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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY8

2006-7-28 01:03  

  1997年全国硕士学位研究生入学考试英语试题

  Part IIIReading Comprehension

  Directions: Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked A, B, C and D. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding    letter in the brackets. (40 points)

  Passage 1

  It was 3:45 in the morning when the vote was finally taken. After six months of arguing and final 16 hours of hot parliamentary debates, Australias Northern Territory became the first legal authority in the world to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die. The measure passed by the convincing vote of 15 to 10. Almost immediately word flashed on the Internet and was picked up, half a world away, by John Hofsess, executive director of the Right to Die Society of Canada. He sent it on via the groups on line service, Death NET. Says Hofsess: "We posted bulletins all day long, because of course this isnt just something that happened in Australia. Its world history."

  The full import may take a while to sink in. The NT Rights of the Terminally III law has left physicians and citizens alike trying to deal with its moral and practical implications. Some have breathed sighs of relief, others, including churches, right to life groups and the Australian Medical Association, bitterly attacked the bill and the haste of its passage. But the tide is unlikely to turn back. In Australia - where an aging population, life extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part - other states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia. In the US and Canada, where the right to die movement is gathering strength, observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling.

  Under the new Northern Territory law, an adult patient can request death - probably by a deadly injection or pill - to put an end to suffering. The patient must be diagnosed as terminally ill by two doctors. After a "cooling off" period of seven days, the patient can sign a certificate of request. After 48 hours the wish for death can be met. For Lloyd Nickson, a 54 year old Darwin resident suffering from lung cancer, the NT Rights of Terminally III law means he can get on with living without the haunting fear of his suffering: a terrifying death from his breathing condition. "Im not afraid of dying from a spiritual point of view, but what I was afraid of was how Id go, because Ive watched people die in the hospital fighting for oxygen and clawing at their masks," he says.

  51.  From the second paragraph we learn that  .

  A. the objection to euthanasia is slow to come in other countries

  B. physicians and citizens share the same view on euthanasia

  C. changing technology is chiefly responsible for the hasty passage of the law

  D. it takes time to realize the significance of the laws passage

  52. When the author says that observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling, he means  .

  A. observers are taking a wait and see attitude towards the future of euthanasia

  B. similar bills are likely to be passed in the US, Canada and other countries

  C. observers are waiting to see the result of the game of dominoes

  D. the effect taking process of the passed bill may finally come to a stop

  53. When Lloyd Nickson dies, he will  .

  A. face his death with calm characteristic of euthanasia

  B. experience the suffering of a lung cancer patient

  C. have an intense fear of terrible suffering

  D. undergo a cooling off period of seven days

  54. The authors attitude towards euthanasia seems to be that of  .

  A. opposition    B. suspicion

  C. approval     D. indifference

  Passage 2

  A report consistently brought back by visitors to the US is how friendly, courteous, and helpful most Americans were to them. To be fair, this observation is also frequently made of Canada and Canadians, and should best be considered North American. There are, of course, exceptions. Small minded officials, rude waiters, and ill mannered taxi drivers are hardly unknown in the US. Yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment.

  For a long period of time and in many parts of the country, a traveler was a welcome break in an otherwise dull existence. Dullness and loneliness were common problems of the families who generally lived distant from one another. Strangers and travelers were welcome sources of diversion, and brought news of the outside world.

  The harsh realities of the frontier also shaped this tradition of hospitality. Someone traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn except to the nearest cabin or settlement. It was not a matter of choice for the traveler or merely a charitable impulse on the part of the settlers. It reflected the harshness of daily life: if you didnt take in the stranger and take care of him, there was no one else who would. And someday, remember, you might be in the same situation.

  Today there are many charitable organizations, which specialize in helping the weary traveler. Yet, the old tradition of hospitality to strangers is still very strong in the US, especially in the smaller cities and towns away from the busy tourist trails. "I was just traveling through, got talking with this American, and pretty soon he invited me home for dinner - amazing." Such observations reported by visitors to the US are not uncommon, but are not always understood properly. The casual friendliness of many Americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition.

