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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY8

2006-7-28 01:03  


  Part IIIReading Comprehension

  Directions: Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked A, B, C and D. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding    letter in the brackets. (40 points)

  Passage 1

  It was 3:45 in the morning when the vote was finally taken. After six months of arguing and final 16 hours of hot parliamentary debates, Australias Northern Territory became the first legal authority in the world to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die. The measure passed by the convincing vote of 15 to 10. Almost immediately word flashed on the Internet and was picked up, half a world away, by John Hofsess, executive director of the Right to Die Society of Canada. He sent it on via the groups on line service, Death NET. Says Hofsess: "We posted bulletins all day long, because of course this isnt just something that happened in Australia. Its world history."

  The full import may take a while to sink in. The NT Rights of the Terminally III law has left physicians and citizens alike trying to deal with its moral and practical implications. Some have breathed sighs of relief, others, including churches, right to life groups and the Australian Medical Association, bitterly attacked the bill and the haste of its passage. But the tide is unlikely to turn back. In Australia - where an aging population, life extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part - other states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia. In the US and Canada, where the right to die movement is gathering strength, observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling.

  Under the new Northern Territory law, an adult patient can request death - probably by a deadly injection or pill - to put an end to suffering. The patient must be diagnosed as terminally ill by two doctors. After a "cooling off" period of seven days, the patient can sign a certificate of request. After 48 hours the wish for death can be met. For Lloyd Nickson, a 54 year old Darwin resident suffering from lung cancer, the NT Rights of Terminally III law means he can get on with living without the haunting fear of his suffering: a terrifying death from his breathing condition. "Im not afraid of dying from a spiritual point of view, but what I was afraid of was how Id go, because Ive watched people die in the hospital fighting for oxygen and clawing at their masks," he says.

  51.  From the second paragraph we learn that  .

  A. the objection to euthanasia is slow to come in other countries

  B. physicians and citizens share the same view on euthanasia

  C. changing technology is chiefly responsible for the hasty passage of the law

  D. it takes time to realize the significance of the laws passage

  52. When the author says that observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling, he means  .

  A. observers are taking a wait and see attitude towards the future of euthanasia

  B. similar bills are likely to be passed in the US, Canada and other countries

  C. observers are waiting to see the result of the game of dominoes

  D. the effect taking process of the passed bill may finally come to a stop

  53. When Lloyd Nickson dies, he will  .

  A. face his death with calm characteristic of euthanasia

  B. experience the suffering of a lung cancer patient

  C. have an intense fear of terrible suffering

  D. undergo a cooling off period of seven days

  54. The authors attitude towards euthanasia seems to be that of  .

  A. opposition    B. suspicion

  C. approval     D. indifference

  Passage 2

  A report consistently brought back by visitors to the US is how friendly, courteous, and helpful most Americans were to them. To be fair, this observation is also frequently made of Canada and Canadians, and should best be considered North American. There are, of course, exceptions. Small minded officials, rude waiters, and ill mannered taxi drivers are hardly unknown in the US. Yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment.

  For a long period of time and in many parts of the country, a traveler was a welcome break in an otherwise dull existence. Dullness and loneliness were common problems of the families who generally lived distant from one another. Strangers and travelers were welcome sources of diversion, and brought news of the outside world.

  The harsh realities of the frontier also shaped this tradition of hospitality. Someone traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn except to the nearest cabin or settlement. It was not a matter of choice for the traveler or merely a charitable impulse on the part of the settlers. It reflected the harshness of daily life: if you didnt take in the stranger and take care of him, there was no one else who would. And someday, remember, you might be in the same situation.

  Today there are many charitable organizations, which specialize in helping the weary traveler. Yet, the old tradition of hospitality to strangers is still very strong in the US, especially in the smaller cities and towns away from the busy tourist trails. "I was just traveling through, got talking with this American, and pretty soon he invited me home for dinner - amazing." Such observations reported by visitors to the US are not uncommon, but are not always understood properly. The casual friendliness of many Americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition.

  As is true of any developed society, in America a complex set of cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies all social interrelationships. And, of course, speaking a language does not necessarily mean that someone understands social and cultural patterns. Visitors who fail to "translate" cultural meanings properly often draw wrong conclusions. For example, when an American uses the word "friend", the cultural implications of the word may be quite different from those it has in the visitors language and culture. It takes more than a brief encounter on a bus to distinguish between courteous convention and individual interest. Yet, being friendly is a virtue that many American value highly and expect from both neighbors and strangers.

