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考研英语范文阅读(九)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  No company likes to be told it is contributing to the moral decline of a nation. Is this what you intended to accomplish with your careers? Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week. You have sold your souls, but must you corrupt our nation and threaten our children as well? At Time Warner, however, such questions are simply the latest manifestation of the soul-searching that has involved the company ever since the company was born in 1990. It's a self-examination that has, at various times, involved issues of responsibility, creative freedom and the corporate bottom line.

  At the core of this debate is chairman Gerald Levin, 56, who took over for the late Steve Ross in 1992. On the financial front, Levin is under pressure to raise the stock price and reduce the company's mountainous debt, which will increase to $ 17.3 billion after two new cable deals close. He has promised to sell off some of the property and restructure the company, but investors are waiting impatiently.

  The flap over rap is not making life any easier for him. Levin has consistently defended the company's rap music on the grounds of expression. In 1992, when Time Warner was under fire for releasing Ice-T's violent rap song Cop Killer, Levin described rap as lawful expression of street culture, which deserves an outlet. The test of any democratic society, he wrote in a Wall Street Journal column, lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating the results may sometimes be. We won't retreat in the face of any threats.

  Levin would not comment on the debate last week, but there were signs that the chairman was backing off his hard-line stand, at least to some extent. During the discussion of rock singing verses at last month's stockholders'meeting. Levin asserted that music is not the cause of society's ills and even cited his son, a teacher in the Bronx, New York, who uses rap to communicate with students. But he talked as well about the balanced struggle between creative freedom and social responsibility, and he announced that the company would launch a drive to develop standards for distribution and labeling of potentially objectionable music.The 15-member Time Warner board is generally supportive of Levin and his corporate strategy. But insiders say several of them have shown their concerns in this matter. Some of us have known for many, many years that the freedoms under the First Amendment are not totally unlimited, says Luce. I think it is perhaps the case that some people associated with the company have only recently come to realize this.

  63. Senator Robert Dole criticized Time Warner for ________.

  (A)its raising of the corporate stock price

  (B)its self-examination of soul

  (C)its neglect of social responsibility

  (D)its emphasis on creative freedom

  64. According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?

  (A)Luce is a spokesman of Time Warner.

  (B)Gerald Levin is liable to compromise.

  (C)Time Warner is united as one in the face of the debate.

  (D)Steve Ross is no longer alive.

  65. In face of the recent attacks on the company, the chairman ________.

  (A)stuck to a strong stand to defend freedom of expression

  (B)softened his tone and adopted some new policy

  (C)changed his attitude and yielded to objection

  (D)received more support from the 15-member board

  66. The best title for this passage could be ________.

  (A)A Company under Fire

  (B)A Debate on Moral Decline

  (C)A Lawful Outlet of Street Culture

  (D)A Form of Creative Freedom

  答案及试题解析

  C D B A

  63.(C)意为:它对社会责任的忽视。

  第一段指出,没有哪个公司喜欢别人说它导致了全国道德败坏,多尔参议员所指责时代华纳公司的正是这一点。他说:难道这就是你们的经营目标吗,你们出卖了自己的灵魂,难道你们也想毁了国家、危及我们的孩子吗?另从第三、四段来看,这里多尔所指责的正是该公司用它的音乐作品带来的社会影响,多尔认为这些音乐作品对社会和青少年有不良影响。

  A 意为:它将公司股价提高。从多尔所说的话来看,他关心的不是该公司的经济状况。

  B 意为:它对灵魂的自我检验。第一段第三句指出,对时代沃纳公司来说,多尔所质疑的问题只不过是公司自创立以来一直进行的自我反省的最新表述,在公司发展的不同阶段,这一自我反省涉及(社会)责任、创作自由、公司利润(bottom line)。换言之,在公司的发展过程中,社会责任、创作自由、公司能否赚钱这三者之间的矛盾一直困扰着公司。根据公司董事长列文的话(见第三段),公司把创作自由放在了发展的首位。这造成了它对作品的社会影响的忽视,所以,后来列文改变态度以后,承认应该在创作自由和社会责任上寻找一个平衡点(见第四段)。可见,多尔参议员所指责的正是公司的所作所为带来的不良社会影响,这样他就击中了要害。

