Part A （E-C）
Subways are underground systems of high speed trains， which are mostly found in large cities such as New York， London， Paris， Beijing， Sydney， and Tokyo. Subway trains move more quickly and efficiently than buses； they will deliver you to within walking distance ① of almost any place in the city. They are inexpensive and help solve city traffic problems. The one drawback ② of subway trains is that they are often crowded and noisy.
Taxis are more expensive than subways， but they will deliver you to the exact location you want in the shortest time possible. Taxis are convenient if you are in a hurry or if you are taking along a number of suitcases or packages. And as an added attraction ③， many cab drivers will tell you their adventures as taxi drivers or even the details of their lifes. However， taxis are rather hard to find during rush hours.
Founded in the aftermath ①of the Second World War， the United Nations came into being with the signing of its Charter②in San Francisco in 1945. During those early years it was， and is still today an instrument at the service of humankind， a mechanism which links us all in our efforts to build a better world.
Whether working to maintain friendly relations among nations， protecting the environment or tackling illiteracy③， disease and hunger， the United Nations is ready to be fully utilized for the perfection of humanity. Today， in a world with increasingly complex challenges and difficulties， the Organization is facing unprecedented demands as well as new opportunities.
① retail management
③ training of personnel
Foreign supermarkets in China play a significant role as regards changing the traditional Chinese mode of shopping and retail management. These stores contribute to the promotion of Chinese products. While bringing much useful experience to their Chinese counterparts， these foreign supermarkets are also an enormous threat to their local rivals. The competition between local and foreign retailing businesses is becoming more and more intense.
The accepted opinion is that while these world retail giants regard the Chinese retail trade as a profitable market， local Chinese retailers are barely able to survive， despite their efforts. Experts say that compared with the world giants， the Chinese retailing businesses are， by international standards， still lacking in their management， technology， and training of personnel.
②anti-poverty work； poverty alleviation
③extend special preferential policies and measures
China is a multi-ethnic country. Restricted by historical， social and natural conditions， the economic and social development of many ethnic minority areas is backward. The impoverished parts of the ethnic minority areas are mainly located in western China. The Chinese government lays stress on anti-poverty work in the impoverished parts of the ethnic minority areas and extends to these areas special preferential policies and measures. The sustained growth of the economy in the future will quicken the process of the work of poverty alleviation. Practice has proved that economic growth is the key to solving the problem of poverty.
In accordance with the state' s economic development plan， China’s economy will score an annual increase of seven percent in the coming five years. So there will be a further demand for workers， some of whom come from the poor areas. As a result， the standard of living in those areas will be improved. At the same time， along with the steady improvement of the comprehensive national strength， the state will pour more resources into development and construction in the poor areas， providing a sound material base for the development of those areas.
Part A （E-C）
Since its invention 300 years ago， the piano has played its way into the hearts and homes of music lovers around the world. It has inspired ① composers and performers. It has made a place for itself in palaces and concert halls， in church hails and jazz clubs. The piano has revolutionized the way people play and experience music.
By the late 1700s， the piano had spread throughout Europe and to the American colonies. No longer the exclusive property of the nobility ②， pianos still carried an air of③ privilege and prestige. Wealthy amateurs ④， mostly young ladies， learned to play. Composers began to produce sonatas ⑤， dances and songs that were profitable and easy enough for amateurs.
The Asian economic crisis has put many companies on the edge. Many have been forced to change the way they do business. The old attitude that employees follow instructions and are unable to make decisions or act on their own initiative① leads to underused② people.
The key to increasing employee productivity is through effective management. Managers must recognize that getting employees involved in the solution boost morale③。 The decision making process should be pushed down the ladder. The focus of future organizations will shift to employee involvement， rather than power and control.
③capital- and technology-intensive
The economic restructuring is conducive to the development of the poor areas. At this time when there is an increasingly fierce competition in both domestic and foreign markets， China is devoting major efforts to adjusting and optimizing its industrial structure. The developed regions， on the one hand， have quickened the pace of upgrading their industries and energetically developing capital- and technology-intensive industries. On the other hand， in order to improve the competitiveness of their industries， they are transferring some labor- intensive industries to the less-developed areas.
The poor areas， mostly situated in the central and western parts of China， have relatively rich resources and cheap labor. It is fully possible for the western region to import capital and technology， and accept transferred industries， so as to improve the position of poor areas in the division of regional industries and quicken the change of local industrial structure and economic development.
① the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences
② total asset
The latest analysis of the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences shows that the introduction of foreign capital has produced a tremendous influence on Shanghai's development and the livelihood of its citizens. It predicts that Shanghai will witness an upsurge in direct investment from the world’s major economic powers from 2002. The rapid development over the past few years has made many believe that Shanghai is a sound port for international capital.