  55. In the eyes of visitors from the outside world,  .

  A. rude taxi drivers are rarely seen in the US

  B. small minded officials deserve a serious comment

  C. Canadians are not so friendly as their neighbors

  D. most Americans are ready to offer help

  56. It could be inferred from the last paragraph that  .

  A. culture exercises an influence over social interrelationship

  B. courteous convention and individual interest are interrelated

  C. various virtues manifest themselves exclusively among friends

  D. social interrelationships equal the complex set of cultural conventions

  57. Families in frontier settlements used to entertain strangers  .

  A. to improve their hard lifeB. in view of their long distance travel

  C. to add some flavor to their own daily lifeD. out of a charitable impulse

  58. The tradition of hospitality to strangers  .

  A. tends to be superficial and artificial

  B. is generally well kept up in the United States

  C. is always understood properly

  D. was something to do with the busy tourist trails

  Passage 3

  Technically, any substance other than food that alters our bodily or mental functioning is a drug. Many people mistakenly believe the term drug refers only to some sort of medicine or an illegal chemical taken by drug addicts. They dont realize that familiar substances such as alcohol and tobacco are also drugs. This is why the more neutral term substance is now used by many physicians and psychologists. The phrase "substance abuse" is often used instead of "drug abuse" to make clear that substances such as alcohol and tobacco can be just as harmfully misused as heroin and cocaine.

  We live a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs)  is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves. When do these socially acceptable and apparently constructive uses of a substance become misuses? First of all, most substances taken in excess will produce negative effects such as poisoning or intense perceptual distortions. Repeated use of a substance can also lead to physical addiction or substance dependence. Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.

  Drugs (substances) that affect the central nervous system and alter perception, mood, and behavior are known as psychoactive substances. Psychoactive substances are commonly grouped according to whether they are stimulants, depressants, or hallucinogens. Stimulants initially speed up or activate the central nervous system, whereas depressants slow it down. Hallucinogens have their primary effect on perception, distorting and altering it in a variety of ways including producing hallucinations. These are the substances often called psychedelic (from the Greek word meaning "mindmanifesting") because they seemed to radically alter ones state of consciousness.

  59. "Substance abuse" (Line 5, Paragraph 1) is preferable to "drug abuse" in that  .

  A. substances can alter our bodily or mental functioning if illegally used

  B. "drug abuse" is only related to a limited number of drug takers

  C. alcohol and tobacco are as fatal as heroin and cocaine

  D. many substances other than heroin or cocaine can also be poisonous

  60. The word "pervasive" (Line 1, Paragraph 2)  might mean  .

  A. widespread    B. overwhelming

  C. piercing    D. fashionable

  61. Physical dependence on certain substances results from  .

  A. uncontrolled consumption of them over long periods of time

  B. exclusive use of them for social purposes

  C. quantitative application of them to the treatment of diseases

  D. careless employment of them for unpleasant symptoms

  62. From the last paragraph we can infer that  .

  A. stimulants function positively on the mind

  B. hallucinogens are in themselves harmful to health

  C. depressants are the worst type of psychoactive substances

  D. the three types of psychoactive substances are commonly used in groups

  Passage 4

  No company likes to be told it is contributing to the moral decline of a nation. "Is this what you intended to accomplish with your careers?" Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week. "You have sold your souls, but must you corrupt our nation and threaten our children as well?" At Time Warner, however, such questions are simply the latest manifestation of the soul searching that has involved the company ever since the company was born in 1990. Its a self examination that has, at various times, involved issues of responsibility, creative freedom and the corporate bottom line.

  At the core of this debate is chairman Gerald Levin, 56, who took over for the late Steve Ross in 1992. On the financial front, Levin is under pressure to raise the stock price and reduce the companys mountainous debt, which will increase to 17.3 billion after two new cable deals close. He has promised to sell off some of the property and restructure the company, but investors are waiting impatiently.