  D 意为:它对创作自由的强调。见上文分析。

  64.(D)回答这一问题主要涉及对第二段第一句中 late 的理解。

  除其他意思外,该词有前,已故的等意思。一般来讲,该词加在人名或称呼前时译作已故的、如:the late Mr. Green 已故格林先生,her late husband 她的前夫(已故),若加在头衔前,则要据情况而译,如:the late president 前总统(也可能已故,也可能仅指刚刚卸职)。第二段第一句可译为:处于争议中心的是董事长杰拉德?列文,他在 1992年前董事长史蒂夫?罗斯去世后继任,今年 56 岁。

  A 意为:路斯是时代沃纳公司的发言人。在最后一段第二句,路斯仅被称作 insider(内部人士,知情人士),他说:我们有些人多年来一直知道(宪法)第一修正案中所规定的自由并非是无限制的自由,我想可能公司的某些人最近才意识到这一点。他的话说明了公司领导内部对处理创作自由和社会影响这一对矛盾上的不同看法、也暗含着对公司一贯政策(过于强调创作自由)的批评。可见,他并非公司指派的发言人,而仅代表自己。

  B 意为:列文倾向于妥协。根据第三段中列文所说的话,他是一个持强硬立场的人。他说:检验任何民主社会的标准不是看它如何严厉地控制(思想的)表达,而是看它是否给人以最大限度的思想和表达思想的自由。我们不会屈服于任何威胁。但是,在这次的争议中,虽然列文也在为公司发行的音乐作品争辩,但他也做出了某些程度的让步(参阅第四段第一句)。由此可见,列文并非是个易于妥协的人。

  C 意为:在这场争议中。时代沃纳公司团结一致。不对,例如上文所提到的路斯的观点。

  65.(B)意为:态度有所缓和,采取了某种新政策。

  第四段指出,列文对上周的争议拒绝评价,但有迹象表明他正在放弃自己的强硬立场-至少在某种程度上可以这样说。在上月讨论摇滚乐歌词的董事会上,列文强调音乐并不引起社会丑恶现象,他甚至举了他儿子的例子。但是,他同时也谈到了创作自由与社会责任保持平衡的问题,他表示,公司将为音乐的发行和标识(labeling 指:标识作品或产品的应用对象,如:是否适应于青少年使用等)制定标准。可见,列文在做出妥协姿态的同时,也采取了实际的行动。

  A 意为:坚持强硬立场保护思想表达自由。

  C 意为:改变其态度并向反对派屈服。与 B 表达的内容相比,C 表达的内容语气太强。因为,正如第四段第一句所说的,列文仅做出了某种程度的让步(to some extent)。

  D 意为:获得了董事会 15 位成员更多的支持。虽然董事会一直支持列文及其公司经营战略,但在这次的争议中,意见出现了分歧。参阅第 64 题题解。

  66.(A)意为:遭到责难的公司。

  从以上的分析可以看出,本文主要是评述了时代华纳公司因发行新音乐专辑而受到的责难及其反应。

  B 意为:一场关于道德败坏的争论。这个题目太宽泛。更何况,时代华纳公司所被指责的主要是它对社会责任的忽视,而并非它所发行的作品所带来的实际社会影响。

  C 意为:街头文化的合法表达(途径)。

  D 意为:一种表现创作自由的形式

  翻译句子

  1、The flap over rap is not making life any easier for him. Levin has consistently defended the company's rap music on the grounds of expression.

