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考研英语范文阅读(五)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  It was 3: 45 in the morning when the vote was finally taken. After six months of arguing and final 16 hours of hot parliamentary debates, Australia's Northern Territory became the first legal authority in the world to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die. The measure passed by the convincing vote of 15 to 10. Almost immediately word flashed on the Internet and was picked up, half a world away, by John Hofsess, executive director of the Right to Die Society of Canada. He sent it on via the group's on-line service, Death NET. Says Hofsess: We posted bulletins all day long, because of course this isn't just something that happened in Australia. It's world history.

  The full import may take a while to sink in. The NT Rights of the Terminally Ill law has left physicians and citizens alike trying to deal with its moral and practical implications. Some have breathed sighs of relief, others, including churches, right-to-life groups and the Australian Medical Association, bitterly attacked the bill and the haste of its passage. But the tide is unlikely to turn back. In Australia-where an aging population, life-extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part-other states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia. In the US and Canada, where the right-to-die movement is gathering strength, observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling.

  Under the new Northern Territory law, an adult patient can request death-probably by a deadly injection or pill-to put an end to suffering. The patient must be diagnosed as terminally ill by two doctors. After a cooling off period of seven days, the patient can sign a certificate of request. After 48 hours the wish for death can be met. For Lloyd Nickson, a 54-year-old Darwin resident suffering from lung cancer, the NT Rights of Terminally Ill law means he can get on with living without the haunting fear of his suffering: a terrifying death from his breathing condition. I'm not afraid of dying from a spiritual point of view, but what I was afraid of was how I'd go, because I've watched people die in the hospital fighting for oxygen and clawing at their masks, he says.

  51. From the second paragraph we learn that ________.

  (A)the objection to euthanasia is slow to come in other countries

  (B)physicians and citizens share the same view on euthanasia

  (C)changing technology is chiefly responsible for the hasty passage of the law

  (D)it takes time to realize the significance of the law's passage

  52. When the author says that observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling, he means ________.

  (A)observers are taking a wait-and-see attitude towards the future of euthanasia

  (B)similar bills are likely to be passed in the US, Canada and other countries

  (C)observers are waiting to see the result of the game of dominoes

  (D)the effect-taking process of the passed bill may finally come to a stop

  53. When Lloyd Nickson dies, he will ________.

  (A)face his death with calm characteristic of euthanasia

  (B)experience the suffering of a lung cancer patient

  (C)have an intense fear of terrible suffering

  (D)undergo a cooling off period of seven days

  54. The author's attitude towards euthanasia seems to be that of ________.

  (A)opposition

  (B)suspicion

  (C)approval

  (D)indifference

  答案及试题解析

  DBAC

  51.(D)意为:理解该法获批准的意义尚需要时间。

  第二段第一句是该段的主题句,该句意为:其(即这一立法的)整体含义(import)可能需要一段时间才为人彻底理解(sink in)。其实,该段的第二句是对第一句更具体的阐释,该句可译为:北部地方州(此处NT是Northern Territory的缩略形式,指澳大利亚中北部地区)晚期病人权利法的批准使医生和普通人都在思索其道义与实践方面的含义。本段下文提到了支持和反对该法的两种观点。

  A意为:在(除澳大利亚以外的)其他国家,对安乐死的反对意见缓慢而至。这一点该段没有提到。实际上,听到该法批准后,远在美国和加拿大的人也很快作出了反应。

  B意为:在安乐死这一问题上,医生和普通人观点相同。正像该段第三句所指出的,对于该法的批准,意见分歧很大。有些人松了口气,而有些人-包括教堂、保卫生命权益组织与澳大利亚医学会-对该法进行激烈的抨击,认为它的批准过于仓促。

  C意为:技术(条件)的变化应对该法的仓促批准负主要责任。该段第五句意为:在澳大利亚,其他州也将考虑通过制定同样的一项法律来解决安乐死问题,而促成这一形势的是澳大利亚老化的人口、生命延续技术、正在变化的社会态度等因素。可见,这与C所表达的内容不一样。

  52.(B)意为:美国、加拿大及其他国家也可能批准类似法律。

  第二段最后一句指出,在美国和加拿大死之权利运动正在集结力量,观望者正在等待多米诺骨牌开始倾倒。多米诺骨牌是一种西洋骨牌游戏;游戏中将许多长方形的骨牌竖立排列成行,碰倒第一张时,其余骨牌将依次纷纷倒下。用于比喻时,这种游戏指一系列的连锁反应,即:牵一发而动全身。这里喻指:澳大利亚的形势会波及北美等国家,引起类似的做法。

