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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY37

2006-7-28 01:04  

  Increasing reading speed

  Directions:Do the phrase recognition drill below.Quickly underline or mark the key phrase every time it appears in the columns.Try to finish in 10 seconds or less by reading down the column,not left to right.

  Starting Time:

  Key phrase:a chemical reactora chemical reactora chemical reactor

  a chemical formulaan electron transfer

  a chemical fillingan atomic reaction

  a chemical reactoran atomic reactor

  a chemical industrya chemical reactor

  a chemical promotera nuclear reactor

  a chemical warfarea chemical analysis

  a chemical reactora chemical compound

  a chemical bombera chemical reactor

  a chemical weapona chemical engineer

  a chemical constanta chemical reactor

  a chemical reactoran electronic cloud

  a chemical valencea chemical reactor

  a chemical reactoran electronic timer

  Finishing Time: Total Reading Time:

  Check each line very carefully.Key phrase appears 10 times.

  The Time Is NowNothing better illustrates the broadening of the concern about pollution from a local affair to a global one than air pollution. Local air pollution is improving in some cities in industrial countries,but it is worsening in others, principally in developing countries,and is hardly solved anywhere. Meanwhile,global use of fossil fuels and emissions of traditional pollutants such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides that result from it continue to climb. Acid rain,ozone,and other consequences of these pollutants are affecting plant and animal life - killing forests and fish,damaging crops,changing the species composition of ecosystem  - over vast areas of the globe.

  Depletion of the stratosphere's ozone layer is a matter of such concern that an international treaty has been negotiated to reduce emissions of chlorofluorocarbons,but the latest measurements indicate the current protocol is already inadequate. And probably most serious of all,the buildup of infrared trapping "greenhouse"gases in the atmosphere continues. This buildup is largely a consequence of the use of fossil fuels and CFCs,deforestation,and various agricultural activities,and it now threatens societies with far reaching climate change.

  While the regional impacts of a global warming are uncertain and difficult to predict,rainfall and monsoon patterns could shift,upsetting agricultural activities worldwide. The sea level could rise,flooding coastal areas. Ocean currents could shift,altering the climate of many areas and disrupting fisheries. The ranges of plant and animal species could change regionally,endangering protected areas and many species whose habitats are now few and confined. Record heat waves and other weather anomalies could harm susceptible people,crops,and forests.

  These interrelated atmospheric issues probably constitute the most serious pollution threat in history. I say "interrelated" because these atmospheric issues are linked in ways that scientists are still discovering,and the scientists are far ahead of our policymakers. First,they are linked in time. The view is still common today that,initially,we should address local air pollution,then we should turn attention to regional issues like acid rain,and then,at some point in the future,we should address the global issue of greenhouse gases. But the failures of our clean air efforts make urban air quality an issue for today,forcing a 1970's issue from the past into the present. Simultaneously,the realizations that greenhouse gases other than CO2 double the urgency of the problem,and that societies may have already committed the planet to a 1 to 2.5℃ global average warming - these realizations are forcing what was thought to be a "21st century issue" into the present.

  These atmospheric issues are also linked in the vast chemical reactor that is the atmosphere,where pollutants react with each other,other substances,and solar energy in an extremely complex set of circular interactions. Touch one problem, you may touch them all.

  Third,they are linked in their effects on people and on the biota. What are the consequences of multiple stresses - a variety of pollutants,heat waves and climate changes,increased ultraviolet radiation - when realized together?Who knows?We are all still learning.

  In short,the time to address all these atmosphere problems - local,regional,global - is now. The way to address all these problems is together. And,in the long run,the key to these problems is energy.

  ——from Chemical &。Engineering News,July 4,1988

  Time:557words=wpm

  Minutes

  EXERCISESⅠ。READING COMPREHENSION

  Select the answer which is most accurate according to the information given in the passage.

  1. will lead to air pollution.

  A. The falling of acid rainB. The decrease of ozone

  C. The burning of fossil fuelsD. The increase of nitrogen dioxide

  2.  leads to the depletion of the stratosphere's ozone layer.

  A. Deforestation B. Emission of chlorofluorocarbons

  C. The use of fossil fuelsD. Population growth

  3. Which of the following can be affected by the buildup of the "greenhouse"gases?

  A. The shift of monsoon patterns.B. The rise of sea level.

  C. The regional change of the biota.D. All of the above.

  4. The word "record" in the last sentence of paragraph 3 means .

  A. unprecedentedB. knownC. writtenD. noted

  5. As it can be inferred from the passage,scientists  the commonly accepted view that different atmospheric issues should be dealt with at different times.

  A. are in favor ofB. are studyingC. stand againstD. remain indifferent to

  6. According to the passage,pollutants in the atmosphere react with .

  A. each otherB. other substancesC. solar energyD. all of the above

  7. According to the author,the key to an improvement of air pollution lies in .

  A. prohibiting the use of automobiles

  B. finding new forms of energy,which will not result in pollution

  C. planting more treesD. forbidding the use of chlorofluorocarbons

  8. What does the passage tell us,essentially?

  A. All the interrelated atmospheric issues should be dealt with together now.

  B. While local air pollution is improving in some cities in the world,it is deteriorating in others.

  C. All the weather anomalies caused by global warming could be harmful to people and biota.

  D. The earth's atmosphere is like a huge chemical reactor,where all its ingredients interact.

  Ⅱ。 CONTEXTUAL REFERENCE

  Read the following article and figure out the meaning of each word in italics using the context given and word building skills.

  There are two types of smog. The first is a combination of smoke and fog. Such combinations occur in cities that burn lots of coal . The droplets of fog combine with the smoke particles. The fog acts like a giant sponge in creating this type of smog. The second type of smog is more common:it is properly called photochemical smog,and is caused by sunlight reacting with certain pollutants. The chemicals in the exhausts of automobile engines are the biggest troublemakers. One of these chemical pollutants is carbon monoxide. In concentrated form,this odorless,colorless gas is a deadly poison. Another pollutant is nitrogen dioxide,a yellow brown gas that gives photochemical smog its color. Nitrogen dioxide has a sharp odor that is described as "sweetish." Ozone is the other pollutant that results from the photochemical process.Ozone is colorless,but it has a sharp odor. You may have smelled ozone during an electrical storm or when a piece of electrical equipment short circuited.

  Ⅲ。CLOZE

  Complete the following passage by filling in the blanks with appropriate words.

  Noise Pollution

  If indeed silence is golden,it is also becoming as rare as gold. It seems that the progress  1   man includes a rising volume of     2. In every home a stereo or television     3     fill the rooms  4     sound. Between sunrise     5     sunset,streets and highways are a     6     source of noise from cars, buses,    7     trucks. You can      8     any factory     9     construction area and the 10    of its machinery will   11    your ears ring. Music is played    12   every supermarket, most restaurants, and    13   offices. Big cities of the world are   14   for their noisiness. Noise pollution is the new side    15   of our technological age . Day or night, the   16   of work fills the air. It   17   that the soothing effects of silence are nowhere to be    18. Even the quiet of our carefully  19  wilderness areas can be invaded     20     any moment by a passing jet. We are learning,finally,that silence is a natural resource and must be protected by law. It appears that we all find company

  in sound,but at the same time,we all demand a little quiet from time to time.

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