  As is true of any developed society, in America a complex set of cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies all social interrelationships. And, of course, speaking a language does not necessarily mean that someone understands social and cultural patterns. Visitors who fail to "translate" cultural meanings properly often draw wrong conclusions. For example, when an American uses the word "friend", the cultural implications of the word may be quite different from those it has in the visitors language and culture. It takes more than a brief encounter on a bus to distinguish between courteous convention and individual interest. Yet, being friendly is a virtue that many American value highly and expect from both neighbors and strangers.

  55. In the eyes of visitors from the outside world,  .

  A. rude taxi drivers are rarely seen in the US

  B. small minded officials deserve a serious comment

  C. Canadians are not so friendly as their neighbors

  D. most Americans are ready to offer help

  56. It could be inferred from the last paragraph that  .

  A. culture exercises an influence over social interrelationship

  B. courteous convention and individual interest are interrelated

  C. various virtues manifest themselves exclusively among friends

  D. social interrelationships equal the complex set of cultural conventions

  57. Families in frontier settlements used to entertain strangers  .

  A. to improve their hard lifeB. in view of their long distance travel

  C. to add some flavor to their own daily lifeD. out of a charitable impulse

  58. The tradition of hospitality to strangers  .

  A. tends to be superficial and artificial

  B. is generally well kept up in the United States

  C. is always understood properly

  D. was something to do with the busy tourist trails

  Passage 3

  Technically, any substance other than food that alters our bodily or mental functioning is a drug. Many people mistakenly believe the term drug refers only to some sort of medicine or an illegal chemical taken by drug addicts. They dont realize that familiar substances such as alcohol and tobacco are also drugs. This is why the more neutral term substance is now used by many physicians and psychologists. The phrase "substance abuse" is often used instead of "drug abuse" to make clear that substances such as alcohol and tobacco can be just as harmfully misused as heroin and cocaine.

  We live a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs)  is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves. When do these socially acceptable and apparently constructive uses of a substance become misuses? First of all, most substances taken in excess will produce negative effects such as poisoning or intense perceptual distortions. Repeated use of a substance can also lead to physical addiction or substance dependence. Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.

  Drugs (substances) that affect the central nervous system and alter perception, mood, and behavior are known as psychoactive substances. Psychoactive substances are commonly grouped according to whether they are stimulants, depressants, or hallucinogens. Stimulants initially speed up or activate the central nervous system, whereas depressants slow it down. Hallucinogens have their primary effect on perception, distorting and altering it in a variety of ways including producing hallucinations. These are the substances often called psychedelic (from the Greek word meaning "mindmanifesting") because they seemed to radically alter ones state of consciousness.

  59. "Substance abuse" (Line 5, Paragraph 1) is preferable to "drug abuse" in that  .

  A. substances can alter our bodily or mental functioning if illegally used

  B. "drug abuse" is only related to a limited number of drug takers

  C. alcohol and tobacco are as fatal as heroin and cocaine

  D. many substances other than heroin or cocaine can also be poisonous

  60. The word "pervasive" (Line 1, Paragraph 2)  might mean  .

  A. widespread    B. overwhelming

  C. piercing    D. fashionable

  61. Physical dependence on certain substances results from  .

  A. uncontrolled consumption of them over long periods of time

  B. exclusive use of them for social purposes

  C. quantitative application of them to the treatment of diseases

  D. careless employment of them for unpleasant symptoms

  62. From the last paragraph we can infer that  .

  A. stimulants function positively on the mind

  B. hallucinogens are in themselves harmful to health

  C. depressants are the worst type of psychoactive substances

  D. the three types of psychoactive substances are commonly used in groups

  Passage 4

  No company likes to be told it is contributing to the moral decline of a nation. "Is this what you intended to accomplish with your careers?" Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week. "You have sold your souls, but must you corrupt our nation and threaten our children as well?" At Time Warner, however, such questions are simply the latest manifestation of the soul searching that has involved the company ever since the company was born in 1990. Its a self examination that has, at various times, involved issues of responsibility, creative freedom and the corporate bottom line.

  At the core of this debate is chairman Gerald Levin, 56, who took over for the late Steve Ross in 1992. On the financial front, Levin is under pressure to raise the stock price and reduce the companys mountainous debt, which will increase to 17.3 billion after two new cable deals close. He has promised to sell off some of the property and restructure the company, but investors are waiting impatiently.

