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07年考研英语阅读理解精读100篇unit15

2006-7-6 21:39 印建坤 

Unit 15

  It was a brief, shining moment in Egypt's history——a time of epochal change presided over by a Pharaoh named Akhenaten and his beautiful wife Nefertiti. During his 17-year reign the old gods were cast aside, monotheism was introduced, and the arts liberated from their stifling rigidity. Even Egypt's capital was moved to a new city along the Nile called Akhetaten (modern Amarna)。 But like Camelot, it was short-lived, and its legacy was buried in the desert sands.

  Now Akhenaten's 3,400-year-old world has been brilliantly recalled in an exhibit titled “Pharaohs of the Sun: Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Tutankhamen,” which opens this week at Boston's Museum of Fine Arts. Part of the city's eight-month tribute to ancient Egypt (operas, ballet and an IMAX film), it is a unique assemblage of more than 250 objects from Egypt's 18th dynasty, some of which have languished unseen in storerooms and private collections for decades. They range from larger-than-life statues of Akhenaten to exquisitely sculpted reliefs and dazzling jewelry to such poignant reminders of everyday life as a perfectly preserved child's sandal.

  The exhibit illuminates a murky period in Egyptian history that curator Rita Freed describes as having “all the elements of a soap opera.” When Amenhotep IV, as he was originally called, ascended the throne in 1353 B.C., Egypt was a flourishing empire, at peace with its neighbors. Yet there were troubling signs. His father Amenhotep III had already challenged the powerful priesthood by proclaiming the sun god Aten as foremost among Egyptian deities and himself as his living incarnation.

  His son shook things up even more, not only changing his name to honor the new god (Akhenaten means “one who serves Aten”) but also banishing the older gods, especially the priestly favorite Amen. Some scholars believe Akhenaten's monotheism, a historic first, inspired the Hebrew prophets, but it had the more immediate effect of freeing Egypt's artists. They could now portray the Pharaoh and the voluptuous Nefertiti (who may have shared the throne with him) in a far more casual, realistic way. Akhenaten's cone-shaped head, elongated face, fingers and toes, pot belly and flaring hips have led some scholars to suggest that he had hydrocephalus or Marfan's syndrome.

  He was certainly a revolutionary, propelled either by madness or by great vision. Still, his changes did not endure. After his death, his son-in-law (and perhaps son) Tutankhamen moved the political and religious capitals back to Memphis and Thebes respectively and reinstated the old gods. Egyptian art returned to its classic, ritualized style. And like Camelot, Akhenaten's once bustling capital became only a mythic memory. “Pharaohs of the Sun” will remain in Boston until February, then travel to Los Angeles, Chicago and Leiden, the Netherlands.

  注(1):本文选自Time;11/22/99, p78;

  注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象2004年真题text 4;

  1.Which of the following event did not happen during Akhenaten's reign over Egypt?

  [A] He banished the older gods.

  [B] People had to worship one god—— the sun god Aten.

  [C] Egyptian artists suffered from a more casual, realistic way of portraying.

  [D] He built a new capital along the Nile.

  2.We can learn from the text that in Boston, many activities are held as tribute to ancient

  Egypt except ________.

  [A] pageant

  [B] ballet

  [C] operas

  [D] movie

  3.The views of Akhenaten and his father on the sun god Aten are _____.

  [A] opposite

  [B] controversial

  [C] complementary

  [D] similar

  4.Tutankhamen, according to the text, probably ________.

  [A] moved the political capital back to Thebes

  [B] gave the older gods back their previous position

  [C] might had got some disease that made his face longer than the healthy people

  [D] moved the religious capital back to Memphis

  5.What can we learn about the exhibit on ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty?

  [A] It mainly consists of statues of the pharaohs of that time.

  [B] It will last for eight months in Boston.

  [C] It is very enlightening for people to know that period.

  [D] The objects on the exhibit used to be stored in private collection.

  答案:CADBC

  篇章剖析

  本篇文章以正在波士顿举办的一场展览为引子,采用叙述的写法,带领读者重温了3400年前古埃及一段辉煌的历史。第一段简介了太阳神法老统治时期埃及社会发生的变化,接着在第二段中说明波士顿正在举办古埃及周,其中包括一场展览,第三、四段详细说明两任法老所做的变革,最后一段说变革持续时间不长。

  词汇注释

  epochal: [5epCkEl] adj. 划时代的

  monotheism: [5mCnEuWi:izEm] n. 一神论

  languish: [5lAN^wiF] v. 持续不前;毫无进展

  poignant: [5pCinEnt] adj. 深刻的;伤感的

  murky: [5mE:ki]] adj. 昏暗的;不明朗的

  curator: [kjuE5reitE] n.(美术馆)馆长

  incarnation: [7inkB:5neiFEn] n. 化身

  banish: [5bAniF] v. 抛弃;废除

  voluptuous: [vE5lQptJEs] adj. 妖冶的;性感的

  hydrocephalus: [7haidrEu5sefElEs] n. 脑积水

  Camelot: [5kAmilCt] 传说中的地名,在英格兰西南部,阿瑟和他的武士们曾居住于此

  难句突破

  1. Part of the city's eight-month tribute to ancient Egypt (operas, ballet and an IMAX film), it is a unique assemblage of more than 250 objects from Egypt‘s 18th dynasty, some of which have languished unseen in storerooms and private collections for decades.( Line 3, Paragraph 2)

  主体句式:it is a unique assemblage…

  结构分析:这是一个包含同位语和定语从句的长简单句。其中 “Part of the city's…”是主语it(指展览)的同位语,定语从句  “some of which have …。”修饰名词 objects.

