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计算机的应用

2006-07-28 23:19

  Computer—Our Good Fellows

  Whatever you are, a scientist, a manager, an architect, a lawyer, a notice or a successful scholar; and no matter whatever you are diligent, or lazy, in the modern work, study and life , you always need our common good friends – computers.

  A computer is an erudite tutor, and a talented secretary who can draw up documents, manage data, design blueprints, type papers and so on. Furthermore, the computer is the most obedient and diligent “house-keeper” or “servant” of housewives; it is also a game expert admired by children. Oh, the computer is really a welcome fellow of ours.

  Office Automation

  Office Automation (OA) is the application of the computer and communication technologies to improve the productivity of clerical and managerial office workers, The major functions of the OA system include text processing, electronic mail, information storage and retrieval, task management, and etc…… Today, there have been many OA systems, for example, desktop publishing, video conference, videotext and so on. So, many office workers can easily find the information they want through a personal computer sitting on his or her desk, It changes substantially the way people work in an office.

  Artificial Intelligence

  For many years, researchers have been exploring the way people think in hopes of creating a computer that thinks like a person. This is so called Artificial Intelligence (AI)。 It aims at producing a computer system that will be able to communicate with us by speech and hearing, and be capable of solving intelligent problems. One practical application of AI has been in the area of expert systems. An expert system is a computer program that solves the specialized problems at the level of a human expert.

  Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI)

  CAI is an educational concept that places the student in a conversational mode with a computer that has a preprogrammed study plan. The programmed course selects the next topic or phase of study according to previous responses from the student, allowing each student to process at a place directly related to his or her learning capability.

  Expert System

  An expert system is a software system having some domain knowledge, which can solve some problems for people. Its performance depends on the facts and the rules that are fed into the computer. The expert knowledge is gathered by knowledge engineers from human experts in the field such as medicine, engineering, or geology. For example, in the field of medicine, one question that might be asked of an expert system is whether one treatment is better for a patient than another one. An expert system has the capacity to store the collection of knowledge and manipulate it in response to user's inquiries, in some cases, it can explain responses to the user.

  计算机应用

  计算机——我们的好伙伴

  无论你是一个科学家还是管理人员,无论你是建筑师还是律师,无论你是一个初踏学路的学生还是成就卓著的学者,无论你勤奋还是懒惰,在现代工作、学习和生活中,我们有了一位大家共同的好朋友——计算机。

  计算机是一个知识渊博的家庭教师,是一个有才华的“秘书”,他能够起草公文、管理数据、设计图纸、编写稿件等等,甚至,它是一个家庭主妇们最听话、最勤奋的“管家”和“服务员”,它也是孩子们钦佩的游戏高手。噢,计算机是受大家欢迎的好伙伴。

  办公自动化

  办公自动化是计算机和通信技术在改善办事人员和管理人员的工作效率方面的一种应用。办公自动化系统的主要功能包括文本处理、电子函件、信息存储和检索、任务管理等。今天已经有许多办公自动化系统,如:桌面印刷系统、电视会议、电视传视等,所以,许多办公室工作人员可以通过他们桌子上的个人计算机轻松地找到他们所需要的信息。这极大地改变了人们在办公室里的工作方式。

  人工智能

  许多年以来,研究人员就开始探索人们思考问题的方式,期望创建一种能够像人一样思考的计算机。这就是所谓的人工智能。其目的就是为了建立一种计算机系统,使之能够通过“听”和“说”同我们进行通信,并具有解决智能问题的能力。人工智能的一个实际应用领域是专家系统。所谓专家系统是一个计算机程序,它能够用人类专家的水平去解决一些特别的问题。

  计算机辅助教学(CAI)

  CAI是一种教育思想,它使学生在计算机进行对话的过程中学习。计算机中存有预先测定好的学习计划,这些预先编制好的课程能够根据学生回答情况选择下一步学习的标题或阶段,使每个学生以适合自己学习能力的速度进行学习。

  专家系统

  专家系统是具有某一领域的专业知识,可以帮助人们解决某些问题的软件系统。它的运行以储存在计算机中的事实和规则为依据。这些专家知识是知识工程师从相应的医学、工程、地理等领域的人类专家那儿收集得到的。例如在医学领域,可以向专家系统提问对某病人的一种诊断方案是否比另一种更好。专家系统具有储存收集的知识并操纵这些知识对用户的提问作出反应的能力,在某些情况下,它甚至可以向用户解释作出这种反应的原因。

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