  The flap over rap is not making life any easier for him. Levin has consistently defended the companys rap music on the grounds of expression. In 1992, when Time Warner was under fire for releasing Ice Ts violent rap song Cop Killer. Levin described rap as a lawful expression of street culture, which deserves an outlet. "The test of any democratic society," he wrote in a Wall Streel Journal column, "lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating the results may sometimes be. We wont retreat in the face of any threats."

  Levin would not comment on the debate last week, but there were signs that the chairman was backing off his hard line stand, at least to some extent. During the discussion of rock singing verses at last months stockholders meeting, Levin asserted that "music is not the cause of societys ills" and even cited his son, a teacher in the Bronx, New York, who uses rap to communicate with students. But he talked as well about the "balanced struggle" between creative freedom and social responsibility, and he announced that the company would launch a drive to develop standards for distribution and labeling of potentially objectionable music.

  The 15 member Time Warner board is generally supportive of Levin and his corporate strategy. But insiders say several of them have shown their concerns in this matter. "Some of us have known for many, many years that the freedoms under the First Amendment are not totally unlimited," says Luce. "I think it is perhaps the case that some people associated with the company have only recently come to realize this."

  63. Senator Robert Dole criticized Time Warner for  .

  A. its raising of the corporate stock price   B. its selfexamination of soul

  C. its neglect of social responsibility   D. its emphasis on creative freedom

  64. According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?

  A. Luce is a spokesman of Time Warner.

  B. Gerald Levin is liable to compromise.

  C. Time Warner is united as one in the face of the debate.

  D. Stever Ross is no longer alive

  65. In face of the recent attacks on the company, the chairman  .

  A. stuck to a strong stand to defend freedom of expression

  B. softened his tone and adopted some new policy

  C. changed his attitude and yielded to objection

  D. received more support from the 15member board

  66. The best title for this passage could be  .

  A. A Company under Fire       B. A Debate on Moral Decline

  C. A Lawful Outlet of Street Culture D. A Form of Creative Freedom

  Passage 5

  Much of the language used to describe monetary policy, such as "steering the economy to a soft landing" or "a touch on the brakes", makes it sound like a precise science. Nothing could be further from the truth. The link between interest rates and inflation is uncertain. And there are long, variable lags before policy changes have any effect on the economy.Hence the analogy that likens the conduct of monetary policy to driving a car with a blackened windscreen, a cracked rear view mirror and a faulty steering wheel.

  Given all these disadvantages, central bankers seem to have had much to boast about of late. Average inflation in the big seven industrial economies fell to a mere 2.3% last year, close to its lowest level in 30 years, before rising slightly to 2.5% this July. This is a long way below the double digit rates which many countries experienced in the 1970s and early 1980s.

  It is also less than most forecasters had predicated. In late 1994 the panel of economists which The Economist polls each month said that Americas inflation rate would average 3.5% in 1995. In fact, it fell to 2.6% in August, and expected to average only about 3% for the year as a whole. In Britain and Japan inflation is running half a percentage point below the rate predicted at the end of last year. This is no flash in the pan; over the past couple of years, inflation has been consistently lower than expected in Britain and America.

  Economists have been particularly surprised by favorable inflation figures in Britain and the United States, since conventional measures suggest that both economies, and especially Americas, have little productive slack. Americas capacity utilization, for example, his historically high levels earlier this year, and its jobless rate (5.6% in August) has fallen bellow most estimates of the natural rate of unemployment - the rate below which inflation has taken off in the past.

  Why has inflation proved so mild? The most thrilling explanation is, unfortunately, a little defective. Some economists argue that powerful structural changes in the world have up ended the old economic models that were based upon the historical link between growth and inflation.

  67. From the passage we learn that  .

  A. there is a definite relationship between inflation and interest rates

  B. economy will always follow certain models

  C. the economic situation is better than expected

  D. economists had foreseen the present economic situation

  68. According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?

  A. Making monetary policies is comparable to driving a car

  B. An extremely low jobless rate will lead to inflation

  C. A high unemployment rate will result from inflation

  D. Interest rates have an immediate effect on the economy

  69. The sentence "This is no flash in the pan" (Line 5, Paragraph 3)  means that  .

  A. the low inflation rate will last for some time

  B. the inflation rate will soon rise

  C. the inflation will disappear quickly

  D. there is no inflation at present

  70. The passage shows that the author is   the present situation.

  A. critical ofB. puzzled by

  C. disappointed atD. amazed at

  51. 「D」问题是:从第二段我们可知。

  第二段第一句是解答本题的关键。"The full import may take a while to sink in."意思为:整个事情的重要性还需要一段时间才能被人了解。选D.

