讲述了铁路货运近几年来发生的重大变化,即众多铁路货运公司合为一个超级系统。第二段提到对于这种新型超级系统(铁道货运产业的合并)支持者, 他们的理由是这样可以大量削减成本,提供更加协调的服务。至于任何垄断的危险,他们说,都会被来自公路货运的激烈竞争所排除,即C项内容。

  52. 「C」问题是:对于铁路货运合并,多数被动托运人的态度是

  文章第二段在合并支持者给出他们合并理由后,作者指出但许多托运人还在抱怨。可见,他们对于合并的态既不 "indifferent" 也不 "support".因为像运 "coal,chemicals, grain" 这样的大件时,他们到头来还是成为铁路货运的盘中餐(have them by the throat)。这也是为什么文章后面称这样的被动托运人为 "captive" ,即俘虏。 所以C项中的 "indignant" (愤怒)要比D项中 "apprehensive"(理解)更好形容托运人在面对这种情况时的心情。

  53. 「C」问题是:文章第三段我们可以推断出

  文章第三段主要讲的是铁路货运后所产生的对于托运人利益的侵犯。受害者是可以寻求政府帮助的。但费用昂贵而且耗时,只有在非常特殊的情况下才会有作用。这说明托运人是不太可能上诉的,即C项内容。

  54. 「B」问题是:文中第四段第七行中的 "arbiters" 有可能指的是那些

  文章第四段第六行也就是 "arbiters" 出现的那行的前一行,作者讲到在实际操作中,铁路货运所处的地位决定了哪个公司的兴或亡(in the position of determining)。对于这种局势,Martin Berocovici 问了这样一个问题:"我们真的希望他们成为决定市场上谁胜谁负的arbiters吗?" 很显然,无论 "arbiter"是什么样的人,他一定是 "in the position of determining", 即与B项内容相同。

  55. 「A」问题是:根据文章铁路货运投资成本的提高是由于

  文章最后一段2至3行作者指出铁路货运产业总体上来说,虽然有着他光辉的业绩,但他的盈利仍跟不上收购和合并所需的成本投资。第三行中的 "keep up with its surging traffic" 在上下文中指的正是下句中提到的铁道货运不断地 "acquire one another".很明显,投资成本的提高,是由 "continues acquisition" 直接造成的,即A项内容。

  近几年来,铁路货运公司相互合并形成超级货运系统从而导致了人们对垄断的关注。早在1995年,最大的四家货运公司只占吨级铁路货运总量的不到70%.到明年,经过一系列的合并后,4个货运公司便可以控制超过90%的市场。

  新超级系统的支持者们认为,这些兼并将使成本发生实质性的降低,并提供更协调的服务。他们认为,任何垄断的威胁都将被来自卡车的激烈竞争所解除。但许多托运人都抱怨说如长途运输像炭、化学物品和粮食这样的大件时,卡车显然成本太高,最后还是铁路获利。

  铁路系统内部广泛的合并意味着大多数托运者将只能由一家铁路公司服务。在没有另外公司竞争的情况下,这样的铁路公司通常从高出平常收费的20%到30%来 对托运者收费。发现被高收费的托运者有权上诉到联邦政府的地面运输委员会,请求降低收费,但上诉费用昂贵,同时耗时,只有在非常特殊的情况下才会有作用。

  铁路公司认为他们收取托运人的收费标准是合理的,理由是从长久来看,所有方的成本将会降低。他们认为,如铁路还是按照前标准收费,那么一部分托运人将会选 择像卡车或其他的货运方式,从而让剩下的托运人承担这个费用。许多经济学家都支持这个理论,但事实上,这使铁路公司处于决定其他公司兴或亡的地位。一位名 叫Martin Bercovici 来自华盛顿专为托运公司打官司的律师问道:"难道我们真正想要铁路来裁决谁在市场中赢或输吗?"

  许多受束缚的托运者同样担心他们不久将遭受一系列的收费提价。铁路工业总的来说,尽管有着光明的前景,但它所赚的还是不够用来持平它在兼并中所花的成本。 然而,铁路继续借款几十亿美元来收购其他公司,华尔街也大肆吹捧。想一想今年南方Norfolk公司和CSX公司出价102亿购买Conraid吧。而 Conraid公司1996年的纯经营收入才4.27亿美元,不到交易运输成本的一半。谁来付剩下的账单?随着南方Norfolk和CSX 对市场控制的增加,许多受束缚的托运者都变得不安起来。

  56. 「D」问题是:文章的第一句暗示了什么?