  [参考译文] 人们对说唱音乐的焦虑并没使他的日子变得好过。莱文一向以它是一种富于表现力的演唱方式这个理由来为公司的说唱音乐辩护。

  [结构剖析] 第一个句子是一个简单句。flap over rap 是句子的主语,is making 是谓语,使用了结构:make+n.+adj.。第二个句子也是一个简单句。

  [阅读重点] 第一句中的重点是掌握 to make life easier 这个表述方法,其它部分都是辅助这个短语的。另外,对于 flap 一词的理解也至关重要,在这里它的意思是焦虑、兴奋状态的意思。第二句中的主干是 defend somebody on the grounds of something(为某种理由或手段为某人辩护)。expression 这里的意思是 the quality of singing or playing a musical instrument with feeling,即表达方式、腔调,尤指雄辩的语调、富有表情的唱腔。注意 consistently 是一贯地,一向地的意思,不要与 constantly 混淆。

  2、The test of any democratic society, he wrote in a Wall Street Journal column, lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating the results may sometimes be…

  [参考译文] 对任何一个民主社会的考验,他在《华尔街杂志》的一个专栏文章中写到,不在于它能够多有效地控制各种意见的表达,而在于这个社会是否能给予思考和表达的尽可能广泛的自由,不管有时候这种结果是多么的富有争议或令人不快……

  [结构剖析] 这里直接引语被分成两部分,一部分在主句前,另一部分放在主句之后。在这个例子里面,直接引语是主句的宾语。直接引语的主干是 The test…… lies not in…… but in……, however……,这是一个用副词 however 连接的并列复合句。

  [阅读重点] 阅读时可以先不看直接引语,可以在分别搞清楚主句和作为宾语从句的直接引语的意思后再把主句和直接引语放在一起理解,这样就比较容易了。另一方面,要理解 however 引导的句子的意思,在这里可以把其理解为不管、不论,在这种用法中,however 一般后面接形容词。

  补充难句翻译

  1、Is this what you intended to accomplish with your careers? Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week. You have sold your souls, but must you corrupt our nation and threaten our children as well?

  [参考译文] 上星期参议员罗博特多尔质问时代华纳公司的高级管理人员们:难道这就是你们希望能够成就的事业?你们已经出卖了自己的灵魂,但是难道你们还非要腐化我们的国家,威胁我们的孩子们吗?

  [结构剖析] 这是一个有直接引语的复杂句。首先抓住核心句 Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week,其前后是直接引语。这个直接引语的前半部分是一个一般疑问句,后面由两个转折关系的句子构成,由连词 but 连接。第一个分句是一个简单句,but 后面的句子是一个一般疑问句。由情态动词 must 引导,包括由 and 这个连词连的两个并列部分,corrupt our nation 和 threaten our children as well 在后面 threaten out children as well 这部分的主语 you 被省略了。

  [阅读重点] 关键要理解 but 后面的一般疑问句,这里并不是表示疑问,而是反问、诘问的意思。当并列复合句的第二个子句的主语与第一个子句的主语相同时,第二个子句的主语可以省。as well 这里是 in addition、also、too 也的意思,经常用于句尾。

  2、It's a self-examination that has, at various times, involved issues of responsibility, creative freedom and the corporate bottom line.

  [参考译文] 这是一种在不同时期会涉及责任、创作自由和公司底线问题的自我反省。

  [结构剖析] 这是一个有定语从句的复杂句。阅读时首先注意主干为 It is a self-examination…;that 后面引导的是限定性定语从句,修饰 self-examination;定语从句的宾语是一个 of 词组,其核心是 issues;在介词 of 后面是三个并列的短语,都是用来修饰和限定 issues 的。这三个短语因为是并列的关系,所以只在最后一个短语前面使用并列连词 and.at various times 是插入语,将动词的两部分分开了。

  [阅读重点] 这句话的核心在于 self-examination,后面的部分都是用于修饰这个词,要正确理解其意思是自我反省、自我检讨。而 corporate bottom line 所指的是一个公司所能做出的事情或者所能容忍的新闻工作者自由发挥的最大限度。

  3、During the discussion of rock singing verses at last month's stockholders' meeting, Levin asserted that music is not the cause of society's ills and even cited his son, a teacher in the Bronx, New York, who uses rap to communicate with students.

