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考研英语范文阅读(二十二)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  A history of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap, but, if properly handled, it may become a driving force. When the United States entered just such a glowing period after the end of the Second World War, it had a market eight times larger than any competitor, giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale. Its scientists were the world's best, its workers the most skilled. America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed.

  It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. Just as inevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful. By the mid-1980s Americans had found themselves at a loss over their fading industrial competitiveness. Some huge American industries, such as consumer electronics, had shrunk or vanished in the face of foreign competition. By 1987 there was only one American television maker left, Zenith. (Now there is none: Zenith was bought by South Korea's LG Electronics in July.) Foreign-made cars and textiles were sweeping into the domestic market. America's machine-tool industry was on the ropes. For a while it looked as though the making of semiconductors, which America had invented and which sat at the heart of the new computer age, was going to be the next casualty.

  All of this caused a crisis of confidence. Americans stopped taking prosperity for granted. They began to believe that their way of doing business was failing, and that their incomes would therefore shortly begin to fall as well. The mid-1980s brought one inquiry after another into the causes of America's industrial decline. Their sometimes sensational findings were filled with warnings about the growing competition from overseas.How things have changed! In 1995 the United States can look back on five years of solid growth while Japan has been struggling. Few Americans attribute this solely to such obvious causes as a devalued dollar or the turning of the business cycle. Self-doubt has yielded to blind pride. “American industry has changed its structure, has gone on a diet, has learnt to be more quick-witted,” according to Richard Cavanaugh, executive dean of Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. “It makes me proud to be an American just to see how our businesses are improving their productivity,” says Stephen Moore of the Cato Institute, a think-tank in Washington, D.C. And William Sahlman of the Harvard Business School believes that people will look back on this period as “a golden age of business management in the United States.”

  51. The US achieved its predominance after World WarⅡbecause________.

  (A)it had made painstaking efforts towards this goal

  (B)its domestic market was eight times larger than before

  (C)the war had destroyed the economies of most potential competitors

  (D)the unparalleled size of its workforce had given an impetus to its economy

  52. The loss of US predominance in the world economy in the 1980s is manifested in the fact that the American________.

  (A)TV industry had withdrawn to its domestic market

  (B)semiconductor industry had been taken over by foreign enterprises

  (C)machine-tool industry had collapsed after suicidal actions

  (D)auto industry had lost part of its domestic market

  53. What can be inferred from the passage?

  (A)It is human nature to shift between self-doubt and blind pride.

  (B)Intense competition may contribute to economic progress.

  (C)The revival of the economy depends on international cooperation.

  (D)A long history of success may pave the way for further development.

  54. The author seems to believe the revival of the US economy in the 1990s can be attributed to the________.

  (A)turning of the business cycle

  (B)restructuring of industry

  (C)improved business management

  (D)success in education

  答案及试题解析CDBA

  51.(C)意为:战争摧毁了多数潜在的竞争国的经济。

  提问中predominance意为“优势”。

  第一段指出,第二次世界大战以后,美国进入一个欣欣向荣的(glowing)发展时期,它拥有八倍于其他任何一个竞争国家的市场,工业经济发展到空前规模,它拥有世界上最优秀的科学家和技术最高的工人。美国的繁荣和美国人的富裕水平,是欧洲人和亚洲人做梦也达不到的,因为战争摧毁了他们的经济。

  A意为:它已经为实现这一目标付出了艰苦的努力。

  B意为:其国内市场比以前大八倍。

  D意为:其劳动力(数量)空前的规模促进了经济的发展。

  52.(D)意为:汽车工业失去了部分国内市场。

  第二段第六句提到,进口车和纺织品涌进(美国)国内市场。

  A意为;电视工业萎缩回到了国内市场(即:该工业失去了国际市场)。根据第二段,到80年代中期,面对其工业竞争力的日益衰退,美国人感到无计可施 (at a loss),美国某些大的行业——如电子消费品——在园际竞争的压力下,面临萎缩或消亡的威胁。到1987年为止,美国仅存的电视制造商只有Zenith 一家了(现在已荡然无存:Zenith于7月份(指文章写作年代的7月份)被韩国LG电子有限公司购买)。这里并没有直接提到美国电视失去国际市场,事实上,它连国内市场也保不住了。