Statistics of the People's Bank of China Shanghai Branch showed that， by the end of 2001， the number of overseas financial institutions in Shanghai had reached 65， of which 54 were foreign banks. The total assets， savings deposits and loan balance of foreign banks in Shanghai account for more than half of the total of foreign banks in China. So far， 8 of the world’s top 50 banks have set up branches in Shanghai.
Part A （E-C）
A new era is upon us. Call it what you will： the service economy， the information age， the knowledge society. It all translates to ① a fundamental change in the way we work. The percentage of people who earn their living by making things has fallen dramatically. Today the majority of jobs are in the service industry， and the number is on the rise.
More women are in the work force than ever before. There are more part- time jobs. More people are self-employed. Above all， the economic transformation is giving rise to② a radical~ new way of thinking about the nature of work itself. Long-held notions about jobs and careers， the skills needed to succeed， even the relation between individuals and employers——all these are being challenged.
The “standard of living” of a country means the average person' s② share of the goods and services which the country produces. A country’ s standard of living， therefore， depends first and foremost on its capacity to produce wealth. “Wealth” in this sense is not money， for we do not live on ② money but on things that money can buy： “goods” such as food and clothing， and “services” such as transport and entertainment.
A country's capacity to produce wealth depends upon many factors， most of which have an effect on one another. Wealth depends to a great extent upon a country’s natural resources， such as coal， gold， and other minerals， water supply and so on. Some regions of the world are well supplied with coal and minerals， and have a fertile soil and a favorable climate； other regions possess none of them.
So far， over 200 of Fortune's top 500 companies have invested in China. By less than a 30-minute drive from the Village.
The Olympic Village will provide safe and comfortable facilities to help athletes achieve their peak performance during the Games. The Residential Quarter located in the western part of the Village consists of apartment buildings， dining halls， and other facilities. The International Quarter located in the eastern part of the Village will provide leisure facilities and cultural activities for athletes. After the Games， the Village will become a residential area.
Part A （E-C）
For university graduates， it is always not so easy to find a good job. They often wonder at the large number of employers who do not respond to their applications for jobs. They say that despite enclosing return envelopes they hear nothing at all， or at best， an impersonal note ① is sent declaring that the post for which they applied has been filled.
Applicants often have the suspicion that vacancies are taken up by friends and relatives and that advertisements are only put out for show②。 Many of them are tired of writing around③ and feel that if only they could obtain an interview with the right person their application would meet with success.
The World Exposition is not the same as a trade fair， in which mainly governments and international organizations participate. The World Exposition， on the other hand， displays the achievements and prospects in the economic， cultural and technological sectors， and is an event where people from all over the world come together to exchange experience and ideas， and learn from one another. Long known as the “economic， technological and cultural Olympic Games”， the World Exposition is held every five years， and has been held in developed countries since it first took place in London in 1851.
If Shanghai wins the bid for the 2010 World Exposition， China will be-the first developing country to host this major event. Hosting the exposition will have a positive impact on China， as China will not only learn from the experiences of other countries to further its reform and opening-up endeavor， but will also enhance its friendly relations with other countries. Besides， its role as hosting country will no doubt accelerate the development of world expositions elsewhere， which can promote worldwide economic， cultural and technological development.
① professional league
Making the soccer sector professional has raised the level of the Chinese team. The Chinese national team's desire to compete in the World Cup finals has been frustrated too many times. For a long time， people in the soccer circle and those concerned about Chinese soccer explored ways to improve the game. In 1994， professionalized leagues began to be practiced in China.
It brought changes to Chinese soccer. A great improvement in the player's skills， ideas and concepts was seen. Another change brought about by the professionalized league is the involvement of foreign athletes. Nowadays， soccer is no longer a game merely for entertainment， but also a carrier of modem culture， economy and social activities. The World Cup has become a tool to measure the soccer level of a country.
① aggregate income
② economic mode
③ intensive shopping
China's holiday economy began with the first-ever seven-day National Day holiday in 1999. Statistics show that the holiday economy is an emerging growth sector. The number of tourists nationwide， which stood at 28 million during the October holiday of 1999， nearly doubled in 2000 to reach 55 million. Aggregate income from tourism increased from 14.1 billion yuan to 22 billion yuan. Therefore， the seven-day holiday has been called a “golden week”。
Holiday economy represents an economic mode under which temporarily intensive shopping， tourism and other consumer activities stimulate market and economic development. The long Spring Festival， May Day and National Day holidays each year have led to the formation of a holiday economy featuring tourism， recreation and shopping. While directly stimulating consumer demand， the holiday economy has motivated investment indirectly， thus becoming a major driving force for increased domestic demand.
