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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY55

2006-7-28 01:05  

  DAY55

  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1

  Because in the next century one in four of our population will be over 60, maintaining the health and quality of life of the elderly will be a crucial issue for all of us. At the moment a man who reaches 60 can expect to live another 20 years, a woman another 25 years. The bad news is that many disabling conditions like heart disease and stroke, arthritis, osteoporosis and dementia become commoner as we get older. What we need therefore to try to ensure is that those 'retirement years' are characterized by good health, autonomy and fulfillment.

  A major priority is reducing — or at least postponing — the onset of disability by preventing chronic diseases. We know more and more about the way or genes affect our predisposition to disease, so these days we can influence gene expression by altering our patterns of behavior. The great bulk of chronic diseases are preventable and we can do a lot in terms of lifestyle and diet to avoid them. Because of that the population appears to be getting healthier: todays average 60yearold two decades ago.

  Medically, the next few decades are about adding life to years as much as years to life: compressing the span of disability and morbidity, preserving mental and physical health, and enhancing the individuals ability to function independently away from residential care.

  Loneliness is currently one of the biggest problems facing the elderly, but here I expect technology to contribute a lot to quality of life, especially for the house — or bedbound. Economically, the affluent elderly represent an enormous potential market, albeit one that has been ignored until now. All that is going to change. Indeed the fastest growing market for internet users in the United States is now among the over 60s.

  With about a quarter of our lives to enjoy after 60, how can the individual make best use of their “retirement years” and experience of older people? Here we need nothing less than a major redesign in our attitudes, as well as in our institutions, which evolved to support populations, with a very different age structure.

  Marked regional variations in timescales are apparent too: Northern Europe has been ageing over the last century, but in Singapore of the population over 60 to double from 9 to 18 per cent. This means even less time to face up major social changes. Perhaps Singapore in the end be more successful than we are?

  Every aspect of society, including employment, health, taxation, pensions and education, needs looking at. For whatever recipe we opt for, profound changes in age structure can only mean profound social changes ahead.

  1. According to the passage, why it is important to main the health and quality of life of the elderly?

  A. Humans can only live several years after 60.

  B. The elderly often suffer from these disabling conditions.

  C. We should show our respect to the elderly.

  D. There is large population in old age.

  2. Which of these following statements is right?

  A. The most important thing is to find a way to cure these chronic disease.

  B. We can rearrange our genes.

  C. We can alter our habits to reduce the rate of chronic disease.

  D. There is no relationship between our life style and the chronic disease.

  3. What is the meaning of the first sentence in paragraph 3?

  A. Live the longer the better.

  B. We should live in high quality; even our lives are not long enough.

  C. We should live longer and healthier.

  D. We should lead a live of different style.

  4. What is the best title for the passage?

  A. Pay more attention to the elderly B. Bodies

  C. Live healthily D. The world is becoming older

  5. What is the authors attitude?

  A. We should use the elderly — the enormous potential market to earn more money.

  B. There will be a big change in our society for there are more and more elders.

  C. Singapore will be more successful in dealing with elders.

  D. A person who is more than 60 years old should enjoy their retirement years rather than work.

  Passage 2

  The idea of sending time capsules into space is not entirely new. NASAs Voyager spacecraft, launched in the late 1970s, came equipped with goldplated copper photograph records (along with playback equipment) containing characteristic sounds of terrestrial life. These probes are currently headed off to inclose to another star system and it is unlikely that they will ever encounter another world.

  Another NASA time capsule is definitely coming back. Stardust, schedules for launch in February, 1999, carries two microchips whose surface are etched with photographs, letters, and more than one million names. When Stardust reaches comet Wild2 in 2004, it will collect a sample of commentary material in a canister, which will return to Earth — along with the two microchips — in 2006.The chips will probably go on display; at 7 years of age, they will surely be among the youngest time capsules in history.

  JeanMarc Philippe, a scientistturnedartist, conceived KEO as something drastically different than these casual NASA efforts. Rather, he plans a time capsule that will convey real messages (not just names) and that will bring them back to the Earth in the far future. The very far future: KEO should launch in 2001 but will not return to the Earths surface for 50,000 years!

  Philippe and Kerin Jestin, his wife and collaborator on the project, chose 50,000 years because it toughly matches the amount of time that has passed since humans created the first art. “It is a long enough time that we will have lost references from our present civilization; the traces of today will be gone,” he says. Part of the goal of KEO is to allow direct communication between the world of 2001 and the world of 52001. The more immediate point of the project, however, is that it forces people of today to think about the things they would want to say in such a communication.