  B意为:半导体行业被外国公司接管。第二段最后一句提到,在一段时间内,半导体制造业似乎要成为下一个受害者,虽然美国是半导体的发明者,而且半导体又处于新的计算机时代的核心位置(即:在新的时代中起着关键作用)。本句中casualty意为“伤亡”、 “受害者”,与上一句中be on the ropes(美语俚语,意为“即将完蛋”)相照应。这里所说的是半导体制造商似乎(as though)要失去国内外市场。而不是被国外企业接管。

  C意为:机床制造业自取灭亡。第二段提到了机床制造业“即将完蛋”(on the ropes)。这显然也是说它正在失去国内外市场,并未提到它的灭亡是由其自身原因造成的。

  53.(B)意为:激烈的竞争可能促进经济的发展。

  第三段提到,严峻的现实(this指上一段中提到的诸多现状)使美国人失去了自信,他们不再认为繁荣是自然而至的事,他们开始认识到自己的经营方式存在严重问题(failing)。在80年代中期,他们开始挖掘美国经济衰退的原因,他们有时有些惊人的(sensational)发现,其中往往提示人们警惕外来竞争。第四段提到了90年代的经济复苏。其中的含义是:在竞争的压力下,美国人在80年代进行了自我反思和产业结构调整,因此带来了90年代的经济复苏。

  A意为:在自我怀疑和盲目骄傲之间摆来摆去是人的本性。(即:人倾向于在这两种心态之间摇摆)。

  C意为:经济的复苏取决于国际间的合作。

  D意为:长期的成功可以为进一步的发展铺平道路。

  54.(A)意为:经济周期的转机。

  在第四段,作者指出,截止到1995年,美国已经经历了五年的稳定(经济)增长,而日本却在困境中挣扎,但是,美国人并不将这一增长看做是美元贬值或经济周期的转机等明显的因素直接带来的,而是由自我怀疑变为盲目的骄傲。这里作者实际上对当前美国人的盲目乐观情绪进行了批评,认为,90年代的增长是由美元贬值或经济周期的转机等因素造成的。

  B意为:产业结构的调整。根据Richard Cavanaugh的看法,美国经济的持续增长是由产业结构的调整造成,他认为美国的产业正在“节食”(go on a diet),正在变得更加理智。但这并不是作者的观点。参阅第四段。

  C意为:经营管理的改善。根据Stephen Moore的看法,美国的经济正在提高其生产率。但这也不是作者的观点。参阅第四段。

  D意为:教育上的成功。

  翻译句子

  1、Their sometimes sensational findings were filled with warnings about the growing competition from overseas.

  [参考译文]美国人那些有时耸人听闻的发现充满了对来自其他国家的不断增长的绎济竞争的警告。

  [结构剖析]英语的句式词汇一般都比较简练,如果将本句用中国人习惯的语式讲出应该如下:Their sometimes surprising findings about the causes of American's industrial decline are full of the warnings about the growing competition from overseas nations.[阅读重点]sensational即surprising.另外注意本句的中心意思在句末的the growing competition from overseas.

  2、Few Americans attribute this solely to such obvious causes as a devalued dollar or the turning of the business cycle. Self-doubt has yielded to blind pride.

  [参考译文]几乎没有一个美国人将这五年间的经济持续增长单纯归功于类似美元贬值或商业周期轮回这些显而易见的原因。到如今,对自身的怀疑已被盲目乐观所取代。

  [结构剖析]attribute…… to……将……归功或归咎于……。solely作状语修饰attribute,this指代上一句中的five years of solid growth,此外as a devalued dollar or the turning of the business cycle作宾语such obvious causes的补语。

  [阅读重点]yield to是“向……屈服”,即“被取代”。此处使用了现在完成时,证明这种状态到现在已成型。

  补充难句

  ①A history of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap, but, if properly handled, it may become a driving force.[参考译文]一段长时间并且不费力便赢取的成功历史有可能是一种可怕的不利因素;但是,如果处理得当,这种不利因素也有可能转化为积极的推动力量。

  [结构剖析]该句是一个并列句,由前后两个转折关系的分句组成,其间的连词为but.but与后一个分句之间又插入一个由if 引导的条件状语if properly handled,该状语原来是一个if引导的条件状语从句,即if it(a history of long and effortless success) is properly handled,其中的it is由于和该分句的主句部分主谓语一致而被省略掉了。

  [阅读重点]本句结构比较简明,只需注意but与it may become a driving force之间的if结构是一个插入语,并且是一个省略了主语和系动词的被动语态。此外handicap意为“不利条件”。