  [参考译文] 在上个月的股东大会上关于摇滚歌词的讨论中,莱文宣称说:音乐不是社会问题的原因,他甚至还以他的儿子为例。他的儿子是纽约州布朗克斯的一个教师,并用说唱音乐与学生们进行沟通。

  [结构剖析] 句子的主干是 Levin asserted that…… that even cited……。During…… stockholder's meeting 这一部分是表示时间的状语从句。music is not the cause of society's ills 是直接引语,作为动词 asserted 的宾语。his son 是动词 cited 的宾语,后面的 a teacher in the Bronx, New York 是宾语 his son 的同位语,最后面的 who uses rap to communicate with students 是修饰 his son 的定语从句。

  [阅读重点] 这个句子比较长,但是只要抓住 … Levin asserted that… and even cite…这样的句子主干,就能明晰 Levin 的主要观点,其它部分的理解也就水到渠成了。

  4、I think it is perhaps the case that some people associated with the company have only recently come to realize this.

  [参考译文] 我想大概情况是这样的:与公司有关系的一些人直到最近才意识到这一点。

  [结构剖析] I think……是这句话的主干,后面的部分是这句话的宾语从句。在宾语从句当中 that 引导一个同位语从句,说明 case 的具体情况是 some people associated with the company have only recently come to realize this.associated with 相当于简略的定语从句,修饰前面的 people.

  [阅读重点] 重点是要理解 that 引导的是同位语从句,后面的部分说明 case 的具体情况。名词 fact、dream、idea、notion、proposal 和 news 等等都常常被同位语从句所修饰。

  语言点详解

  1. contribute to 促成

  [大纲词汇] contribute v.(to)贡献,捐助,捐献;投稿

  contribution n. 贡献;捐献(物)

  [扩充词汇] contribute to 促成,有助于

  [经典例句] Air pollution contributes to quite a number of diseases.

  2. accomplish 实现

  [大纲词汇] accomplish v.完成

  [经典例句] They are ordered to accomplish to mission in 3 days.

  3. corrupt 使…腐化

  [大纲词汇] corrupt v. 贿赂,收买;a. 腐化的,贪污的

  [衍生词汇] corruption n. 腐败

  [经典例句] He was accused of having corrupted officials in the government.

  4. soul-searching 良心上的自我反省

  [扩充词汇] soul-search v. 深刻反省

  soul-searching n. 深刻反省,自我解剖

  5. corporate 公司的

  [扩充词汇] corporate a. 公司的;法人的,合伙的

  [经典例句] These deeds will definitely damage the corporate image.

  6.bottom line 账本底线

  7. at the core of 在…的中心

  [大纲词汇] core n. 果核;中心,核心

  [经典例句] The issue lies at the core of the discussion.

  8. take over 接管

  [大纲词汇] take over 接管,接办

  [经典例句] The company went downward since he took over.

  9. late 已故的

  [大纲词汇] late a. 迟的,晚的,晚期的;已故的;ad. 迟地,晚地

  [经典例句] The late president was always respected by the people.

  10. on the financial front 就财政方面而言

  [大纲词汇] front n. 前面,正面;前线,战线,阵线 a.前面的,前部的 v.面对,朝向

  [经典例句] The government has made great progress in the educational front.

  11. under pressure 受到压力

  [大纲词汇] pressure n.压(力);强制,压迫,压强

  [经典例句] The director was under great pressure to veto the decision.

  12. stock price 股票价格

  13. mountainous 山一样的

  [大纲词汇] mountainous a.多山的,山一般的

  [经典例句] The homework assigned to us is mountainous.