  A意为:观察者对安乐死的未来持观望态度。根据对B的分析,观察者等待的是是否美、加等国会在对安乐死的态度方面步澳之后尘,通过类似立法,而并非是指他们对安乐死态度暖昧、莫衷一是。

  C意为:观察者正等待看多米诺游戏的结果。这种解释未免太拘泥于字面的意思。

  D意为:所批准的法案的影响也许会最终停止。与原文不符。

  53.(A)意为:死时表现出安乐死的平静特征。

  这实际上是说他将采用安乐死的方式离开人世。第三段提到,住在达尔文市(位于北部地方州)的尼克森患肺癌,对他来说,允许安乐死的法案的批准意味着他可以心情平静地生活,而无需惧怕将要遭受的死亡的折磨:由死时所产生的呼吸困难所带来的痛苦折磨。他说:从思想认识上讲,我并不怕死,但是,我怕的是如何死去,因为我曾亲眼目睹过医院的病人死时由缺氧而挣扎并抓挠氧气罩的情景。从以上的分析可以看出,尼克森先生知道自己已患绝症并依法为自己选择安乐死的方式告别人世。

  B意为:经历肺癌病人所要遭受的痛苦。不对,相反,尼克森将会平静死去。

  C意为:对痛苦的折磨极度恐惧。

  D意为:将经历7天的平静阶段。第三段指出,根据北部地区新通过的法律,要求安乐死的病人必须具备以下条件:1)该病人必须由两名医生诊断为晚期病人; 2)平静考虑7天后,病人签署一个申请证书;3)48小时后再给病人实行安乐死。可见,这里所说的平静7天是让病人(及其家庭)平静、认真地考虑一下是否选择采用安乐死这一形式。

  54.(C)意为;赞同。

  这是一篇新闻体文章,在新闻体文章中,写作者往往通过引用相关者的观点来结束讨论,并将自己的态度通过引用间接地表述出来。本文以尼克森的话结束了对安乐死的讨论,而尼克森是安乐死的支持者。另外,文章的大部分文字陈述了对安乐死法案的褒扬态度,而反对态度却一带而过。从这两方面来看,作者对安乐死持赞同态度。

  A意为:反对。

  B意为:怀疑。

  D意为:不关心。

  翻译句子

  1、Some have breathed sighs of relief, others, including churches, right-to-life groups and the Australian Medical Association, bitterly attacked the bill land the haste of its passage. But the tide is unlikely to turn back.

  [参考译文] 一些机构终于松了一口气,但是其他一些机构,包括教堂,倡导生命之权的团体和澳大利亚医学协会,尖锐地抨击这个法案,指责法案的通过过于匆忙。但是大势已定,不可逆转。

  [结构剖析] 第一句话中,有用逗号松散连接的两个表示对比的句子:Some have breathed…others…bitterly attacked…,其中 others 之后是介词词组:including churches, right-to-life groups and the Australian Medical Association 对 others 进行进一步的解释。its passage 中的 its 指代前面提到的 the bill.第二句使用了被动语态,与第一句是转折关系。

  [阅读重点] tide 本意是潮水、潮汐的意思,这里的引申含义是趋势、趋向;turn the tide 使形式转变、改变局面。bill 这里是法案的意思。另外要理解 some 和 others 的对比关系。

  2、In Australia-where an aging population, life-extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part-other states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia.

  [参考译文] 在澳大利亚-人口老龄化,延长寿命的技术和变化着的社会态度,这些因素都在发挥作用-其他的州也会考虑制定相似的关于安乐死的法律。

  [结构剖析] 这个句子的主体结构是… other states are going to consider…。句首的 In Australia 是介词词组表示地点状语,后面 where 引导定语从句 where an aging population, life-extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part,进一步解释 Australia 的具体情况。

  [阅读重点] 注意破折号中说各种因素都发挥了作用,是指对其它州考虑制定关于安乐死的法律这件事而言的。另外注意 consider 的用法,consider 后面一般接 V-ing 的形式或 that 引导的宾语从句。

  补充难句翻译

  1、After six months of arguing and final 16hours of hot parliamentary debates, Australia's Northern Territory became the first legal authority in the world to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die.