  ②Its scientists were the world's best, its workers the most skilled. America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed.[参考译文]它的科学家是世界上最好的,它的工人是最富于技巧的。美国和美国公民们的繁荣是欧亚两大洲人民做梦都想象不出的,因为二战摧毁了这些国家的经济。

  [结构剖析]前一句中its workers the most skilled是一个伴随状语,省略了其中的being,补齐成分后应为its workers being the most skilled.后一句中beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians作prosperous的状语,beyond为介词,是“超越,超出”的意思。而whose economies the war had destroyed作定语从句修饰the Europeans and Asians,原形是the war had destroyed the economies of the Europeans and Asians.

  [阅读重点]注意beyond一词的意思,它表示“在……之外”。

  ③For a while it looked as though the making of semiconductors, which America had invented and which sat at the heart of the new computer age, was going to be the next casualty.[参考译文]人们曾经一度感觉下一个在海外品牌面前全军畏没的似乎该轮到美国的半导体制造业了,而半导体,这崭新的计算机时代的核心,其发明者却正是美国人。

  [结构剖析]该句带有一个表语从句,其表语从句中又套有两个并列的定语从句。全句主句部分的主谓结构是it looked……,as though(即as if好像)引导的从句是looked(看上去)的表语。表语从句中主语为the making of semiconductors,谓语为was going to be,而逗号之间的两个which从句是the making of semiconductors的非限定性定语,同时又是插入语。

  [阅读重点]注意理解the next casualty的含义,casualty本意为“伤亡”,此处是“被国外产品击败的美国本土产业”。

  语言点详解

  1.effortless毫不费力的[大纲词汇]effort n.努力,艰难的尝试[衍生词汇]effortless a.毫不费力的,不需要努力的,容易的[构词方法]-less后缀,表示“无”,“没有”,“不”〔联想记忆〕hopeless a.无望的doubtless a.无疑的[经典例句]The effortless assignment didn't take them much time to complete.

  2.dreadful极大的[大纲词汇] dread v./n.恐俱,担心[衍生词汇]dreadful a.令人敬畏的,可怕的;极端的,极大的[经典例句]The tornado has done a dreadful damage to the town.

  3.handicap缺陷[大纲词汇] handicap v.妨碍,使不利; n.(身体或智力方面的)缺陷;障碍,不利条件[经典例句]The expert found a great handicap of the machine.

  4.driving force推动力[经典例句]The anger of the common people became a driving force of the revolution.

  5.glowing光明的[大纲词汇] glow v.发热,发光,发红;n.白热[衍生词汇]glowing a.发红光的,白热的;热情洋溢的;光明的[经典例句]They are enthusiastic at the glowing prospect of their future.

  6.primacy首位[扩充词汇] primacy n.第一位,首位;卓越[经典例句]The house of Commons claimed the primacy of political power.

  7.predominance主导地位[大纲词汇]predominant a.(over)占优势的;主要的;突出的[衍生词汇] predominance n.优势;主导地位,支配地位[经典例句]We now have total predominance in the European market.

  8.at a loss不知所措[大纲词汇]lose n.丢失,遗失,丧失;损失,亏损at a loss困惑,不知所措[经典例句]I was at a loss to understand what he alluded to.

  9.vanish消失[大纲词汇]vanish v.消失,消散[经典例句] The smoke vanished with the wind.

  10.textile纺织品[大纲词汇] textile n.纺织品

  11.sweep席卷[大纲词汇] sweep v.扫,打扫;席卷,冲光;扫过,掠过[经典例句] The news swept through the town.

  12.machine-tool industry机床工业

  13.on the ropes岌岌可危[扩充词汇]on the ropes即将消亡,处于困境[经典例句]our enemy are on the ropes.

  14.semiconductor半导体[大纲词汇] semiconductor n.半导体

  15.casualty受害人[大纲词汇]casualty n.伤亡人数;受害人[经典例句]The factory was a casualty of the recession.

  16.take for granted想当然[大纲词汇]take for granted想当然,认为理所当然[经典例句]Children always takes their parent's love for granted.

  17.prosperity繁荣[大纲词汇]prosperity n.繁荣,兴旺prosperous a.繁荣的,兴旺的prosper v.繁荣,使繁荣,使成功[经典例句]Many people were blinded by the false prosperity.