  52. 「B」问题是:当作者说到"observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling"是什么意思?

  该题是一道句意解释题,关键在于前半句话的褒贬。前半句话说美国和加拿大,争取死亡权利的运动在不断发展壮大,潜台词就是安乐死的合法化是迟早的事。"domino"的意思是多米诺骨牌。

  53. 「A」问题是:当Lloyd Nickson死的时候,他会怎么样?

  文章的最后一段话之所以列举这个例子,是为了说明安乐死能帮患者化解对死亡痛苦的忧虑,从容的死去。所以选择A——他会从容地面对死亡,这是接受安乐死病人的特征。

  干扰选项D是原文的意思,但不是发生在死的那一刻,而是决定采取安乐死的方式。

  54. 「C」问题是:作者对安乐死的态度是。

  从最后一段列举的例子来看,是支持安乐死的,否则会举一个反对安乐死的患者的例子。

  投票最终进行是在凌晨3点45分。在经过了6个月的讨论和议会16个小时的激烈辩论之后,最终澳大利亚的北部地区成为世界上第一个允许医生合法帮助无药可治的病人进行安乐死的地区。这项法案最终是以15比10的多数票通过。这个消息立刻就在互联网上传开了,在地球的另一边,加拿大死亡权利协会执行主席 John Hofsess 马上把这个消息发到了该组织的网站Death NET 上。Hofsess 说:"我们整天都在贴子,因为这件事并不只是澳大利亚的事,这是整个世界历史上的大事。"

  人们还需要一段时间才能了解这整个事件的重要性。澳大利亚北部地区制定的这项关于晚期病人的法律使得医生和普通公民都在考虑它在道德和实际生活方面的意义。有些人放心地松了一口气,有些人,包括教会、生存权利组织和澳大利亚医药协会,则猛烈抨击这项法案,认为它的通过太草率。但是潮流不可能再逆转了。在澳大利亚——那里的人口老龄化问题,生命延长技术,和社会态度的转变,都在分别施加各自的影响——其他地区也将考虑通过类似的有关安乐死的法案。在美国和加拿大,随着死亡权利运动不断发展壮大,观察家们正静候着连锁反应的发生。

  新的北部地区法律规定,成年患者可以要求用注射或药片结束自己的痛苦。患者必须由两位医生诊断为患有不治之症,并且在冷静七天之后,病人就可以签署申请书。这之后的48小时之后,病人的愿望就可以实现。对于54岁身患肺癌的达尔文市居民Lloyd Nickson 来说,这项法案意味着他不用再成天担心因为窒息而痛苦地死去了。他说:"从精神上来说,我并不害怕死亡;但我担心的是将会怎样死去,因为我曾看到过医院里的病人因为喘不上气来,抓着氧气面具痛苦地死去。"

  55. 「D」问题是:在来自外界游客的眼里。

  文章第一段第一句指出,去过美国的人所带回来的印象总是:大多数美国人表现为友好、礼貌、乐于助人,即D项内容。

  56. 「A」问题是:本文最后一段,可以推断出。

  文章最后一段第1句是本段中心句,像其他发达社会一样,在美国构成社会人际关系的是一系列复杂的文化符号、信念和习俗。句中的"cultural signals, assumptions,  conventions" 全都是属于 "culture" (文化范畴)。由此我们可推断文化大可影响社会人际关系, 即A项内容。

  57. 「C」问题是:边疆地区的家庭过去一直招待陌生人。

  文章第2段指出,在美国历史的很长一段时期(即所谓"拓荒"时代),对许多地区来说,一个旅行者的到来是很受欢迎的,因为它可以对平时单调的生活起一个调节(break) 作用。离群索居的家庭共同的问题是日常生活的单调与寂寞,陌生人或旅行者的到来可以使他们暂时摆脱这种生活状况。另外,他们也可以因此获得外界信息。

