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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY61

2006-7-28 01:05  


  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1

  Each of us then is different genetically from all humans who have ever lived or who will come in the future. And yet we all must share a great many genes with our fellow humans. After all, we need the same kind of genes to form and operate a human body. So we are united by a common humanness, which we each express in a unique way.

  Our genetic baggage is packed by many rolls of the dice. Nonetheless, the selective forces of evolution have seen to it that most of us who have sufficient genetic belongings to survive after fertilization, implantation, and development in our mothers womb are prepared to confront the world into which we are born. And yet we each arrive carrying, on the average, about a half a dozen dysfunctional genes. We may remain blissfully unaware of their existence until we or one of our close relatives are counted among the millions who suffer from a genetic disease.

  At the turn of the century more people succumbed to tuberculosis than any other illness, and the next two leading killers were pneumonia and diarrhea. Since the widespread use of antibiotics after the World WarⅡ,such infectious diseases have given way to heart disease and cancer as the leading causes of death. We now have a wide array of antibacterial medications and of immunizations against a variety of bacterial and viral pathogens. Of course we need many more such weapons, as the race to combat AIDS so clearly demonstrates.

  Genetic disease presents an entirely different scenario. The effect of, for example, sicklecell anemia, muscular dystrophy, or TaySachs, Huntingtons, or polycystic kidney disease so far lends themselves only to palliative measures at best. Up to 30 percent of hospital pediatric admissions and 12 percent of adult hospital admissions are associated with genetic problems. These figures apply to the more privileged countries — in the poorer nations, malnutrition and its associated weaknesses are still the major scourge of children. Almost 5,000 heritable disorders have been clinically characterized. Where have the causative dysfunctional genes come from? What are their effects? What can be done to diagnose their presence, fend off their effects, or prevent them from burdening our children?

  Lets turn to the basics of genetic disease in order to understand just what such a condition means and what the implications are for diagnosis, treatment, and transmission to the next generation. Only recently have we been able to say very much about the exact nature of some of these diseases at their cellular and molecular level. Now, with the everexpanding possibilities brought about by molecular biology, we are in the early stages of locating, isolating, copying and analyzing the very genes responsible for some of these illnesses. We are taking direct aim at gaining some measure of control over our genetic inheritance.

  1. Which sentence best summarizes the article?

  A. Genetic diseases have become a menace to human health.

  B. Humans have been successful in curing genetic diseases.

  C. We are different genetically from each other.

  D. Children are the main sufferers from genetic diseases.

  2. The underlined phrase “dysfunctional genes” in paragraph 2 probably means.

  A. Genes that are effectively functional.B. Genes that are inheritable.

  C. Genes that may cause diseases.D. Genes that may invalidate some organs.

  3. Which of the following diseases is NOT a genetic one?

  A. Sicklecell anemia.B. Muscular dystrophy.

  C. TaySachs.D. Diarrhea.

  4. According to the article, which of the following statements is TRUE?

  A. The dysfunctional genes in our bodies may inevitably cause diseases.

  B. Heart disease and cancer are the leading causes of death.

  C. 12 percent of hospital pediatric admissions are associated with genetic problems.

  D. The underlined word “scenario” in paragraph 4 means fatal harm.

  5. From the last paragraph, we can see the author holds a(n) view.

  A. Optimistic.B. Pessimistic.C. Skeptical.D. Neutral.

  Passage 2

  The Pure Food Campaign was launched by environmental activist Jeremy Rifkin and others in direct response to the FDA announcement. They demanded that the FDA undertake mandatory premarket testing of all genetically engineered foods, label them, and require premarket public notification by all manufacturers of the presence of such goods in stores, so that the foods could be traced if illnesses or other problems arose.

  The prominent New York restaurant chefs who joined the controversial Rifkin at a press conference in June 1992 affirmed their support for what the organizers hoped would be an international boycott, when and if genetically engineered good enters the marketplace. As one chef put it, “I will not sacrifice the entire history of culinary art to revitalize the biotechnology industry.”

  Where does the truth lie? Or rather, is there a truth that we can discern while trying to distinguish between face and fantasy? The only way to find out is to look at the record of actions as well as words, and listen to the arguments. It is difficult, however, to be a completely impartial observer of the struggle to balance profit making with risk taking. The abundance, variety, quality, and safety of the worlds food supply affect each of us and all our descendants.

  Biotechnology is driven by economics. So far, because of the availability of the necessary genes, as well as market demands, most agricultural biotechnology research and development has centered on the genetic modification of plants to create varieties that are resistant to herbicides, insects, and plant diseases, have a longer shelf life, and reduce processing costs. Such plants will be valuable commodities. Given the profit motive, it is perfectly logical that the first transgenic plant headed for market is the Flavr Savr tomato and not a highprotein crop for the worlds impoverished hungry. Calgene, Inc., invested $20 million and eight years in this plant, which they expect will capture 15 percent of a $3.5billion market.