  The flap over rap is not making life any easier for him. Levin has consistently defended the companys rap music on the grounds of expression. In 1992, when Time Warner was under fire for releasing Ice Ts violent rap song Cop Killer. Levin described rap as a lawful expression of street culture, which deserves an outlet. "The test of any democratic society," he wrote in a Wall Streel Journal column, "lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating the results may sometimes be. We wont retreat in the face of any threats."

  Levin would not comment on the debate last week, but there were signs that the chairman was backing off his hard line stand, at least to some extent. During the discussion of rock singing verses at last months stockholders meeting, Levin asserted that "music is not the cause of societys ills" and even cited his son, a teacher in the Bronx, New York, who uses rap to communicate with students. But he talked as well about the "balanced struggle" between creative freedom and social responsibility, and he announced that the company would launch a drive to develop standards for distribution and labeling of potentially objectionable music.

  The 15 member Time Warner board is generally supportive of Levin and his corporate strategy. But insiders say several of them have shown their concerns in this matter. "Some of us have known for many, many years that the freedoms under the First Amendment are not totally unlimited," says Luce. "I think it is perhaps the case that some people associated with the company have only recently come to realize this."

  63. Senator Robert Dole criticized Time Warner for  .

  A. its raising of the corporate stock price   B. its selfexamination of soul

  C. its neglect of social responsibility   D. its emphasis on creative freedom

  64. According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?

  A. Luce is a spokesman of Time Warner.

  B. Gerald Levin is liable to compromise.

  C. Time Warner is united as one in the face of the debate.

  D. Stever Ross is no longer alive

  65. In face of the recent attacks on the company, the chairman  .

  A. stuck to a strong stand to defend freedom of expression

  B. softened his tone and adopted some new policy

  C. changed his attitude and yielded to objection

  D. received more support from the 15member board

  66. The best title for this passage could be  .

  A. A Company under Fire       B. A Debate on Moral Decline

  C. A Lawful Outlet of Street Culture D. A Form of Creative Freedom

  Passage 5

  Much of the language used to describe monetary policy, such as "steering the economy to a soft landing" or "a touch on the brakes", makes it sound like a precise science. Nothing could be further from the truth. The link between interest rates and inflation is uncertain. And there are long, variable lags before policy changes have any effect on the economy.Hence the analogy that likens the conduct of monetary policy to driving a car with a blackened windscreen, a cracked rear view mirror and a faulty steering wheel.

  Given all these disadvantages, central bankers seem to have had much to boast about of late. Average inflation in the big seven industrial economies fell to a mere 2.3% last year, close to its lowest level in 30 years, before rising slightly to 2.5% this July. This is a long way below the double digit rates which many countries experienced in the 1970s and early 1980s.

  It is also less than most forecasters had predicated. In late 1994 the panel of economists which The Economist polls each month said that Americas inflation rate would average 3.5% in 1995. In fact, it fell to 2.6% in August, and expected to average only about 3% for the year as a whole. In Britain and Japan inflation is running half a percentage point below the rate predicted at the end of last year. This is no flash in the pan; over the past couple of years, inflation has been consistently lower than expected in Britain and America.

  Economists have been particularly surprised by favorable inflation figures in Britain and the United States, since conventional measures suggest that both economies, and especially Americas, have little productive slack. Americas capacity utilization, for example, his historically high levels earlier this year, and its jobless rate (5.6% in August) has fallen bellow most estimates of the natural rate of unemployment - the rate below which inflation has taken off in the past.

  Why has inflation proved so mild? The most thrilling explanation is, unfortunately, a little defective. Some economists argue that powerful structural changes in the world have up ended the old economic models that were based upon the historical link between growth and inflation.

  67. From the passage we learn that  .

  A. there is a definite relationship between inflation and interest rates

  B. economy will always follow certain models

  C. the economic situation is better than expected

  D. economists had foreseen the present economic situation

  68. According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?

  A. Making monetary policies is comparable to driving a car

  B. An extremely low jobless rate will lead to inflation

  C. A high unemployment rate will result from inflation

  D. Interest rates have an immediate effect on the economy

  69. The sentence "This is no flash in the pan" (Line 5, Paragraph 3)  means that  .

  A. the low inflation rate will last for some time

  B. the inflation rate will soon rise

  C. the inflation will disappear quickly

  D. there is no inflation at present

  70. The passage shows that the author is   the present situation.

  A. critical ofB. puzzled by

  C. disappointed atD. amazed at

  51. 「D」问题是:从第二段我们可知。

  第二段第一句是解答本题的关键。"The full import may take a while to sink in."意思为:整个事情的重要性还需要一段时间才能被人了解。选D.