  文章第一段开头作者讲到:"人们都说死亡在英国视为迫切的;在加拿大视为不可避免的;而在加州(即美国)却被视为一个小小而随意的惊奇。"由此可见,美国 人对于死亡乐观洒脱的态度是众所周知的。但在本段最后两句作者却指出,再好的健康医疗体制都不能治愈死亡。而且美国人在面临这个现实(指死亡)的失败时, 也正威胁着我们的建树(即美国人对死亡乐观的态度),这与D项内容一致。

  57. 「A」问题是:作者用癌症病人的这个例子来说明

  文章第二段第四行作者讲到 "its useless".而 "it" 所指的正是同句中的 "everything that can possibly done"( 一切可行的办法)。而对这 "everything"的支持,又是来自于美国健康医疗体制。可见,作者举这个晚期癌症病人的意图是用来说明事实上一部分的医疗开销是 "useless",这与A项中的 "wasted" 在上下文中同义。

  58. 「B」问题是:作者对于Richard Lamm所说的态度是

  文章第三段是第二段的延伸,作者继续举例说明政府在健康医疗上的开销过于庞大。随后,在本段末,作者引用了前科罗拉多州州长Richard Lamm 对于这个问题的看法。他说,    "老弱病残的应该有死的责任,不要挡在路上,这样更年轻更健康的才可以实现他们的潜力。" 对于Richard 粗糙的发言,作者讲道: "I would not go that far.".接着列出许多高龄并且对社会做出巨大贡献的人。表明作者不完全同意州长所说的。B项 "reserved consent",带保留性的同意,符合作者本意。

  59. 「D」问题是:和美国不同, 日本和瑞典医护拨款

  文章最后一段作者指出,任何社会中,在这方面(指health and care)所花销的应该有个节制。作为一个医护人员,作者深知昂贵和戏剧性医疗措施的后果有时是无效甚至痛苦的。日本和瑞典作为正面的例子,证明了要使一 个国家的人民过得更长、更健康生活的关键,不在于这个国家在医护方面开销的大小。这也暗示了日本和瑞典在 "medical care"上的拨款是科学合理的, 即D项内容。

  60. 「C」问题是:文章试图表达的观点是

  文章第一段作者便暗示了美国在健康医疗体制上巨大花费的原因还是"our failure to confront that reality(death)".接着作者陈述了自己的(也就是文章要表达的)观点—— "death is normal",死亡是正常的,他也是生命的一部分,即C项内容。A项与文章呈现观点相反,B项不是作者观点,D项是现象,而问题问的是本质。

  据说,死亡在英国是急迫之事,在加拿大是不可避免之事,而在加利福尼亚它却是一个小小而随意的惊奇。美国人在过去的一个世纪以来寿命延长了几乎一倍。脱节 的臂部可被替换,住院的沮丧感得到了控制,30分钟的手术便可清楚白内障。这些先进的医疗为老年人口提供了一个我50年前进入医疗界时不敢想象的高质量生 活。但是再优秀的保健系统还是不可以治愈死亡,而我们对于面临这个现实的失败也正在威胁着我们的建树。

  死亡是正常的,即使是在最理想的条件下,我们基因还是注定被瓦解和消亡。这在不同程度上,我们都可以理解;但作为医药消费者,我们却试图把死亡当作问题来 解决。用第三方作为我们医护经费的支持,我们要求可能为我们做到的每一件事,即使它毫无作用。最明显的例子是晚期癌症治疗。医生为他们无法治疗这样的疾病 而感到苦恼,同时又害怕病人会失去希望,他们常常提供远远超出医学允许范围的过度治疗方案。

  1950年内美国在保健护理上的花费就高达12.7亿美元,2002年里,这个数目将上升到1540亿。任何人都可以看出这种趋势是令人无法支撑的。但似 乎没人愿意改变这种趋势。一些专家们认为一个有限资源的政府应当停止负担超过一定岁数国民的医护费用——比如说83岁。前科罗拉多州长Richard Lamm的话被引用,他说,老年和病弱者"有义务死去并让出路来",这样年轻人、健康者才能发挥出自己的潜力。

  我不会到这个地步。即使超过60岁的具有活力的老人还是可以保持他们工作的效率:78岁高龄的Summer Redstone 主席Viacom 开玩笑说他自己只有53岁;高级法院院长Sandra Day OConnor 也是古稀之人;前外科专家C. Everett Koop 在他80多岁时还主持Internet.这些领袖们都是活生生的例子,证明了预防有效而且我们可以自然地处理老龄问题。作为一名68岁的老人,我但愿我和 他们一样老得有益处。

  一个社会在这方面的花费是有限度的。作为一个医生,我深知昂贵而带戏剧性的医疗措施往往是无效甚至是痛苦的。我也同样了解日本和瑞典人,这些国家在医疗保 健上的花费少得多,但却享有此我们更长的寿命和更健康的生活。作为一个国家,我们也许对几乎没有可能的疗法过于花费,而忽视了在可以提高人民健康更简单疗 法上的研究。

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