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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY14

2006-7-28 01:03  

  Increasing reading speed

  Directions: Do the word recognition drills below. Note the word to the left then underline it every time it appears in the same form to the right. No regression, no vocalization. Try to finish in 15 seconds or less.

  Starting Time:

  1. biologicalbiology biochemical biological biomedical

  2. protective      productive projective protective active

  3. temperature      temperate temperature temperament temperance

  4. observation      observant observance observation observe

  5. astronomer      astronomy astrometer astronaut astronomer

  6. research      reservation research rescuer recircle

  7. effective      effectual  effective effecting effectively

  8. disorder      disordered disorderly disorientate disorder

  9. electronic      electronics electron electronic electrolyte

  10. experiment    experimental experience existent experiment

  Finishing Time:  Total Reading Time:

  Errors: Check each line carefully for mistakes.

  Biological Clocks (1)Every living thing has an inner biological clock that controls behaviour. The clock works all the time, even when there are no outside signs to mark the passing of time. The biological clock tells plants when to form flowers and when the flowers should open. It tells insects when to leave the protective cocoon and fly away. And it tells animals when to eat, sleep and wake. It controls body temperature, the release of some hormones, and even dreams. These natural daily events are called circadian rhythms.

  Man has known about them for thousands of years. But the first scientific observation of circadian rhythms was not made until 1729. In that year, French astronomer, JeanJacques dortous de Mairan, noted that one of his plants opened its leaves at the same time every morning, and closed them at the same time every night. The plant did this even when he kept it in a dark place all the time.

  Later scientists wondered about circadian rhythms in humans. They learned that mans biological clock actually keeps time with a day of a little less than 25 hours instead of the 24 hours on a manmade clock.

  About four years ago American doctor, Eliot Weitzman, established a laboratory to study how our biological clock works. The people in his experiments are shut off from the outside world. They are free to listen to and live by their circadian rhythms. Dr. Weitzman hopes his research will lead to effective treatments for common sleep problems and sleep disorders caused by aging and mental illness.

  The laboratory is in the Montefiore Hospital in New York City. It has two living areas with three small rooms in each. The windows are covered, so no sunlight or moonlight comes in. There are no radios or television receivers. There is a control room between the living areas. It contains computers, oneway cameras and other electronic devices for observing the person in the living area. The instruments measure heartbeat, body temperature, hormones in the blood, other substances in the urine and brain waves during sleep.

  A doctor or medical technician is on duty in the control room 24 hours a day during an experiment. They do not work the same time each day and are not permitted to wear watches, so the person in the experiment has no idea what time it is.

  In the first four years of research, Dr. Weitzman and his assistant have observed 16 men between the ages of 21 and 80. The men remained in the laboratory for as long as six months. Last month, a science reporter for "The New York Times" newspaper, Dava Sobol, became the first woman to take part in the experiment. She entered the laboratory on June 13th and stayed for 25 days. Miss Sobol wrote reports about the experiment during that time, which were published in the newspaper.

  ——from The Voice of America, July 24, 1980

  Time: 490 words =  wpm

  Minute

  EXERCISESⅠ。 READING COMPREHENSION

  Select the answer which is most accurate according to the information given in the passage.

  1. A biological clock is an inner mechanism that is found in .

  A. animalsB. plantsC. celestial bodiesD. all living things

  2. Biological clocks are believed to play an essential role in .

  A. the regulation of body temperature

  B. the secretion of hormones

  C. animal reproduction

  D. many aspects of plant and animal physiology

  3. In his observation, the French scientist noticed that the leaves of a certain plant kept its openingandclosing cycles .

  A. even when the plant was kept in a murky place all day

  B. even when the plant was placed in the sun

  C. even when the plant was put in a dark place from time to time

  D. even if it was dying

  4. We can learn from the passage that mans biological clock .

  A. keeps the same length of time a day as a manmade clock

  B. keeps time of a bit less than 24 hours a day

  C. keeps time of more than 24 hours a day

  D. runs much faster than a manmade clock

  5. The sentence, "They are free to listen to and live by their circadian rhythms" (paragraph 4) probably means .

  A. they can lead their daily lives according to their circadian rhythms, without referring to a manmade clock

  B. they can listen to the wonderful rhythms of the biological clock and live close to them

  C. they can live by regulating their own circadian rhythms

  D. they are free from the annoying rhythms of everyday life

  6. The electronic devices in the control room are used to .

  A. monitor the peoples moods

  B. measure such physiological aspects as heartbeat, body temperature, hormones in the blood and so on

  C. measure height, weight and so forth

  D. record what the people say and do

  7. In the experiment conducted by Mr. Weitzman, the doctor who is on duty does not work the same time each day .

  A. in order to observe the abnormal behavior of the people at different times

  B. so as not to be recognized by the people

  C. so as to avoid indicating to the people what time it is when he starts work

  D. so as to leave the peoples circadian rhythms in disorder

  8. The first woman who took part in the experiment was .

  A. interviewed and reported by a science reporter from "The New York Times"

  B. kept in the laboratory till June 13th

  C. a science reporter for "The New York Times"

  D. keenly interested in the experiment

  9. Miss Sobol left the laboratory .

  A. on June 13thB. on June 25thC. at the end of June  D. on July 7th

  Ⅱ。 CONTEXTUAL REFERENCE

  Guess the meaning of the following words in italics using reading techniques.

  1. Light is less vital to animals than it is to plants; indeed most small animals tend to shun the light rather than to welcome it.

  2. Fish also need oxygen in order to live. Some of the gas is present in water. A fish takes  oxygen through its gills.

  3. Every mature insect has a pair of antennae, or "feelers", that often resemble the aerials on television sets. The antennae of an insect, however, are much more wonderful and sensitive than the mechanical ones, and are often made up of hundreds of parts.

  4. The coelacanth, a primitive fish once thought to have died out with the last of the dinosaurs, was found some forty years ago to be alive and well and living in the Indian Ocean. Because the biologists interested in the fish have been unable to catch them, and the fishermen who do catch them are not interested in them, it was not until 1972 that scientists were able to study a live coelacanth, however briefly, before it died.

  5. In a living thing, all the chemical reactions that take place are together called the metabolism of the organism. In these chemical reactions waste products are formed, which must be removed. The removal of the waste products is called excretion.

  6. All of these studies employed young chimpanzees as subjects and some also had inhouse child controls whose daytoday development could be compared directly with that of the experimental animal.

  Ⅲ。 CLOZE

  Complete the following passage by filling in the blanks with appropriate words.

  A Living Clock

  The fiddler crab (一种蟹,其螯一大一小) is a living clock. It indicates the time of day     1     the color of its skin, which is dark     2     day and pale     3     night. The crabs changing     4     color     5     a regular twentyfourhour cycle     6     exactly matches the daily     7     of the sun.

  Does the crab actually     8     time, or does its skin simply respond     9     the suns rays, changing color     10     to the     11     of light that strikes it?      12     find out, biologists     13      crabs in a dark room 14     two months. Even without daylight the crabs skin 15     continued to change precisely     16     schedule.

  This characteristic probably evolved in     17     to the rhythm of the sun, to help     18     the crab from sunlight and     19. After millions of    20     it has become completely regulated inside the living body of the crab.

  The biologists noticed that once each day the color of the fiddler crab is especially dark, and that each day this occurs fifty minutes later than on the day before. From this they discovered that each crab follows not only the rhythm of the sun but also that of the tides. The crabs period of greatest darkening is precisely the time of low tide on the beach where it lives!

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