  14. close a deal 做成一笔交易

  [大纲词汇] deal n. 数量,程度;交易

  [经典例句] The deal is not close yet and it is not the time to celebrate.

  15. sell off卖掉

  [扩充词汇] sell off卖掉

  [经典例句] She sold off her house in downtown and moved to the suburb.

  16. restruture 重组

  [扩充词汇] restructure v.再构成,重建;重组

  [经典例句] It is our urgent task to restructure our economy.

  17. the flap over rap 由于说唱引起的焦虑

  [大纲词汇] flap n.垂下物,帽檐,袋盖;n./v.拍打,拍动

  [经典例句] Everything was working smoothly and there is no flap.

  15. rap music 说唱音乐

  [扩充词汇] rap n.说唱(一种音乐形式)

  19. on the ground of 以…为理由

  [扩充词汇] on the ground of 根据,以…为理由

  [经典例句] He refused to give her the job on the ground of ill-health.20.under fire 受到攻击

  [扩充词汇] under fire 受到攻击(批评或责难)

  [经典例句] The basic policy is under fire.

  21. release 发行

  [大纲词汇] release v.释放,解放;发表,发行

  [经典例句] Her new book was released only a few day ago.

  22. outlet 发泄的方法

  [大纲词汇] outlet n.出路,出口;发泄方法,排遣

  [经典例句] The child needs an outlet for all the energy.

  23. lie in 在于

  [大纲词汇] lie v.躺,平放;位于 lie in 在于

  [经典例句] The possible solution of the issue lies in his apology.

  24. latitude 自由

  [大纲词汇] latitude n.纬度

  [扩充词义] latitude n.(言语、行动等的)自由

  [经典例句] He gave me considerable latitude in how I spend the money.

  25. disputable 有争议的

  [大纲词汇] dispute v.争论

  [衍生词汇] disputable a.有争议的,可商榷的

  [经典例句] His claim to the land is highly disputable.

  26. irritating 令人恼火的

  [大纲词汇] irritate v.激怒,恼火,使急躁

  [衍生词汇] irritating a.令人恼火的

  [经典例句] She was terribly disturbed by the irritating noise in the next door.

  27. retreat 退让

  [大纲词汇] retreat v.撤退,退却

  [经典例句] She retreated to her desk and continued with her work.

  28. in the face of 面对

  [经典例句] He won't give up his effort in the face of difficulty.

  29. comment on 评论

  [大纲词汇] comment n.注释,评论,意见; v.(on)注释,评论

  [经典例句] They refused to comment on the conflicts between the two parties.

  30. back off 放弃(主张)

  [扩充词汇] back off(=back down)放弃原来的主张,打退堂鼓

  [经典例句] He backed off his opinion under pressure.

  31. hard-line 强硬路线的

  [扩充词汇] hard-line a.(主张采取)强硬路线的,不妥协的 hard-liner n.(主张)强硬路线者,不妥协者

  [经典例句] The newly elected president insist on hard-line foreign policy.

  32. to some extent 在某种程度上

  [经典例句] The answer is negative to some extent.

  33. assert 宣称

  [大纲词汇] assert v.断言,宣称

  [衍生词汇] assertion n.语气肯定的话,断言

  [经典例句] He asserted his idea, clearly and loudly.

  34. cite 引用

  [大纲词汇] cite v.引用,引证;举例

  [经典例句] He cited Shakespeare in his thesis.

  35. launch a drive 发起一场运动

  [衍生词义] drive n.运动

  a sales drive 推销运动

  [经典例句] The municipal government launched a drive against pollution.

  36. label 归类

  [大纲词汇] label v. 贴标签于……,把……称为;n.标签;标记,符号

  [经典例句] She labeled the boy a thief.

  37. potentially 潜在地

  [大纲词汇] potential a. 潜在的,可能的;势的,位的

  [衍生词汇] potentially ad. 潜在地

  [经典例句] People considered him a Potentially successful businessman.

