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句子合成法

2006-07-05 10:10

  两个或两个以上简单句 (Simple Sentence) 可以合成一个较长的简单句、并列句 (Compound Sentence) 或复杂句  (Complex Sentence) .通过句子的合成,我们得以更清楚地看出句子间的语义关系,而且还可以使句子多样化,增加文章的丰姿。

  现在就从三方面来看看句子合成法的问题。

  1. 由两三个简单句合成一个长的简单句。例如:

  (1) John ran away. He escaped the danger.  → Running away, John escaped the danger. )

  (2) The hunter took up his gun. He shot the boar. → The hunter took up his gun to shoot the boar.

  (3) The king died. The queen heard about it. She fainted. → On hearing about the king's death, the queen fainted.

  (4)  Kelvin is my good friend. He is a strong supporter of social justice. → Kelvin,  a strong supporter of social justice, is my good friend.

  (5)  The rascal kicked the cat. He kicked it on the back. He kicked it intentionally. → The  rascal kicked the cat on the back intentionally.

  2. 由两三个简单句合成一个并列句。例如:

  (6) John was sad. He kept quiet. → John was sad but he kept quiet.

  (7) Take the book. Leave it there. → Take the book or leave it there.

  (8) Sean did not come to class today. He had a bad headache. → Sean did not come to class today, for he had a bad headache.

  (9)  Bruce was lying on the bed. He looked at the ceiling. He saw a lizard. → Lying on the  bed, Bruce looked at the ceiling and saw a lizard.

  3. 由两三个简单句合成一个复杂句。例如:

  (10) Kelvin is getting rich. We know about it. → We know that Kelvin is getting rich.

  (11) I like this book. It contains many amusing stories. → I like this book which contains  many amusing stories.

  (12)  Helen is sure to get her pay. It is due to her. Why does she complain? → Why does   Helen complain since she is sure to get the pay due to her ?

  (13)  The woman was exhausted. She had not slept well the previous night. → The woman   was exhausted because she had not slept well the previous night.

  上面例子显示,简单句由“主语 + 谓语” (Subject + Predicate) 构成,有时还附有修饰性的短语。并列句由至少两个地位平等的并列分句透过并列连词 (Coordinating Conjunction) 如“ and, or, but, so, for ”等连成。复杂句包括一个主句 (Main Clause) 及至少一个从句 (Subordinate Clause) , 通过从属连词  (Subordinating Conjunction) 如 “That, since, because, when, if ”等合成。从属分句因功能不同而分成“名词从句” (Noun Clause), “副词从句” (Adverb Clause) 和“形容词从句”  (Adjective Clause) .上述诸句式中,复杂句最为多采多姿,不妨多用。为了避免句子太长,难以控制,一个复杂句最好不要超过三个从句。

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