  This is simply a model of private enterprise at work. It should be no surprise to anyone who has ever bought a new car model or the latest computer. However, among the serious concerns raised about this situation is the notion that the economic incentives to create, develop, test, and market genetically engineered organisms have created a climate in which the health of the environment as well as individuals could be seriously threatened, perhaps in ways that may be irreversible.

  1. With what topic is the passage primarily concerned?

  A. The rapid development of agricultural biotechnology.

  B. The relationship between economy and biotechnology.

  C. The possibility of threat genetically engineering food may bring to us.

  D. The controversy between food manufacturers and environmental activists.

  2. What is the possible meaning of the underlined word “chefs” in paragraph 2?

  A. Cooks.B. Managers.C. Customers.D. Supervisors.

  3. Which of the following statements about agricultural biotechnology is NOT true?

  A. Market demand is an accelerator to the genetically engineering food.

  B. The Flavr Savr tomato has been a great success.

  C. Transgenic plants grow better than other plants.

  D. The manufacturers are mainly motivated by potential profit.

  4. Generally speaking, the author is about transgenic plants.

  A. Frustrated.B. Neutral.C. Positive.D. Instructive.

  5. What does the last sentence probably mean?

  A. Economic incentives are the primary reasons of the development of biotechnology.

  B. Genetically engineered organisms have threatened peoples health.

  C. Biotechnology has promoted economic development.

  D. The moneyoriented biotechnology may be a menace to human health.

  Passage 3

  In applying the Optimum Currency Area (OCA) framework, the consensus that East Asia presents as good a candidate for monetary integration as Europe is generally arrived at. However, it can be observed that OCA framework had only an insignificant part to play in the decision to pass the Europe Monetary Union (EMU), it tends to be overshadowed by political sentiments. Thus, the central question on the possibility of an Asian Monetary Union lies not in its satisfaction of the OCA criteria, but whether the political resolve to achieve such a union is existent.

  Unfortunately, it appears that the political climate of East Asia is not favorable towards such a union at present, and is unlikely to undergo much positive alteration in the near future. Thus the manifestation of an Asian Monetary Union is unlikely in the foreseeable future, as the political resolve to bring this about is evidently lacking.

  However, to dismiss outright the possibility of creation of an East Asian monetary union would be presumptuous. Even though the political climate in East Asia does not appear to be ready for such an undertaking as yet, it cannot be denied that integrative and cooperative initiatives have indeed made much positive progress. Although the state of panAsian institutions is nowhere comparable with needed to engineer the EMU, however East Asia is taking definite steps towards regional cooperation.

  Thus, it would be hasty to simply write off the prospects of such a union. The road to East Asia may be long and fraught with obstacles, but it is not impossible. Only with visionary leadership, which looks beyond regional political sensitivities and rivalries, to recognize the economic imperative and promise of such a monetary union, can it have hopes of materialization. East Asian leaders unwilling to undertake monetary unification due to fears of the loss of political sovereignty which it would entail should be more farsighted and recognize that in the present age, sovereignty is no longer absolute as globalization accelerates and increasingly blurs the lines of national boundaries. Sovereignty is not completely lost as nations will still be able to influence decisionmaking through the union, but as one voice amongst all other members. Furthermore, misgivings about the prospects of Asian monetary unification based on the grounds that East Asian nations are at very different stages of economic development with diverse structure of economy should look towards the monetary union between Singapore and Brunei, which has endured despite its members vast dissimilarity. Thus, current economic disparities should not prove insurmountable to an East Asian monetary union, provided regulatory and fiscal reforms critical to sound and sustainable economic growth are developed alongside monetary unification.

  In the previous section, a proposal which suggests gradual steps towards Asian monetary unification is mapped out, by first achieving smaller monetary unions instead of an Asianwide monetary union. In this way, the vast economic disparity across Asia is breached gradually, as opposed to tackling it in its entirety, with the ultimate aim of an East Asian wide monetary union.