  38. objectionable 会引起反对的

  [大纲词汇] objection v.(to)反对,异议

  [衍生词汇] objectionable a.会引起反对的

  [经典例句] He didn't realize that it would be an objectionable movie when he shot it.

  39. strategy 战略

  [大纲词汇] strategy n.战略,策略

  [经典例句] The government adopted a strategy of massive deflation.

  40. First Amendment (美国宪法)第一次修正案

  [大纲词汇] amend v. 修改,修正

  [衍生词汇] amendment n. 修改,修正;修正案

  41. be associated with 与……有关系的

  [大纲词汇] associate v.(with)使联系,使联合;交往,结合

  [经典例句] They were closely associated with each other in the war.

  42. come to realize 认识到

  [大纲词汇] realize v.认识到,体会到;实现

  [经典例句] The school came to realize the necessity of change their method of teaching.

  43. be liable to 易于…

  [大纲词汇] liable a.(for)有责任的,有义务的;(to + infinitive)有……倾向的,易于…的

  [经典例句] He is liable to evade his responsibilities.

  44. compromise 妥协

  [大纲词汇] compromise v./n. 妥协,折衷

  [经典例句] They forced him to compromise, but he refused firmly.

  45. stick to 坚持

  [大纲词汇] stick to 坚持;忠于;信守

  [经典例句] Everybody knows that his always sticks to principles.

  46. yield to 屈服

  [大纲词汇] yield v. 出产,生长;(to)屈服,服从;n. 产量,收获

  [经典例句] They believed he would yield to his father's pressure soon.

  全文翻译

  没有一家公司乐意听到别人说自己引起了社会的道德败坏。参议员罗伯特?多尔上星期质问时代华纳公司高级人员时说:难道这就是你们要成就的事业吗?你们已经出卖了自己的灵魂,难道你们还非要腐化我们的国家,威胁我们的孩子不成?不过,对于成立于1990年的时代华纳公司而言,这样的质问仅仅只是公司自我反思的最新表白,是在不同时期涉及责任、创作自由和公司底线问题的自我反省。

  于1992年接替已故董事长斯蒂夫?罗斯的56岁的现任董事长杰拉德?莱文是争论的焦点人物。财政方面,他承受着抬高股价,减少公司巨额债务的压力。在两笔新的有线电视交易谈妥后,债务将达到173亿美元。他也答应出售部分财产并重组公司,但现在投资者们仍在焦急地等待着。

  人们对说唱音乐的焦虑并没使他的日子变得好过。莱文一向以它是一种富于表现力的演唱方式为理由来捍卫公司的说唱音乐。1992年公司因出品Ice-T乐队狂暴的说唱歌曲《警察杀手》后备受谴责时,莱文说这是街头文化的合法表达方式,它应该有自己的宣泄途径。他在《华尔街日报》一篇专栏文章中写道:任何一个民主社会的检验不在于它能多有效地控制各种情感的表达,而在于是否给予了人们思考和表达的最广泛的自由,尽管有时这种结果会引起争论和愤怒。我们不会在任何威胁面前退却。

  莱文不愿对上周的辩论做出评论,但有迹象表明这位董事长的强硬立场起码在一定程度上有所缓和。在上个月的股东会议上,大家就摇滚乐的歌词进行了讨论。莱文宣称音乐不是社会问题的病因,他甚至还以自己为例。他的儿子是纽约州布朗克斯的一个教师,用说唱乐的表达方式与学生进行交流。但他也谈到了创作自由和社会责任之间要保持平衡的问题。他还宣布公司将致力于为一些人们可能会反感的音乐制定发行和标识的标准。

  总的来说,时代华纳公司的15位董事是支持莱文和公司的经营策略的。但内部人士透露其中几位对此事表示担忧。我们中的一些人多年来就知道宪法第一修正案所说的自由并非毫无限制,鲁斯说,我想与公司有关系的一些人可能是最近才意识到这一点。

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