  58. 「B」问题是:这种对陌生人友善客观的传统。

  文章第4段第2句便给出了答案,"友善好客的老传统在美国仍根深蒂固",即B项内容:在美国得以广泛的保持。

  旅游者对美国做出的评价经常是:友好、礼貌和乐于助人。公平地说,这一评价对加拿大人也适用,因此可以说游客对整个北美地区的印象都是这样。当然,也有例外的情况。比如说美国官员的心胸狭窄,饭店服务员的态度粗鲁,出租车司机没有礼貌,这些都是众所周知的。然而,既然美国人得到了那么多良好的评价,这就值得我们说上两句。

  曾经有很长一段时间,在美国的很多地方,旅行者的来访能打破往日沉闷的生活,因此是很受欢迎的。对于那些居住得比较分散的家庭来说,沉闷和孤独是很普遍的问题。陌生人和旅行者带来了外面世界的信息,解除了生活的烦闷。

  同时,边疆地区生活的严酷性也造成了这种好客的传统。当独自旅行的人受到饥饿和伤病的威胁时,只有到最近的小屋和居民点求助。这并不是说旅行者选择这样做,或者边疆居民一时发了善心。它反应了日常生活的严酷性:如果你不接纳和照顾陌生人,就没有人去管他们。而且,记住,总有一天你也会处在和他们一样的处境。

  今天,有很多慈善组织专门帮助疲劳的旅行者。但是美国仍然有很强的对陌生人好客的传统,尤其是在远离旅游区的小城镇里。经常可以听到游客对美国这样的评论:"我在旅行中碰到一个美国人,只和他谈了几句,他就邀请我回家吃晚饭了,真奇怪。"旅行者对这种现象的理解往往不正确,很多美国人随意的友善表示,并不应该理解成肤浅或做作的举动,而应该看成是有历史根源的文化传统。

  正如在任何发达社会中一样,在美国的一切社会关系背后也有一套复杂的文化符号和传统。当然,会说一门语言并不意味着了解其社会文化。旅游者曲解文化含义往往得出错误的结论。例如当一个美国人使用"朋友"这个词时,其文化含义与旅游者的语言文化中这个词的含义是不一样的。公共汽车上的简短一晤,你是无法分辨出礼貌的客气和个人的真正兴趣的。然而,对人友好是很多美国人很看重的一个优点,他们也期望从邻居和陌生人身上看到这种品质。

  59. 「D」问题是:"物质滥用"(第1段第5行)这个词比 "药物滥用" 更可取是因为。

  文章第一段最后一句作者指出,许多医生(physician)和心理学家常使用"物质滥用"而不是"药物滥用"这一概念,他们想以此说明:滥用像烟酒这样的物质与滥用海洛因和可卡因一样有害。常识告诉我们 "heroin"和 "cocaine"对人体是有害的,而像 "alcohol" 和 "tobacco" 这样的物质可以同它们划等号(作者用as…… as 句型)。可见,除 "heroin" 和 "cocaine"外,还有许多物质是有害的,即D项内容。

  60. 「A」问题是:"pervasive" 这个词(第2段第1行)的意思可能是。

  文章 "pervasive" 出现那一句的翻译是"在我们生活的社会里,物质的医用和社交用广泛存在,如:用阿司匹林制止头痛,用酒交际,早晨用咖啡振作一下精神,抽支烟定定神。"只有A项内容广泛普遍,才是作者举例要说明的。

  61. 「A」问题是:造成对某种物质心理上依赖的原因是。

  用药量和用药时间是造成药物依赖的两个重要因素。文中"tolerance" 一词指的是长时间无节制地对于某物质的撮取,即A项内容。

  62. 「B」问题是:从文章最后一段我们可以推断出。

  文章第三段第四、五句,迷幻剂主要影响人的知觉,以各种方式(包括产生幻觉)将它扭曲、改变。它们被称作"引起幻觉的药物",因为它们似乎从根本上改变了人的意识状态。这是个常识问题。作者没有直接在文中指出,但我们都知道,幻觉剂本身就对人体有害,即B项内容。

  从技术角度来讲,除了食物之外,任何能够改变我们的身体和思维功能的物质都是药物。很多人错误地认为"药物"这个词指的就是某种药或者瘾君子们服用的非法化学药品。他们没有意识到很多熟悉的物质如烟、酒也是药物,这也是为什么医生和心理学者使用"滥用"这个比较中性的词。现在人们经常用"滥用物质"来代替 "滥用药物",以便能够清楚地说明像烟和酒这样的物质如果滥用,能和海洛因和可卡因一样有害。