  1. The passage is mainly about

  A. The obstacles of an East Asian Monetary Union (EAMU)。

  B. The impossibility of an EAMU in the short run.

  C. The prospect of an EAMU.

  D. The comparison between EAMU and EMU.

  2. What is the dominating obstacle in the process of EAMU?

  A. The political resolve.B. The imbalance in Asian economic development.

  C. The cultural differences.D. The historical and geographic conflicts.

  3. The underlined word “breached” in the last sentence could best be replaced by

  A. Enlarged.B. Deepened.C. Flatted.D. Eliminated.

  4. It can be inferred from the passage that

  A. We can apply the same framework of EMU to an EAMU.

  B. Sovereignty will be lost in the process of regional integration.

  C. Singapore and Brunei have been in a monetary union.

  D. Current economic disparities are insurmountable to an EAMU.

  5. Which of the following statements can best describe the authors attitude?

  A. The lack of political resolve renders an EAMU impossible.

  B. An EAMU is practical in the long run despite their regional differences.

  C. Monetary union proves to be successful in Singapore and Brunei.

  D. Monetary union in East Asia can come true in the short run because of economic cooperation.

  Passage 4

  When Ministers signed, in 1993, the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization few could have imagined the public attention the new organization would later attract. Almost every day it is being referred to either in newspapers, parliaments or street rallies and not necessarily in a positive way. For trade policy veterans, this has certainly come as a surprise.

  The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the WTO s predecessor for almost five decades, had attracted far less press coverage and public scrutiny. It might have been wellknown to small groups of business people, trade lawyers and researchers but certainly not to a broad public. Since the GATT has essentially remained intact and continues to exist within the framework of the Marrakesh Agreement, what has caused the change in public attention (and apprehension)? Is the WTO fundamentally different?

  There are indeed some differences. The WTO now rests on three main pillars. Apart from various agreements on trade in goods, centered mainly on the GATT, there are the General Agreement on Trade in Service (GATS) and the Agreement on TradeRelated Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)。 According to ArticleⅡ:1 of the Marrakesh Agreement, the World Trade Organization provides “the common institutional framework for the conduct of trade relations among its Members in matters related to……[these]agreements and associated legal instruments”。 Moreover, the new organization is equipped with a binding dispute settlement mechanism, which no longer allows a defendant Member to use its own vote to prevent a ruling from being adopted. In turn, this reflects a certain shift in emphasis from policybased consultation to rulesbased litigation in addressing trade conflicts between Members. Diplomats seem to have ceded ground to lawyers. However, all agreements have retained a core function of the GATT: they define rules and principles for Members conduct of traderelated policies in the areas covered.

  There is little doubt, nevertheless, that there has been a climate change. At times, the “old” GATT might have attracted the wrath of relatively welldefined sector associations, in agriculture, coal mining or textiles, but it would not have caused mass demonstrations in the streets of Geneva and around the world. However, is services trade genuinely different from merchandise trade? Are protective regimes better suited in principle to the pursuit of social or infrastructural objectives that underlie the provision of many services? It is difficult to see why. If it is reasonable and beneficial for the economies involved to trade farm and food products, i.e. bare necessities of life, or basic infrastructural equipment, from trucks to trains and cranes, it might be equally reasonable to improve access to core service sectors. If such sensitive goods as pharmaceuticals can and, possibly, should be traded, the same rationale might apply to medical services as well.

  1. What is the main purpose of the first two paragraphs?

  A. To emphasize the popularity of WTO.

  B. To illustrate the transformation from GATT to WTO.

  C. To compare the publicity of GATT and WTO.

  D. To prepare for the discussion upon the differences between GATT and WTO.

  2. Which of the following is NOT a basis of WTO?


  3. What does the underlined sentence “Diplomats seem to have ceded ground to lawyers” in paragraph 3 imply?

  A. WTO has shifted its emphasis upon rulesbased litigation.

  B. WTO concentrates on policybased consultation.

  C. Diplomats play a crucial role in international affairs.

  D. In international relations, lawyers are more important than diplomats.

  4. According to the passage, which of the following statements about “trade farm and food products” and “core service sectors” is TRUE?

  A. They are mutually exclusive.

  B. Trade farm and food products are more fundamental than core service sectors.

  C. They accelerate each other.

  D. They should be attached equal importance to.

  5. What is the probable meaning of the underlined word “pharmaceutical”?

  A. Hospitality.B. Drug.C. Medicare.D. Narcotic.

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:

  Passage 1


  We now have a wide array of antibacterial medications and of immunizations against a variety of bacterial and viral pathogens.现在,我们有了大量的抗菌和免疫药物,使我们免受各种细菌和过滤性毒菌病原体的感染。

  1. 「A」文章首先从人类的基因各不相同, 转到带病基因, 然后叙述二战以来人类越来越受到基因病的折磨, 并给出例子, 最后阐明对人类攻克基因病持乐观态度。整个过程都围绕基因病成为人类健康的威胁这一主题。

  2. 「C」前缀dys意为 “带病的;有病的”;第二段最后一句指出, 直到我们受到基因病的折磨, 我们才会注意到这种基因的存在, 可以得出这种基因会致病。

  3. 「D」见第四段, Diarrhea不属于基因病。

  4. 「B」A项中的 “dysfunctional genes”并不一定会导致基因病的发生;C项中的 “12” 应为 “up to 30”; D项中的 “scenario” 意为 “剧情概要”。B项可见第三段。