  52. 「B」问题是:当作者说到"observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling"是什么意思?


  53. 「A」问题是:当Lloyd Nickson死的时候,他会怎么样?



  54. 「C」问题是:作者对安乐死的态度是。


  投票最终进行是在凌晨3点45分。在经过了6个月的讨论和议会16个小时的激烈辩论之后,最终澳大利亚的北部地区成为世界上第一个允许医生合法帮助无药可治的病人进行安乐死的地区。这项法案最终是以15比10的多数票通过。这个消息立刻就在互联网上传开了,在地球的另一边,加拿大死亡权利协会执行主席 John Hofsess 马上把这个消息发到了该组织的网站Death NET 上。Hofsess 说:"我们整天都在贴子,因为这件事并不只是澳大利亚的事,这是整个世界历史上的大事。"


  新的北部地区法律规定,成年患者可以要求用注射或药片结束自己的痛苦。患者必须由两位医生诊断为患有不治之症,并且在冷静七天之后,病人就可以签署申请书。这之后的48小时之后,病人的愿望就可以实现。对于54岁身患肺癌的达尔文市居民Lloyd Nickson 来说,这项法案意味着他不用再成天担心因为窒息而痛苦地死去了。他说:"从精神上来说,我并不害怕死亡;但我担心的是将会怎样死去,因为我曾看到过医院里的病人因为喘不上气来,抓着氧气面具痛苦地死去。"

  55. 「D」问题是:在来自外界游客的眼里。


  56. 「A」问题是:本文最后一段,可以推断出。

  文章最后一段第1句是本段中心句,像其他发达社会一样,在美国构成社会人际关系的是一系列复杂的文化符号、信念和习俗。句中的"cultural signals, assumptions,  conventions" 全都是属于 "culture" (文化范畴)。由此我们可推断文化大可影响社会人际关系, 即A项内容。

  57. 「C」问题是:边疆地区的家庭过去一直招待陌生人。

  文章第2段指出,在美国历史的很长一段时期(即所谓"拓荒"时代),对许多地区来说,一个旅行者的到来是很受欢迎的,因为它可以对平时单调的生活起一个调节(break) 作用。离群索居的家庭共同的问题是日常生活的单调与寂寞,陌生人或旅行者的到来可以使他们暂时摆脱这种生活状况。另外,他们也可以因此获得外界信息。

  58. 「B」问题是:这种对陌生人友善客观的传统。







  59. 「D」问题是:"物质滥用"(第1段第5行)这个词比 "药物滥用" 更可取是因为。

  文章第一段最后一句作者指出,许多医生(physician)和心理学家常使用"物质滥用"而不是"药物滥用"这一概念,他们想以此说明:滥用像烟酒这样的物质与滥用海洛因和可卡因一样有害。常识告诉我们 "heroin"和 "cocaine"对人体是有害的,而像 "alcohol" 和 "tobacco" 这样的物质可以同它们划等号(作者用as…… as 句型)。可见,除 "heroin" 和 "cocaine"外,还有许多物质是有害的,即D项内容。

  60. 「A」问题是:"pervasive" 这个词(第2段第1行)的意思可能是。

  文章 "pervasive" 出现那一句的翻译是"在我们生活的社会里,物质的医用和社交用广泛存在,如:用阿司匹林制止头痛,用酒交际,早晨用咖啡振作一下精神,抽支烟定定神。"只有A项内容广泛普遍,才是作者举例要说明的。

  61. 「A」问题是:造成对某种物质心理上依赖的原因是。

  用药量和用药时间是造成药物依赖的两个重要因素。文中"tolerance" 一词指的是长时间无节制地对于某物质的撮取,即A项内容。

  62. 「B」问题是:从文章最后一段我们可以推断出。


  从技术角度来讲,除了食物之外,任何能够改变我们的身体和思维功能的物质都是药物。很多人错误地认为"药物"这个词指的就是某种药或者瘾君子们服用的非法化学药品。他们没有意识到很多熟悉的物质如烟、酒也是药物,这也是为什么医生和心理学者使用"滥用"这个比较中性的词。现在人们经常用"滥用物质"来代替 "滥用药物",以便能够清楚地说明像烟和酒这样的物质如果滥用,能和海洛因和可卡因一样有害。