  我们居住的社会里,不论是医疗用还是日常生活中,滥用物质(药物)的现象都十分普遍:吃片阿司匹林来缓解头痛,喝杯酒来促进交际,早起喝杯咖啡来打起精神,抽支烟来缓解紧张。使用这些物质是被社会认可的,而且明显对我们有帮助,怎么会变成滥用了呢?首先,大部分的物质,一旦使用过量,就会产生负面影响,比如中毒或导致知觉扭曲。反复使用一种物质会导致上瘾或对该物质的依赖。这种依赖首先表现为耐药性增强,要想达到预期的效果就需要越来越多的这种物质;然后当一旦终止使用这种物质,就会出现停药后的不适症状。

  能影响中枢神经系统,改变人们的知觉、情绪和行为的药物(物质)被称作"作用于精神的物质".人们通常把这些物质区分为兴奋剂、镇静剂和迷幻剂。兴奋剂会加速或刺激中枢神经系统,而镇静剂减慢神经系统的工作。迷幻剂主要作用于人的知觉上,使其扭曲变形,产生幻觉等。这些物质通常被称为"迷幻药"(这个词来自希腊语,意思是"展示思想的"),因为它们似乎能够很快改变一个人的意识状态。

  63. 「C」问题是:参议员Robert Dole谴责Time Warner公司是因为。

  文章第一段指出,没有哪个公司喜欢别人说它导致了全国道德的败坏。多尔参议员所指责时代华纳公司的正是这一点。他说:难道这就是你们的经营目标吗?你们出卖了自己的灵魂,难道你们也想毁了国家、危及我们的孩子吗? 这种行为当然属于对社会责任的忽视。

  64. 「D」问题是:根据文中内容,以下哪一项是正确的?

  "late"除其他意思外,该词有"前","已故的"等意思。一般来讲,该词加在人名或称呼前时译作"已故的",如:the late Mr.Green已故格林先生,her late husband她的前夫(已故)。若加在头衔前,则要据情况而译,如:the late president前总统(也可能已故,也可能仅指刚刚卸职)。

  65. 「B」问题是:面对近期外界对公司的攻击,主席。

  文章第3段讲到公司主席Levin持强硬立场,他还辩护说,街头音乐不过是一种文化,是值得推广的。但第4段作者指出,Levin对上周的争议拒绝评价,但有迹象表明他正在放弃自己的强硬立场——至少在某种程度上可以这样说。即B项内容。

  66. 「A」问题是:本文最佳的标题可能是。

  从以上的分析可以看出,本文主要是评述了时代华纳公司因发行新音乐专辑而受到的责难及其反应。B题目太广泛,C和D都不可能概括文章内容。没有一家公司希望被指责为导致了国家道德水平的堕落。Robert Dole参议员在上周的会议中向时代华纳公司的执行长官发问:"你们的事业就是为了达到这样的结果吗?你们已经出卖了自己的灵魂,难道还要腐化我们的国家,危及我们的孩子吗?"在时代华纳,这自我反省的一幕自从公司1990年创建时就在不断上演,而这次的这个问题只是一种最新的发问形式而已。在不同时期,这种自我检查涉及的内容包括责任、创作自由和公司能容忍的底线。

  处于这场争论中心位置的是公司主席,56岁的Gerald Levin,他于1992年从已故主席Steve Ross 手中接过这个重任。在财政问题上,Levin 的压力很大,他必须提高公司的股价,并减少公司的巨额债务,而这一债务在购买两条电缆的交易完成之后将达到一百七十三亿美元。他承诺出售公司的一些产业,并对公司进行重组,但是投资者已经等得不耐烦了。

  人们关于rap 音乐的抨击使Levin 的日子更加不好过。Levin 一直以rap 音乐只是一种表达方式来维护该公司的rap 音乐。1992年,华纳公司因为出品了IceT 乐队充满暴力的rap 歌曲《警察杀手》,而受到了猛烈的指责。这时,Levin把rap音乐描述成街头文化的一种合法表现形式,因为街头文化也需要宣泄。他在《华尔街时报》的专栏中写道:"任何民主社会面临的考验并不是它是否能控制言论,而是它是否能给予思想和言论最大限度的自由,尽管有时这样做的结果是非常令人争议和不快的,但是我们不会在任何威胁面前退缩。"

