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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY31

2006-7-28 01:04  

  Increasing reading speed

  Directions:Do the phrase recognition drill below.Quickly underline or mark the key phrase very time it appears in the columns.Try to finish in 10 seconds or less by reading down the column,not left to right.

  Starting Time:

  key phrase:a chemistry professora chemistry professoran American professor

  a respected professora chemistry professor

  a chemistry departmenta chemistry engineer

  a chemistry professoran honorable professor

  a physics professora chemistry professor

  a foreign professora professional chemist

  an astronomy professora chemistry professor

  a chemistry professora chemical reaction

  an honorary professora chemistry professor

  a chemical promoteran analytical chemistry

  a chemistry professora chemical property

  a physiology professora chemistry professor

  a chemical combinationa chemical equation

  a chemistry professoran associate professor

  Finishing Time: Total Reading Time:

  Check each line very carefully.Key phrase appears 10 times.

  Frederick Sanger:Two Time WinnerSTOCKHOLM,Sweden,Oct.  14- The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to Americans Paul Berg and Walter Guilbert as well as Englishman Frederick Sanger. The prizewinning discoveries of all three scientists deal with the structure of DNA,the messenger molecules inside living cells.

  Perhaps you hare read such a news short lately.  What you probably didnt know is that one of the three chemists,Dr. Frederick Sanger,has received this important award before. Dr. Sanger,a chemistry professor at Cambridge University, is only the second person in history to receive the Nobel Prize in the same field twice.

  In 1955 he won the chemistry prize for his work in deciphering the chemical structure of insulin. Insulin is a hormone that enables animals,including humans,to effectively store and oxidize,or process,sugar. Insulin is especially important for persons with diabetes. These people cannot oxidize sugar properly and need periodic injections of insulin.

  Dr. Sanger's two Nobel awards are a tribute to the painstaking research of the scientist. The shy and retiring British chemist often spends seven days a week engrossed in his research. Dr. Sanger sometimes even sleeps in his office so that he won't lose any valuable time in his work. He will quietly spend many years on a project and not report anything. Then one day,he will stun the scientific world with the results of his studies.

  Between 1945 and 1955,for instance,Dr. Sanger vigorously searched for the key that would allow him to unravel the structure of insulin. Because of the complexity of this project,many scientists thought that he would be unsuccessful. Ten years after he began his research,Dr. Sanger announced his victory. He had figured out the chemical makeup of insulin. This discovery led to the synthesis of insulin so important to diabetics.

  Instead of continuing with more extensive research into insulin though,Dr. Sanger started work on a new subject, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)。 "Thats become Fred Sanger's style," commented Dr. Nigel Godson,chairman of biochemistry at New York University Medical Center,"he shows the world how to do something and then he leaves them to do it."

  Dr. Sanger recently compared his research methods to reading a book. "In a book the information is encoded in the order of letters of the alphabet," he said." If you can read the information then you can understand the book."

  It took the brilliant biologist the past 12 years to discover a way to "read" the microscopic patterns of DNA. But now that he has translated that biological "book," Dr. Sanger will let other scientists complete the reading while he pushes on to research the unknown.

  ——from Current Science,Dec.17,1980

  Time: 450 words=wpm

  Minutes

  EXERCISESⅠ。READING COMPREHENSION

  Select the answer which is most accurate according to the information given in the passage.