  [参考译文] 经过了六个月的争论以及最后16个小时激烈的议会辩论,澳大利亚北部地区成了世界上第一个允许医生终止希望死去的绝症病人生命的立法当局。

  [结构剖析] 句子的主体结构是 Australia's Northern Territory became the first legal authority…;句首是表示时间的介词词组作状语:after six months of arguing and final 16 hours of hot parliamentary debates;后面的动词不定式 to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die 相当于定语从句 which allows doctors to…,修饰 legal authority;who 引导定语从句 who wish to die 修饰前面的 patients.

  [阅读重点] 理解句子的关键在于剔除庞杂的修饰成分,抓住句子的主干。

  2、 After a cooling off period of seven days, the patient can sign a certificate of request. After 48 hours the wish for death can be met.

  [参考译文] 在七天的冷静期之后,病人可以签署一张申请证书。再等48小时之后,他要求死去的愿望就可以实现了。

  [结构剖析] 两个句子都是简单句。第一句中前面是介词词组作时间状语:After a cooling off period of seven days.第二句使用了被动语态。

  [阅读重点] cooling off 这里是指给病人充足的考虑时间以做出冷静的决定。meet 这里是满足的意思,可以和 demand、need、requirement 等和 wish 类似的词连用。

  语言点详解

  1. take vote 表决

  [大纲词汇] vote n.投票,表;选票,选票数;v.投票,表决

  [经典例句] They finally took a vote on the mater.

  2. legal authority 合法当局

  [大纲词汇] legal a.法律的,法定的;合法的,正当的 a legal act 合法行为

  3. incurably 不可救药地

  [大纲词汇] cure v.(of)治愈,医治;矫正,纠正; n.治愈,痊愈;良药,疗法

  [衍生词汇] curable a.可医治的 incurable a.无法治愈的,不可纠正的 incurably ad.无法治愈地,不可救药地

  [经典例句] He was incurably stubborn on this matter.

  4. convincing 令人信服的

  [大纲词汇] convince v.(of)使信服,使确信

  [衍生词汇] convincing a.令人信服的,有说服力的

  [经典例句] His explanation is very convincing.

  5. flash on 闪映

  [大纲词汇] flash v.发闪光,闪亮;闪现;n.闪光

  [经典例句] The news flashed on the television.

  6. pick up 得到

  [大纲词汇] pick up 拾起,拣起;增加,改进;(偶然)得到;(车船)中途搭(人),中途带(货);获得,学会

  [经典例句] Their message was picked up by the enemy and decoded.

  7. executive director 执行总监

  [大纲词汇] executive a.执行的,实施的;n.总经理,董事,行政负责人

  8. send it on 继续发送

  [大纲词汇] send n.送,寄;派遣,打发

  [经典例句] She asked me to send the message on to other friends.

  9. on-line service 网上服务

  10. all day long 整天

  [经典例句] He works on the question all day long to find the right answer.

  11. import 含义

  [大纲词汇] import v.进口,输人; n.进口,输人;pl.进口商品,进口物资,主旨,含义

  [经典例句] Hardly anyone caught the full import of the incident.

  12. take a while 需要一段时间

  [大纲词汇] while n.一段时间,一会儿

  [经典例句] It takes a while for him to calm down.

  13. sink in 被理解

  [大纲词汇] sink v.(使)下沉,下落; n.水池,水槽

  [扩充词汇] sink in 被理解

  [经典例句] Eventually the news sank in.

  14. physician 内科医生

  [经典例句] physician n.内科医生

  15. implication 牵连

  [大纲词汇] implication n.含义,暗示 imply v.意指;含…意思,暗示

  [扩充词义] implication n.牵连;涉及;密切关系

  [经典例句] The news regulation has grave implication for unemployment.

  16. haste 匆忙

  [大纲词汇] haste n.匆忙,急速;草率;v.赶快,匆忙 in haste 匆忙地,草率地

  [衍生词汇] hasty a.匆忙的

  [经典例句] Many people were surprised at the haste of his marriage.

  17. passage 通过

  [大纲词汇] passage n.通过,经过;通路;走廊;(一)段落,(一)节

  [经典例句] The opposition party tried to secure the passage of the law.

  18. turn back 折回

  [扩充词汇] turn back 折回,返回;改变做法

  [经典例句] There is no turning back once you have signed the contract.

  19. play one's part 起作用

  [大纲词汇] play a part(in)起作用

  [经典例句] Ambition played its part in his success.