Part A （E-C）
What is poverty？ Poverty is not being able to have what most people have. It's not being able to live like most people live. It’s like hearing your mother in the bedroom crying because she has no money to give you for lunch. It's like always begging people not to turn off the： electricity or the telephone.
It's like being forced to move from one shabby ① apartment to another because you can’t pay the rent. It's like trying to hide from your rich friends so they won’t see how poor you are. Poverty may mean having no home， sleeping in the streets， getting wet when it rains， going for days with no food， or perhaps dying of sickness and hunger.
Is the world we live in going forward or backward？ There are two entirely different answers to this question. Pessimists①believe that although there is a remarkable progress in the growth of knowledge， mankind has not improved itself in rationality② and morality.
Optimists ③ argue， on the contrary， that mankind has developed in all directions. Mankind has become better-cultured and more civilized than before. The benefits brought about by science and technology far outweigh their demerits， and more and more of the benefits have been applied to the welfare of mankind.
② contractual investment
④ Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corp.
More and more foreign firms are establishing their offices in Shanghai， the powerhouse of China's economy. Last year， 1，360 enterprises established offices in Shanghai， with a contractual investment of USS 2.72 billion. In the first eight months of this year， Japan， the United States and other developed countries increased their investment in Shanghai. Japan registered the greatest increase with a contractual investment of USS 1.23 billion， a 1.88-fold increase.
Last year， President and CEO of the Bank for Foreign Trade of Russia and President of the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China signed an agreement on comprehensive cooperation between the two banks. The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corp. moved its China headquarters from Hong Kong to Shanghai. Major Japanese banks have all enjoyed sound performances in Shanghai， indicating that the city has a fine environment for financial investment.
① working language
③ necessary qualification
Chinese is a language used by people of all ethnic groups in China and is an official and working language within the United Nations. It is the most used language in the world， and its history dates back at least 6，000 years. The current Chinese learning craze is attributable to the long history and splendid achievements of the Chinese civilization， as well as to China's rapid economic growth over the past two decades.
Historically， China has made significant contributions to the development of the humankind. And today， China is representative of today's world dynamism. From 1980 to 1999， China’s average GDP increased 9.7 percent annually， and hundreds of thousands of foreign businesses entered China. Proficiency in Chinese has become a necessary qualification for those who want to work in foreign enterprises， either in the mainland or in Hong Kong.
Part A （E-C）
Nowadays when you skim through the employment column of newspapers， you will very often find that employers set an age limit on applicants. “Applicants should be under the age of 40” is a prevailing condition in recruitment advertisements①。 Such a condition seems reasonable because every firm likes to hire young and promising people without too much of a family burden. But the enterprises' differential treatment of candidates does smack of ② their age discrimination.
However， researchers have found no solid evidence to show that people older than the age limit perform any worse than younger people. People aged 40 to 50 or even older are still in the prime of their life③。 With rich working experiences and a mature network of social relations， they may have some edge over young people. This recruitment policy in reality could raise the social cost of employment and lead to a waste of labour resources， and it is likely to encourage some firms to use age or other reasons to deprive candidates of④ their right to work.
APEC aims to promote common prosperity and development within the region through economic and technological cooperation among its members， its main priorities① in this respect being in the fields of human resources development， the capital market， infrastructure， technology， environmental protection， and small and medium-sized enterprises. So far， APEC has expedited ② more than 400 cooperation projects.
At the 2000 meeting， APEC launched its e-trade website， which provides enterprises access to the latest information on developments within APEC， helping them identify business opportunities， all of which contributes towards achieving the organization's goal of making trade and investment free from constraints③
① ecological awareness
② afforestation projects
③ nature reserve （areas）
Being responsible for one fifth of the world's population， China must invest more in comprehensive ecological improvement. Pollution control efforts must not be limited to cleaning a few rivers and lakes. All enterprises， small or large， must be required to substantially reduce the pollution they produce. To safeguard national ecological security， the most important task is to enhance public’s ecological awareness.
In view of the country's economic strength， China should focus its efforts on the following aspects of ecological security. First， the state should balance the distribution of water resources across the country. Second， the state should enhance protection and development of natural forests by launching more afforestation projects. Third， the state should try to expand nature reserve areas while strengthening protection of existing nature reserves.
As an international economic， financial and trade center， Shanghai has given much support to the pollution-free， highly efficient convention/exhibition sector since the early 1990s. Shanghai now regularly hosts around 40 world-renowned professional and international exhibitions a year， featuring automobiles， electrical appliances， medical apparatus and food.
In addition， Shanghai has successfully hosted more than 700 important international meetings， earning it high worldwide fame in this regard. In 1999， more than 150 meetings were held in Shanghai. As a result， Shanghai's convention/exhibition sector has developed rapidly， with its economic benefits growing 20 percent annually.