  1. According to paragraph 2,Dr. Sanger .

  A. had received the Nobel Prize before he attended the ceremony

  B. knew he would be awarded the Nobel Prize even before it was announced

  C. has won the Nobel Prize twice

  D. has won this important award three times

  2. The phrase,"the same field" (paragraph 2) refers to the field of .

  A. historyB. chemistry

  C. research on the structure of insulin         D. research on DNA

  3. It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that patients suffering from diabetes .

  A. lack insulin B. need periodic injection

  C. cannot oxidize sugar properlyD. should eat a spoonful of sugar a day

  4. Why does Dr. Sanger sometimes sleep in his office?

  A. It is quiet there.

  B. He can stay up late there.

  C. He can lay hands on each reference book he needs.

  D. He wants to save every minute for his work.

  5. Which of the following will not be done by Dr. Sanger?

  A. To work on a project seven days a week.

  B. To report on the progress of his research once a week.

  C. To sleep in the office sometimes.

  D. To surprise his colleagues with the results of his research when he finally succeeds.

  6. After 10 years of painstaking research,Dr. Sanger .

  A. successfully synthesized insulin

  B. succeeded in treating diabetes

  C. finally made out the structure of insulin

  D. figured out that insulin was good for sufferers from diabetes

  7. What is Dr. Sanger's style of doing work?

  A. Giving up an unfinished project and starting a new one.

  B. Starting two projects at the same time.

  C. Taking a long vacation after each success.

  D. Showing his colleagues how to do something and letting them do it.

  8. The purpose of the passage is to introduce .

  A. Dr. Sanger and his scientific accomplishments

  B. the chemical makeup of insulin

  C. the microscopic patterns of DNA

  D. the two research projects Dr. Sanger has been engaged in

  Ⅱ。 CONTEXTUAL REFERENCE

  Read the following article and figure out the meaning of each word in italics using the context given and word building skills.

  Nuclear fission is the process of breaking up the nucleus,or center,of a heavy atom into lighter atoms. The heavy nucleus has a binding force that holds the particles of the atom together. The breaking up of the nucleus releases energy. The process is similar to what happens to a large drop of liquid if a little more liquid is added. The forces that hold the sphereshaped drop together cannot contain the extra amount of liquid. The drop changes shape and then splits into smaller drops.

  Nuclear fusion is the process of joining together two nuclei of light atoms to form a single nucleus of a heavier atom. The two different nuclei have different binding energies. This difference causes a release of energy when the two nuclei are joined.

  Hydrogen has a very light nucleus. As a result,it is important in fusion reactions. Because the supply of hydrogen is almost without limits,fusion seems to be an excellent source of limitless energy;however,fusion reactions are often difficult to accomplish.

  A turbine is a machine that rotates when pushed by a flowing stream of liquid. The turbine converts the energy in the flowing stream to mechanical energy. This energy can then be used to do useful work.

  ——from English Alfa B.5

  Ⅲ。 CLOZE

  Complete the following passage by filling in the blanks with appropriate words.

  Dr. Carl Sagan,Astronorner

  "Out yonder(在那边) there is this huge world,which exists independently of us human beings and which stands before us like a great,eternal riddle.。。 "

  The above quotation by Albert Einstein accurately describes astronomer Carl Sagans view of the cosmos (宇宙)。 To him the universe is a mystery that human beings should try to solve.

  Dr. Sagan is a   1  astronomer. In addition to his work     2     "Cosmos," he has written 3     than 300 research reports     4     numerous books. He also     5     a leading role in the Mariner, Viking, and Voyager spacecraft      6. Dr. Sagans speciality is exobiology (外太空生物学 )  -  the     7     for extraterrestrial life.

  8     Sagan, most astronomers specialize     9     one area of research. Some of those   10    of specialization include the study of the   11   system, the sun, stars,   12   cosmic radiation. 13   Dr. Sagan, most astronomers spend the   14   of their time   15   in offices or classrooms.

  New, specialized instruments   16   the heavens more accurately and   17   greater precision than humans. Computers organize and   18   data the instruments gather  19  and efficiently. This leaves the astronomer     20     the formidable (难对付的) task of analyzing the information and forming theories from it.

  Astronomy is a very selective field in the sciences. There are only about 2000 persons working in the U.S. as fulltime astronomers. About onequarter of these are employed by Government agencies, such as NASA and the U.S. Navy. The majority of astronomers are employed by colleges and universities.

  ——from Teachers Edition of Current Science, Sept. 24,1980

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