  20. euthanasia 安乐死

  21. dominoes 多米诺骨牌(多米诺现象指一个倒下后引起连锁反应而全部倒下)

  22. injection 注射

  [大纲词汇] inject v.注射,注人

  [衍生词汇] injection n.注射

  [经典例句] The doctor prescribed an injection of penicillin for his fever.

  23. put an end to 使…结束

  [扩充词汇] put an end to 使终止,毁掉

  [经典例句] The accident put an end to her happy life.

  24. diagnose 诊断

  [大纲词汇] diagnose v.诊断

  [经典例句] He was diagnosed lung cancer a few days age.

  25. terminally 致命地

  [大纲词汇] terminal a.终点站;终端,接线端;计算机终端

  [衍生词汇] terminally ad.致命地,晚期地;终点地

  [经典例句] He was terminally ill.

  26. cool off 使冷静下来

  [大纲词汇] cool a.凉的,凉爽的;冷静的,沉着的,冷淡的;v.(使)冷却,(使)冷静

  [扩充词汇] cool off 使冷静下来

  [经典例句] You should give him sometime to cool off his anger.

  27. certificate 证明书

  [大纲词汇] certificate n.证(明)书

  28. get on with 继续

  [扩充词汇] get on with 继续

  [经典例句] We get on with the meeting after his disruption.

  29. haunting 萦绕于心的

  [扩充词汇] haunt v.常去;使苦恼,困扰;布满 haunting a.萦绕于心的,使人不安的

  [经典例句] Man's future is a haunting question to him.

  30. terrifying 令人恐惧的

  [大纲词汇] terrify v.使害怕,使惊吓

  [衍生词汇] terrifying a.令人害怕的

  [经典例句] The terrifying scene shocked everyone.

  31. point of view 观点

  [大纲词汇] viewpoint n.观点

  32. fight for 为…而斗争

  [大纲词汇] fight v./n.打(仗);搏斗,斗争,战斗

  [经典例句] He died in fighting for freedom.

  33. claw at 抓,挠

  [大纲词汇] claw n.爪,脚爪

  [扩充词义] claw v.抓,挠

  [经典例句] The emotional stress of those years still claws at her.

  34. objection to 反对

  [大纲词汇] object v.(to)反对 objection n.(to)反对,异议

  [经典例句] I have no objection to your proposal.

  全文翻译

  凌晨3:45进行了最终表决。经过6个月争论和最后16个小时的国会激烈辩论,澳大利亚北部地区(澳北州)成为世界上第一个允许医生根据绝症病人个人意愿来结束其生命的合法当局。这一法案是以令人信服的15票对10票通过。几乎同时,该消息就出现在互联网上。身处地球另一端的加拿大死亡权利执行主席约翰?霍夫塞斯在收到该消息后便通过协会的在线服务死亡之网发了公告。他说:我们整天都在发布公告,因为这件事的意义不在于它是在澳大利亚发生的事情,而是因为这是世界历史的一件大事。

  要充分理解这一法案的深刻意义可能需要一段时间。澳北州晚期病人权利法使得无论是内科医生还是普通市民都同样地力图从道义和实际意义两方面来对待这一问题。一些人如释重负,另一些人,包括教会,生命权利组织以及澳大利亚医学会成员都对这一决议及其仓促的通过进行了猛烈的抨击。但这一潮流已无法逆转。在澳大利亚,人口老龄化,延长寿命技术和公众态度的变化都发挥着各自的作用。其他州也将考虑制定类似的法律来处理安乐死问题。在美国和加拿大,死亡权利运动正在积蓄力量。观察家们正在等待多米诺骨牌产生的效应。

  根据澳北州所通过的这项新法案,成年病人可以要求安乐死-可能是通过注射致死药剂或服用致死药片-来结束痛苦。但此前病人必须由两名医生诊断其确实已病入膏肓,然后再经过7天的冷静思考期,方可签署一份申请证明。48小时后,才可以满足其安乐死的愿望。对于居住于达尔文现年54岁的肺癌患者利奥德?尼克森来说,这个法律意味着他可以平静地生活下去而无须整天惧怕即将来临的苦难:因呼吸困难而在煎熬中痛苦地死去。从思想上说,我并不害怕死,但我怕的是怎样死,因为我在医院看到过病人在缺氧时苦苦挣扎,用手抓他们的面罩时的情景。他说。

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