  Levin不愿对上周进行的这次争论发表评论,但是种种迹象显示这位主席的强硬立场有所减弱,至少是在某种程度上的减弱。在上周股东会议讨论摇滚音乐内容时,Levin强调说"音乐并不是社会弊端的根源",他甚至还举了儿子的例子。他的儿子是纽约Bronx的一名教师,曾用rap音乐来和学生进行交流。但是在会议上,他也谈到了要在"创作自由"和"社会责任"之间努力保持平衡,他还宣布华纳公司将开始制定标准,对可能引起非议的音乐予以标记,并对其发行进行控制。

  时代华纳董事会的15名成员基本上支持Levin和他的策略。但内部人士透露,董事会中有些人表达了对此事的关注。Luce说:"我们有些人多年以来一直知道第一修正案授予的自由并不是完全没有限制的,但我想可能有些人直到最近才意识到这一点。"

  67. 「C」问题是:从文中我们可以得出。

  第三段指出,它(指平均通货膨胀率)也比多数预测者预测的低。《经济学家》杂志每月调查的经济学家小组称:1995年美国平均通货膨胀率会达3.5%左右,但是,8月份它实际降至2.6%,全年也不过3%左右;在英国和日本,平均通货膨胀率比上年底预测的低0.5百分点(或:半个百分点)。而且,在过去几年里一直是如此(this is no flash in the pan):在英美两国,平均通货膨胀率一直比预测的要低。

  68. 「B」问题是:根据本文内容,以下哪一项是正确的?

  第四段指出,从传统的(衡量)标准来看,英美两国(特别是美国)的经济生产并没有滑坡(productive slack),例如:美国的设备(能力)利用率(capacity utilization)今年初达到历史最高水平,其失业率已低于多数正常失业率所允许的数字——过去认为:失业率低于正常失业率时通货膨胀率就开始上升(take off)

  69. 「A」问题是:第3段第5行中"this is no flash the pan" 这句话的意思是。

  a flash in the pan意为:昙花一现,偶然出现的情况。"this is no flash the pan"意为"不是昙花一现",结合上文,就是低通胀会持续,即A项内容。

  70. 「D」问题是:文章表明了作者对于现今的局势。

  本文主要评述了目前良好的经济形势,它是由持续低的通货膨胀率造成的,是始料未及的。因此作者的态度是"惊奇的",即D项内容。

  有很多这样的语言被用来形容货币政策,例如"引导经济软着陆"或者"踩刹车",这使它听上去像是一门精确的科学。但事实远非如此。利率和通货膨胀之间的联系无法确定,政策调整对经济的影响既滞后又难以确定。因此有人将货币政策的作用比喻成:开着一辆挡风玻璃漆黑、反光镜破碎、方向盘失灵的车。

  尽管有这些不足之处,主要银行家对近来的局势似乎相当自豪。去年七个主要工业国的通货膨胀率下降至2.3%,接近30年来的最低水平;到今年7月,这个数字略微上升到2.5%.这远远低于七八十年代很多国家曾经经历过的两位数的通货膨胀率。

  这个数字也低于大多数观察家的预期。1994年末《经济学家》杂志每月调查的经济学家小组预测,1995年美国的通货膨胀率将是3.5%.实际上,到8月份时,这个数字降至2.6%,全年的平均水平也不会超过3%.在英国和日本,通货膨胀都比上一年的预期要低半个百分点。这种情况并不是昙花一现。在过去的几年中,英国和美国的通货膨胀率一直低于预期水平。

  经济学家对英国和美国的这种乐观的通货膨胀数据感到尤为吃惊,因为传统的计算方法显示,这两个国家,尤其是美国,已经没有太大的生产弹性。例如,美国的生产能力利用率年初达到了历史最高水平,而它的失业率(8月份为5.6%)已经低于了大多数人预计的自然失业率——在过去,当这种情况出现时,通货膨胀就要发生了。

  为什么通货膨胀的情况如此轻微呢?不幸的是,即使是最令人振奋的解释也有一些缺陷。一些经济学家认为传统的经济模式是建立在分析增长与通货膨胀的历史联系的基础之上的,而当今世界格局的巨大变化已经彻底颠覆了这种旧的经济模式。

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