  Over 50,000 years, KEOs orbit will gradually decay, causing the satellite to spiral inward. Several layers of shielding will safeguard the payload from cosmic rays, meteorites, and atomic oxygen. At present, lowearth orbit is filling with junk, mostly from discarded bits of rockets. Philippe hopes that future generations will clean up the space environment — “otherwise KEO will be destroyed on the way down.” When it hits the dense lower atmosphere, KEOs heat shield will burn away to create an artificial aurora, insuring that whoever is around will notice that the craft has returned.

  It's impossible to know, or even to guess, what kind of a world KEO will return to. But to Philippe and Jestin, the success of the project doesnt depend on the interest or even comprehension of future generations. In the chief of an African village, a winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics and a child from the favelas will be placed side by side. “The result,” KEOs creators hope, “will be a millennial message to the present as much as a message to the future.”

  1. What is the purpose of sending time capsules into space?

  A. Just for interest.

  B. In hope of communicating with another world.

  C. It is a project of space exploration.

  D. To text whether our space skill is mature or not.

  2. What is the meaning of “the youngest time capsules ”?

  A. They are the first time capsules that human sent.

  B. They carried least things.

  C. They only spent 7 years in the space.

  D. They are the first time capsule that will be displayed.

  3. Why they choose 52100 as the date of the time capsule returning?

  A. Because 50,000 years is long enough for the time capsule to traveling through the space.

  B. Because 50,000 years is long enough to lost references from our present civilization without capsule.

  C. Because it was 50,000 years ago that human created the first art.

  D. There is no special meaning in it.

  4. Which of the following statement is NOT correct?

  A. Over 50,000 years KEO will spiral inward for the orbit will decay.

  B. KEO will be broken because there are many discarded bits of rockets.

  C. The cosmic rays, meteorites, and atomic oxygen will not be dangerous to KEO.

  D. There will be an artificial aurora around the KEO in the process of its returning.

  5. What is the best title for the passage?

  A. Time capsule B. Message to another world

  C. Communicating with the future D. Memories in flight

  Passage 3

  The chief functions of the heart are to send blood to the lungs, so that they can receive oxygen from the inhaled air, and then to pump this oxygenated upon this receiving a constant supply of oxygenated blood. This is particular true for the heart itself which contracts 10,000 times a day, and requires a very large amount of oxygen for conversion into the energy necessary to produce regular and efficient contractions. The heart muscle, or myocardium, receives its oxygenated blood from the main artery, or aorta, which leads out of the heart. The first arteries that are fed by the aorta are the two coronary arteries, so called because they circle like a crown — the upper part of the heart.

  It is obvious that any decrease in this blood supply might impair the functions of the heart.

  Inadequate blood supply to the myocardium results either from a decrease in the blood flow through the coronary arteries, or from an increase in the demands of the heart muscle without any corresponding increase in coronary blood flow. Of these, decreased flow is the more common, and it is due to structural changes in the walls of the coronary arteries. Loss of elasticity, increased rigidity, fatty, fibrous, and even bony changes occur patchily along the inner coats of the coronary arteries, and are known as atherosclerosis.

  Serious disease of the coronary arteries can lead to their obstruction either gradually or suddenly. When the obstruction is gradual, it will cause some isolated muscle fibres to die and deprive of their source of energy. The change may be so gradual that it never leads to any symptoms, or on the other hand, it may result in the pain of angina pectoris(心绞痛)。 Sudden obstruction of one of the coronary arteries cut off all the flow of blood to area of the heart muscle beyond the obstruction and usually results in the severe, prolonged, and intense pain of a heart attack, and when it occurs at a critical site, the result may be disastrous.

  Coronary atherosclerosis is not a new disease. It has been found in the mummified bodies of men who lived 5,000 years. Moreover, there is evidence to suggest that it may not be increasing. Yet there has, in contrast, been an alarming increase in angina and in coronary heart attacks during the last forty years. There is no doubt that to find an explanation of this big increase is one of the most pressing problems for medical research today.

  One of the earliest changes in the development of atherosclerosis is the appearance in the inner coats of the artery of a fat, called cholesterol; and as the artery is progressively destroy, a large amount of cholesterol accumulates. Fifty years ago Russian research workers showed that cholesterol fed to rabbits produced changes very similar to human coronary atherosclerosis. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that the richness of our Western diet may be one of the contributory causes of coronary heart attacks, but it is far from clear whether this is due to an excess of calories, the high protein content, the high fat content, or even to certain in our diet. At present, it is not possible to confirm or to refute the suggestion that there is a causal relationship between the amount of fat or the type of fat we eat and the incidence of heart attacks.

