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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY12

2006-7-28 01:03  

  Increasing reading speed

  Directions: Do the word recognition drills below. Note the words on the left; then underline them every time they appear in the same form to the right. No regression, no vocalization; try to finish in 15 seconds or less.

  Starting Time:

  1. similaritysimilarly similar similize similarity simile

  2. sequence      sequential sequent consequence sequence

  3. individual      individuate induce indispose individual

  4. muscle        musical musician muscle museum mutation

  5. heredity      hereditary heritage inherit heredity ability

  6. coincidence      coincident coincidence coincide incidence accidence

  7. identical      identity density identical identic identify

  8. determine      determined terminal termite terminate determine

  9. division      divinity divisive division decision declension

  10. influence      effluence affuence influence infer instance

  Finishing Time: Total Reading Time:

  Errors:Check each line carefully for mistakes.

  Reunited Twins Act Amazingly AlikeDo you have any identical twins in your classroom? If you do, you know that they look alike and may even act alike. They both may tie their shoes the same way and like to eat lemon pie.

  But what happens when identical twins are separated when young and raised far apart? Will they still often act the same way? A recent study of such separated twins by psychologists at the University of Minnesota shows that they often do act the same way.

  One pair of the separated twins studied were the "Jim" twins. Shortly after the two boys were born in Ohio, they were adopted by different families. One boy grew up as Jim Springer; the other, as Jim Lewis. At their different schools, both Jims, it turned out, liked math and disliked spelling.  As the two grew older, both drove Chevrolets and worked as deputy sheriffs. Both men also liked to vacation in Florida and each named his dog "Toy".

  There were more similarities. Both Jims married women named Linda. Both divorced their wives and then married women named Betty. Both had sons. One named his son James Allan. The other named his son James Alan.

  Medical Backgrounds AlikeThe similarity in the medical histories of the Jim twins are just as surprising. The university of Minnesota researchers found that both men suffered from the same kinds of headaches. Each brother started getting headaches at age 18. And both added 4.5 kilograms (10 pounds) to their weight at the same time in their lives.

  How can these amazing behavioral and medical similarities between identical twins be explained? Are they just coincidences, or are identical twins more alike than anyone ever imagined? To answer these questions, you must first understand how identical twins form.

  Each human starts life as a fertilized egg, or zygote. Within the zygote are genes that determine the heredity of a developing person. The genes determine everything that happens in the zygote, including its ability to divide. Normally, when a zygote first divides, two cells are formed. Usually the two cells remain attached to each other. As the zygote divides, the genes within it also divide, with equal numbers going to each of the two cells formed.

  As the cells continue to divide, nerves, muscles, bones, and other tissues are formed. Finally a new individual develops completely and is born nine months later.

  How Twins FormOnce in a while, this development sequence changes a little. Sometimes, during the first cell division, the two newly formed cells pull completely apart. Each cell goes on to form a separate individual. The individuals are sure to look alike because they have the same genes. They are identical twins.

  Psychologists are finding that the study of identical twins separated when very young is helping them answer a question that has bothered them for years: What is more important in determining a persons behavior? Is it heredity - the transmission of characteristics by genes - or is it environment - the effect of all the outside influences on a developing person?

  Examples of influences in your environment range from the attitudes of your parents and teachers to the type of town, city, or neighborhood you live in.

  So far, the University of Minnesota studies seem to show that heredity plays a much more important role than psychologists ever suspected.Raised Oceans ApartOne of the most dramatic examples of the role of heredity emerged from the study of a set of separated twins known as Oskar Stihr and Jack Yufe. These identical twins were raised oceans apart in completely different environments. Oskar and Jack were separated when their parents separated after the children were born. Oskar was taken to Germany by his mother and raised as a Catholic. Jack was raised by his father as a Jew on an island in the Caribbean.

  Despite growing up in such different environments, Oskar and Jack had quite similar habits. When the men were picked up separately by the scientists at the Minneapolis airport, both were wearing wire rimmed glasses, mustaches, and the same style of shirt.

  In followup studies, other striking similarities were uncovered. Both men had the same habit of flushing the toilet before using it. Both looked at magazines from back to front, carried rubber bands wrapped around their wrists, and ate buttered toast after dunking it in their coffee.

  Another set of identical twins, also raised separately, showed up for the study wearing a range of identical items. The twins, Bridget and Dorothy from Great Britain each wore seven rings, two bracelets on one wrist, and a watch and a bracelet on the other.