  18.Sensational轰动的[大纲词汇]sensation n.感觉,知觉;激动,轰动,轰动一时的事情[衍生词汇]sensational a.激起强烈感情的,令人兴奋的,轰动性的[经典例句]Scientist have made a sensational discovery in biology.

  19.solely仅仅[大纲词汇]sole a.单独的,惟一的; n.脚垫,鞋底[衍生词汇]solely ad.单独地,惟一地;仅仅,只[经典例句]He was absent solely on account of ill-health.

  20.devalue .降低…的价值[扩充词汇]devalue v.降低…的价值;贬值[衍生词汇]devaluation n.(地位等)降低;货币贬值[经典例句]The government devalued its currency to stimulate export.

  21.yield to顺从[大纲词汇]yield v.(to)屈服,顺从[经典例句] The president yield to the plea.

  22.go on a diet缩减[大纲词汇]diet n.饮食,食物be(go)on a diet节食[经典例句]The doctor suggested she go on a diet.

  23.quick-witted机敏的[扩充词汇]quick-witted a.机敏的,富于机智的

  24.dean(大学)系主任[扩充词汇] dean n.(大学)系主任

  25.think-tank智囊团[扩充词汇]think-tank n.智囊团,思想库

  26.painstaking煞费苦心的[大纲词汇]painstaking n./a.苦干(的);煞费苦心(的)[经典例句]She is not clever but she is painstaking.

  27.workforce职工总数[扩充词汇]workforce n.职工总数;劳动力,劳动人口[经典例句] The company has reduced it workforce.

  28.impetus推动力[大纲词汇]impetus n.推动(力),促进[经典例句]His enthusiasm is an impetus to the team.

  29.take over接管[大纲词汇]take over接管,接办[经典例句]A new manage took over the company.

  30.suicidal自杀性的[大纲词汇]suicide n.自杀,自取灭亡[衍生词汇] suicidal a.自杀性的,自杀的[经典例句]His decision to take the adventure is suicidal.

  全文翻译

  一段长时间并且不费力而成功的历史可能成为一种可怕的不利因素,但若处理得当,这种不利因素也有可能转化为一种积极的推动力。二战结束后,美国恰好进入了这样的一个辉煌时期,当时,它拥有比任何竞争者大8倍的市场,这使其工业经济具有前所未有的规模经济。美国的科学家是世上最优秀的,它的工人是最富于技术的。美国的国富民强是那些经济遭到战争破坏的欧亚诸国做梦也无法达不到的。

  随着其他国家日益强盛,美国的这一优势地位逐渐下降是不可避免的。从优势地位上退出的痛苦也同样是不可避免的。到了80年代中期,面对其日益衰退的工业竞争力,美国人感到不知所措。面对国外竞争,一些大型的美国工业,如消费电子产业,已经萎缩或渐渐消失。到1987年,美国只剩下Zenith这一家电视生产商。(现在一家也没有了:Zenith于当年7月被韩国LG电器公司收购。)外国制造的汽车和纺织品正在大举进入国内市场。美国的机床工业也即将灭亡。人们曾一度感觉下一个在海外品牌面前全军覆没的似乎该轮到美国的半导体制造业了,而在新计算机时代有着核心作用的半导体正是美国人发明的。

  所有这一切导致了信任危机。美国不再视繁荣为理所当然之事。他们开始相信自己的商业经营方式不灵了,也相信不久他们的收入也会因此而下降。80年代中期,人们对美国工业衰退的成因作了一次又一次的探寻。在美国人那些有时耸人听闻的发现中充满着对其他国家日益增长的经济竞争的警告之词。

  情况的变化真快!1995年,当日本还在奋力拼搏的时候,美国却可以对5年的稳固发展作一回顾了。没几个美国人将这一巨变单纯归因于美元贬值或商业周期循环这些显而易见的原因。到如今,对自身的怀疑已被盲目乐观所取代。“美国的工业已经改变了结构,消除了滞胀,学会了明智”,这是哈佛大学肯尼迪管理学院行政院长理查德·卡佛纳的看法。华盛顿特区的智囊团 ——卡托研究院的史蒂芬·莫尔说,“看到我们的企业正在提高自身的生产率,作为一个美国人,我感到自豪。”哈佛商学院的威廉?萨尔曼相信人们将会把这一时期视为“美国企业管理的黄金时代”。

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