  1. What is the chief function of the heart?

  A. Making blood receive oxygen from the inhaled air.

  B. Pumping oxygenated blood all over the body.

  C. Sending blood to the lungs.

  D. Making the activity of every tissue in body work in order.

  2. The factors that can cause atherosclerosis except.

  A. the decrease in supply to heartB. loss of elasticity

  C. increased rigidityD. bony changes occurring along the inner coasts

  3. Which of the following results of the disease of the coronary arteries is not mentioned in the passage .

  A. obstruction B. muscle fibres to die

  C. the pain of angina pectoris D. loss of the ability to do sports

  4. Which of the following statement is NOT true?

  A. Coronary has a more than 5,000 years history.

  B. The increase of coronary is much less than angina and heart attacks.

  C. There are many evidences to clarify the facts that the increase of coronary is much less than angina and heart attacks.

  D. Western diet is not good for human health.

  5. The authors style can best be described as.

  A. dramatic B. objective C. archaic D. esoteric

  Passage 4

  There can be few more depressing stories in the entire history of mans exploitation of nature than the destruction of the unfortunate great whales. The whales have not only suffered untold cruelty but now face total extermination. Already entire populations have been wiped out, and the only reason why no species has yet been finished off is due to the vastness and inaccessibility of the oceans; a pocket or two somewhere has always managed to escape. How ironic if biological extinction were to complete the job.

  The basic rule of extinction is very simple: it occurs when a species morality is continually greater than its recruitment. There are though, some very special additional factors in the case of whales.

  Man does not actually have to kill the last whales of a species with his own hands, as it were, to cause its disappearance. Biological extinction will quickly follow the end of commercial whaling, should that end be due to a shortage of raw material, i.e. of whales. Whalers have long sought to defend their wretched trade by insisting that whales are automatically protected: as soon as they become rare, and therefore uneconomic to pursue, man will have no choice but to stop the hunting. That is a very nice theory, but it is the theory of an accountant and not of a biologist; only an accountant could apply commercial economics to complex biological systems. The reasons for its absurdity are many and varied. In the case of whaling, it can be summed up in the following way. When the stock has been reduced below a critical level, a natural, possibly unstoppable downward spiral begins because of three main factors. First, the animals lucky enough to survive the slaughter will be too scattered to locate one another owing to the vastness of the oceans. Secondly, whales being sociable animals probably need the stimulus of sizeable gatherings to induce reproductive behavior (which has social inferences as well as sexual)。 It is quite likely that two individuals meeting through chance will not be compatible. (They can hardly be expected to be aware of their own rarity or to realize any need for adjusting their natural inclinations.) This is especially so with polygamous species like the Sperm Whale. Thirdly, and perhaps most important in the long term, even allowing that the whales might still be able to band together in socially acceptable groups (thanks to their undeniable excellent communicative systems), there is a real danger, possibly even a probability, that the whale gene pools would by then have sunk so low as to be biologically unviable. That is to say, the characteristics possessed by the original population would be whittled down to those characters possessed by only the few remaining individuals. The result of such a biological calamity is inbreeding, less ability to adapt to new conditions, and less individual variety. Three words can sum it up: protracted biological extinction. The future “hopes” of these animals are further discussed in the final chapter.

  1. When does a species become extinct?

  A. When there is more hunting.

  B. It is not mentioned in the article.

  C. When more animals go on dying than they are born.

  D. When human beings continue to kill them.

  2. Whalers argue that whales will not become extinct

  A. because they are not selfprotected.

  B. because they are not worth pursuing.

  C. because the oceans are so vast.

  D. because hunting will stop when whales become rare.

  3. The writer believes that the whalers argument is

  A. very nice. B. rather absurd.

  C. unreasonable. D. biologically acceptable.

  4. Many species of whales will not breed unless

  A. they are in the same group for a long term.

  B. they are isolated from other species.

  C. they are in the company of many other whales.

  D. There are enough genes available.

  5. The writer considers that protracted biological extinction

  A. is very likely to happen.B. is probably dangerous.

  C. is important to happen.D. is the main reason for the extinction.

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:

  Passage 1

  文章以老年人的健康问题为起点,讨论了社会老龄化、提高生活质量、减少慢性病等问题,提出应该关注身体健康的观点。

  Medically, the next few decades are about adding life to years as much as years to life. 在医学方面,未来几十年,人们要做的不仅是要增加寿命,而且要保证生命的质量。