  句子译文:这次展览只是波士顿为期8个月的致意古埃及活动中的一部分(其它形式还有歌剧、芭蕾、一部IMAX电影)。这次独特的展览展出了埃及第18个王朝的250多件物品,其中有些物品几十年来一直深藏于博物馆或为私人所藏而不得面世。

  2. They range from large-than-life statues of Akhenaten to exquisitely sculpted reliefs and dazzling jewelry to such poignant reminders of everyday life as a perfectly preserved child's sandal.

  主体句式: They range from … to … and … to such … as …

  句子分析:其中最后一个to接的是“such…as”短语。

  句子译文:展品包罗万象,既有阿肯纳坦比真人还大的雕像,做工精致的浮雕,又有令人眼花缭乱的珠宝首饰,甚至还有日常生活起居用品,比如一只保存完好的童鞋。

  题目分析

  1.答案是C, 属事实细节题。第一段提到“liberated from their stifling rigidity”,解放了埃及艺术, 第四段提到“They could portray … in a far more casual, realistic way”, 使艺术家可以更真实随意的画像,而不是束缚他们。

  2. 答案是A, 属事实细节题。第二段提到庆祝形式有operas, ballet 和an IMAX film, 未提pageant.

  3.答案是D,属判断推理题。从第三、四段可以看出他们都只推崇太阳神。

  4. 答案是B, 属事实细节题。从最后一段“Tutankhamen moved the political and religious capitals back to Memphis and Thebes respectively and reinstated the old gods.”可以看出。注意respectively的意思是“分别”。另外,得脑积水的是Akhenaten.

  5. 答案是C,属事实细节题。从第二段可知展品的具体情况。从最后一句可知展览持续到明年二月份。

  参考译文

  这是埃及历史上短暂辉煌的时期,是法老阿肯纳坦和他美丽的妻子奈菲提提统治下发生划时代变革的时期。在他17年的统治期间,以往的多神论被摒弃,一神论被引入,艺术也从令人窒息的一成不变中解脱出来,甚至埃及的首都也迁到尼罗河边的新城市阿肯纳坦(现阿玛纳)。不过同卡蒙洛的结局一样,这个时期持续时间不长,其遗迹也淹没于漫漫黄沙。

  现在,3400年前阿肯纳坦时代的辉煌将在波士顿美术馆被人们重温。这儿正举办“太阳神法老:阿肯纳坦、奈菲提提、塔坦卡门”展览。这次展览只是波士顿为期8个月的致意古埃及活动中的一部分(其它形式还有歌剧、芭蕾、一部IMAX电影)。这次独特的展览展出了埃及第18个王朝的250多件物品,其中有些物品几十年来一直深藏于博物馆或为私人所藏而不得面世。展品包罗万象,既有阿肯纳坦比真人还大的雕像,做工精致的浮雕,又有令人眼花缭乱的珠宝首饰,甚至还有日常生活起居用品,比如一只保存完好的童鞋。

  这次展览向世人展示了埃及历史上一段不为人所熟知的时期,一段被馆长瑞塔。弗瑞称为拥有“肥皂剧全部要素”的时期。当阿蒙赫特普四世——阿肯纳坦本来叫这名字——公元1353年上台执政时,埃及国运昌盛,同邻国友好相处。但也有征兆表明要出乱子。他的父亲阿蒙赫特普三世已经质疑势力强大的教会。他宣称太阳神阿坦是埃及诸神中最具威力的神灵。他本人则是太阳神的转世化身。

  他儿子做的更甚。他不仅把自己的名字改为阿肯纳坦(意为阿坦的仆人)以表示对太阳神的敬意,而且不许人们崇拜以往的神灵,特别是教会的至爱阿门神。有些学者认为阿肯纳坦倡导的一神论——历史上前无古人的做法——启发了希伯来先知,但它对埃及的艺术发展则有更为直接的影响。它解放了埃及艺术家。现在他们可以更为真实随意的描画法老和妖艳性感的奈菲提提(或许曾和阿肯纳坦共同执政)。阿肯纳坦的头圆锥形,脸、手指和脚趾较常人略长,大腹便便,臀部肥大,这使得某些学者认为他曾得过脑积水。

  不管他的所作所为是疯狂所致还是由于远见卓识,他都称得上一位变革者。但这变革却没能持久。在他死后,他的女婿(或许也是儿子)塔坦卡门把政治中心移回孟斐斯,宗教中心移回底比斯。那些被摒弃的旧神重新归位,埃及艺术又回到拘泥呆板的古典风格。正如卡蒙洛一样,阿肯纳坦时曾经繁华熙攘的首都现在只是神话中的记忆罢了。“太阳神法老”展览在波士顿持续到二月份,然后在前往洛杉玑、芝加哥、荷兰的雷登市。

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