  63. 「C」问题是:参议员Robert Dole谴责Time Warner公司是因为。

  文章第一段指出,没有哪个公司喜欢别人说它导致了全国道德的败坏。多尔参议员所指责时代华纳公司的正是这一点。他说:难道这就是你们的经营目标吗?你们出卖了自己的灵魂,难道你们也想毁了国家、危及我们的孩子吗? 这种行为当然属于对社会责任的忽视。

  64. 「D」问题是:根据文中内容,以下哪一项是正确的?

  "late"除其他意思外,该词有"前","已故的"等意思。一般来讲,该词加在人名或称呼前时译作"已故的",如:the late Mr.Green已故格林先生,her late husband她的前夫(已故)。若加在头衔前,则要据情况而译,如:the late president前总统(也可能已故,也可能仅指刚刚卸职)。

  65. 「B」问题是:面对近期外界对公司的攻击,主席。


  66. 「A」问题是:本文最佳的标题可能是。

  从以上的分析可以看出,本文主要是评述了时代华纳公司因发行新音乐专辑而受到的责难及其反应。B题目太广泛,C和D都不可能概括文章内容。没有一家公司希望被指责为导致了国家道德水平的堕落。Robert Dole参议员在上周的会议中向时代华纳公司的执行长官发问:"你们的事业就是为了达到这样的结果吗?你们已经出卖了自己的灵魂,难道还要腐化我们的国家,危及我们的孩子吗?"在时代华纳,这自我反省的一幕自从公司1990年创建时就在不断上演,而这次的这个问题只是一种最新的发问形式而已。在不同时期,这种自我检查涉及的内容包括责任、创作自由和公司能容忍的底线。

  处于这场争论中心位置的是公司主席,56岁的Gerald Levin,他于1992年从已故主席Steve Ross 手中接过这个重任。在财政问题上,Levin 的压力很大,他必须提高公司的股价,并减少公司的巨额债务,而这一债务在购买两条电缆的交易完成之后将达到一百七十三亿美元。他承诺出售公司的一些产业,并对公司进行重组,但是投资者已经等得不耐烦了。

  人们关于rap 音乐的抨击使Levin 的日子更加不好过。Levin 一直以rap 音乐只是一种表达方式来维护该公司的rap 音乐。1992年,华纳公司因为出品了IceT 乐队充满暴力的rap 歌曲《警察杀手》,而受到了猛烈的指责。这时,Levin把rap音乐描述成街头文化的一种合法表现形式,因为街头文化也需要宣泄。他在《华尔街时报》的专栏中写道:"任何民主社会面临的考验并不是它是否能控制言论,而是它是否能给予思想和言论最大限度的自由,尽管有时这样做的结果是非常令人争议和不快的,但是我们不会在任何威胁面前退缩。"



  67. 「C」问题是:从文中我们可以得出。

  第三段指出,它(指平均通货膨胀率)也比多数预测者预测的低。《经济学家》杂志每月调查的经济学家小组称:1995年美国平均通货膨胀率会达3.5%左右,但是,8月份它实际降至2.6%,全年也不过3%左右;在英国和日本,平均通货膨胀率比上年底预测的低0.5百分点(或:半个百分点)。而且,在过去几年里一直是如此(this is no flash in the pan):在英美两国,平均通货膨胀率一直比预测的要低。

  68. 「B」问题是:根据本文内容,以下哪一项是正确的?

  第四段指出,从传统的(衡量)标准来看,英美两国(特别是美国)的经济生产并没有滑坡(productive slack),例如:美国的设备(能力)利用率(capacity utilization)今年初达到历史最高水平,其失业率已低于多数正常失业率所允许的数字——过去认为:失业率低于正常失业率时通货膨胀率就开始上升(take off)

  69. 「A」问题是:第3段第5行中"this is no flash the pan" 这句话的意思是。

  a flash in the pan意为:昙花一现,偶然出现的情况。"this is no flash the pan"意为"不是昙花一现",结合上文,就是低通胀会持续,即A项内容。

  70. 「D」问题是:文章表明了作者对于现今的局势。