  1. 「D」文章的第一句话直接说明了原因。

  2. 「C」在第二段中,可以看出作者的观点是预防慢性病,减少或推迟残疾的发生。通过改变行为方式来影响基因的表现,以及改变生活方式和习惯来避免慢性病。

  3. 「C」详见难句解析。

  4. 「B」文章的主旨是关注身体健康。

  5. 「B」文章提到了老年人的潜在市场,但目的是要运用这一市场来减少老年人的孤独感,提高他们的生活质量。C项内容只是作者的推测;作者还在第5段中提到了如何利用老人的技能和经验问题,指出我们需要对我们的人生态度作出重大改变。

  Passage 2

  文章介绍了向太空发射时间舱的科学探索,重点说明了将在五万年后回归地球的KEO.

  Over 50,000 years, KEOs orbit will gradually decay, causing the satellite to spiral inward. Several layers of shielding will safeguard the payload from cosmic rays, meteorites, and atomic oxygen.大约五万年后,KEO的轨道将渐渐衰退,使这颗卫星向下向内做螺旋运动。几层防护屏将保护有效负载免受宇宙射线、陨星和原子氧的危害。

  1. 「B」文章第一段中说道:尽管接近另外一个星球或遇见另一个世界的可能性很小,但是人们还是发射了时间舱。

  2. 「C」文章的第二段中最后一句说道:“历时7年,它们将是历史上最年轻的时间舱。”

  3. 「B」文章的第四段中提到:人类的第一件艺术品是50000年前创作的,言下之意,对其以前的历史已无从考证,他们的目的在于把有可能随时间而消亡的信息带给50000年后的人们。

  4. 「B」B项只是作者的推测、假设。其他各项都可在文章的第五段找到相关的句子。

  5. 「D」

  Passage 3

  文章主要介绍了冠心病的形成和危害,以及饮食等对冠心病的影响。

  Inadequate blood supply to the myocardium results either from a decrease in the blood flow through the coronary arteries, or from an increase in the demands of the heart muscle without any corresponding increase in coronary blood flow.心肌供血不足是由于通过冠状动脉的血流量减少,或者是由于心肌血液需求量上升而冠状动脉的血流量却没有相应上升而造成的。

  1. 「C」文章第一段叙述了关于心脏功能的内容。将血液压入肺部是心脏最主要的功能,其他各项是血液进入肺部之后的一系列过程。

  2. 「A」文章第二段中提到atherosclerosis(动脉硬化)是B、C、D等项原因引起的。A项是心脏供血不足,是动脉硬化的结果。

  3. 「D」其余各项都能在文章的第三段中找到。

  4. 「C」在第四段中最后一句话说道:“探寻冠心病的发病频率没有上升而心绞痛和突发性心脏病的发病频率上升很快的原因是当今医学研究中的迫切任务之一”

  5. 「B」本文是科技说明文,其写作风格是B,而A(夸张),C(过时),D(神秘)都不正确。

  Passage 4

  鲸鱼正遭到大规模的捕杀,接近绝种。作者从三个方面反驳了捕鲸者们认为鲸鱼不会绝种的观点。

  1. Already entire populations have been wiped out, and the only reason why no species has yet been finished off is due to the vastness and inaccessibility of the oceans; a pocket or two somewhere has always managed to escape. 已有海洋生物被成批成群地大规模捕杀,但之所以还有物种没被完全灭绝,是因为海洋的广阔无垠和某些地区的不可接近性,因此总有那么一两小撮的生物得以幸免于难。

  2. Biological extinction will quickly follow the end of commercial whaling, should that end be due to a shortage of raw material, i.e. of whales. 如果商业捕鲸的停止是由于作为原材料的鲸鱼的匮乏,那么这项商业活动的终结也必将意味着这一物种的最终灭绝。

  1. 「C」第二段第一句话指出:“动物绝种的基本规律非常简单,当物种的死亡率不断增加,至超过其出生率时,绝种就出现了。”

  2. 「D」可见第三段第6-7句。

  3. 「B」从文章第三段可找到作者的观点。作者认为,这种理论是会计的,而不是生物学家的理论,只有会计才会将商业经济学运用于复杂的生物系统。

  4. 「C」见第三段的第二个论点。

  5. 「A」第三段倒数第二句进行了归纳:“用三个单词概括,延缓生物的灭绝。”

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