  ——from Current Science, March 18, 1981

  Time:774 words=wpm

  Minute

  EXERCISES

  Ⅰ。 READING COMPREHENSION

  Select the answer which is most accurate according to the information given in the passage.

  1. The  at the University of Minnesota show that the separated twins often have some similarities in some respects.

  A. physiologistsB. psychobiologistsC. psychologistsD. psycholinguists

  2. Which of the following is false according to the information in the passage?

  A. Both Jims preferred to drive Chevrolets.

  B. Each Jim called his dog "Toy".

  C. Both Jims liked to live in Florida.

  D. Both Jims were fond of math and tired of spelling.

  3. It was reported that the Jim twins suffered from the same kind of disease: .

  A. toothaches    B. headaches  C. earaches D. rheumatism

  4. What determines the heredity of a developing person?

  A. The zygote.    B. The fertilized eggs.  C. The genes. D. The sperm.

  5. What are formed when the cells go on dividing?

  A. Skins, muscles, bones and other tissues.

  B. Nerves, muscles, bones and other tissues.

  C. Nerves, blood, bones and other tissues.

  D. Nerves, muscles, hairs and other tissues.

  6. After the two newlyformed cells separate, each cell continues to form .

  A. a new cell           B. a separate individual

  C. the same genes         D. the identical twins

  7. What can be learnt from the set of twins named Oskar Stilhr and Jack Yufe, who were raised oceans apart?

  A. They were raised as Catholics.

  B. They were raised as Jews.

  C. Although they were growing up in different environments, they showed some similarities.

  D. They were quite different in quality.

  8. The twins, Stihr and Yufe, showed the following similarities EXCEPT that .

  A. they both flushed the toilet before using it

  B. they both ate buttered toast after dipping it in their coffee

  C. they both look at magazines from back to front

  D. they both wore seven rings, two bracelets on one wrist, and a watch and a bracelet on the other

  Ⅱ。 CONTEXTUAL REFERENCE

  Guess the meaning of the following words in italics using reading techniques.

  1. The period of adolescence, i.e., the period between childhood and adulthood, may be long or short, depending on social expectations and on societys definition as to what constitutes maturity and adulthood…… Furthermore, the length of the adolescent period and the definition of adulthood status may change in a given society as social and economic conditions change…… At the age of sixteen the adolescent is granted certain adult rights which increases his social status by providing him with more freedom and choices.

  2. The flaccid condition of his body is unlike that of Jim, who now exercises daily, watches his diet, and had become thin and healthy.

  3. You may have what is called a phobia: a great fear of something or situation.

  4. Shrugging, or lifting the shoulders, is a typical French gesture to show that one doesnt know or doesnt care about something.

  5. Biomechanics - the application of engineering principles to the motions of the human body - stands at the heart of much of the current work in training athletes.

  6. According to Dr. Patricia Cowings "The mind can control the body - there is more of a connection than most people think." Psychologists are people experts. They are trained to evaluate and advise individuals and groups.

  In order to do that, psychologists usually specialize. For instance, clinical psychologists (the largest group) help mentally or emotionally disturbed people to adjust to life. They usually work in hospitals or have their own clinics.

  School psychologists evaluate studentsneeds. Then they counsel the young people. Experimental psychologists, like Dr. Cowings, work in a laboratory where they study human behavior.

  Ⅲ。 CLOZE

  Complete the following passage by filling in the blanks with appropriate words.

  Genes for Jewelry?

  If heredity is so important, how can genes account for something as specific as wearing an identical number of rings  and bracelets? Is there a gene     1    jewelry? No. But Dr. David Lykken, 2     of the psychologists in the study      3     another explanation. In     4     twins, he says a group of     5     that form pretty hands     6     combine in     7     a way as      8     create a desire to 9     the hands.

  Dr. Lyken calls this     10     of response an ideographic (表意文字的,表意符号的), or personal 11. Because identical twins have the same     12, they are     13     to have many of the 14   ideographic responses.

  Thus far, 15 sets of identical separated      15     have been studied. The researchers have not only     16     many likenesses but also many     17. One scientist said, "the similarities are18     more fascinating     19     the differences, and it could     20   be the impression the likenesses make is heavier than it should be.

  But the puzzling question still remains. Why are there so many likenesses?

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