  5. 「A」作者在文章最后一段主要讲了我们对基因病的逐渐了解, 而且开始采取措施控制它。由此可以看出作者是抱乐观(optimistic)态度。

  Passage 2


  They demanded that the FDA undertake mandatory premarket testing of all genetically engineered foods, label them, and require premarket public notification by all manufacturers of the presence of such goods in stores, so that the foods could be traced if illnesses or other problems arose. 他们要求美国食品药物管理局在转基因食品进入市场前做测试,贴标签,让制造商声明以保证食品不会成为病原。

  1. 「C」整篇文章的着重点放在转基因食品潜在威胁的可能性上, 首先是对这种可能性的争论, 然后由食品制造商的冒险投资, 进一步讨论其可能性。

  2. 「A」第二段的最后一句 “I will not sacrifice the entire history of culinary art to revitalize the biotechnology industry.” 意为 “我不会为振兴生物科技行业而牺牲整个烹饪艺术的历史。” 由此可以看出chefs实际上是厨师。

  3. 「B」选项A, C, D均可以直接从第四段找出相对应的句子。选项B中此种番茄还未取得成功, 百分之十五的市场份额只是食品制造商的期望。

  4. 「B」总的来看, 作者是站在一个旁观者的角度行文, 采取的是一种中立的态度。

  5. 「D」最后一句话讲了两个方面的内容:经济利益促使了生物科技的发展;这种发展可能会不可避免地威胁到人类环境和自身的健康。因而只有选项D最符合题意。

  Passage 3


  In this way, the vast economic disparity across Asia is breached gradually, as opposed to tackling it in its entirety, with the ultimate aim of an East Asian wide monetary union. 这样,亚洲间的经济差距会逐渐打破,连成整体,东亚货币联盟的最终目标会实现的。

  1. 「C」通观全文, 作者一方面提到了建立东亚货币联盟在政治决心、国家主权等方面存在的障碍, 同时也谈了经济的决定性作用, 新加坡和文莱走出的一条成功之路, 以及这一联盟的前景。选项A, B, D都很片面, 只有选项C最符合题意。

  2. 「A」从文章的前几段可以得出, 建立东亚货币联盟的主要障碍在于political resolve(政治决心), 其他选项虽然也有可能是, 但并不是最重要的。

  3. 「D」enlarge意为 “扩大”; deepen意为 “加深;深化”; flat意为 “(使)变平”; eliminate意为 “排除;消除”,此项最符合题意。

  4. 「C」选项A, 由于东亚内部存在着障碍, 不可能照搬欧洲货币联盟的模式; 选项B, 国家主权并不会在经济融合中消失, 而会在联盟决策中实现; 选项D与第四段最后一句相矛盾。只有选项C正确。

  5. 「B」文中作者虽然提到了建立东亚货币联盟的障碍, 如political resolve (政治决心), 但是随着经济的进一步融合, 国家主权会在联盟内决策中得以实现, 各种壁垒也会逐渐消除, 从长远看, 在东亚建立货币联盟是可以实现的。选项C虽然正确, 但太片面, 不能全面的表达作者的观点。

  Passage 4


  This reflects a certain shift in emphasis from policybased consultation to rulesbased litigation in addressing trade conflicts between Members.这反映了组织重心的转移:从政策咨询到通过法律诉讼解决成员间的贸易纠纷。

  1. 「D」文章前两段主要讲了关贸总协定(GATT)和世贸组织(WTO)受公众重视程度的差距,并在第二段的最后提出了这样的问题:是什么导致了公众注意的转移;世贸组织(和关贸总协定)有着根本的区别吗?之后的第三段开始论述两者之间的区别。由此可见,前两段的主要目的是为后面对二者差异的讨论做铺垫。故选D.

  2. 「C」可见第三段第三句。选项A,B,D均是三个重要组成部分,选项C与题目不相干。

  3. 「A」第三段讲到世贸组织的重心从政策咨询转移到了成员间贸易争端的法律诉讼上,由此导致了“外交家让位于律师”。事实上,这句话就是进一步阐明世贸组织重心的转变。

  4. 「D」第四段指出,作者认为如果农副产品贸易是合理和有利的话,那么也同样应该重视提高核心服务业部门。所以D正确。

  5. 「B」文中最后一句提到“如果敏感性的商品如pharmaceutical可以交易,那么世贸组织的原则应该同样适用于医疗服务行业”。显然,该词的意思应是药品。hospitality(好客);medicare(医疗保险);narcotic(麻醉药)。