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考研英语范文阅读(三十六)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  Could the bad old days of economic decline be about to return? Since OPEC agreed to supply-cuts in March, the price of crude oil has jumped to almost $26 a barrel, up from less than $10 last December. This near-tripling of oil prices calls up scary memories of the 1973 oil shock, when prices quadrupled, and 1979-1980, when they also almost tripled. Both previous shocks resulted in double-digit inflation and global economic decline. So where are the headlines warning of gloom and doom this time?

  The oil price was given another push up this week when Iraq suspended oil exports. Strengthening economic growth, at the same time as winter grips the northern hemisphere, could push the price higher still in the short term.

  Yet there are good reasons to expect the economic consequences now to be less severe than in the 1970s. In most countries the cost of crude oil now accounts for a smaller share of the price of petrol than it did in the 1970s. In Europe, taxes account for up to four-fifths of the retail price, so even quite big changes in the price of crude have a more muted effect on pump prices than in the past.

  Rich economies are also less dependent on oil than they were,  and so less sensitive to swings in the oil price. Energy conservation, a shift to other fuels and a decline in the importance of heavy, energy-intensive industries have reduced oil consumption. Software, consultancy and mobile telephones use far less oil than steel or car production. For each dollar of GDP (in constant prices) rich economies now use nearly 50% less oil than in 1973. The OECD estimates in its latest Economic Outlook that, if oil prices averaged $22 a barrel for a full year, compared with $13 in 1998, this would increase the oil import bill in rich economies by only 0.25-0.5% of GDP. That is less than one-quarter of the income loss in 1974 or 1980. On the other hand, oil-importing emerging economies—to which heavy industry has shifted—have become more energy-intensive, and so could be more seriously squeezed.

  One more reason not to lose sleep over the rise in oil prices is that, unlike the rises in the 1970s, it has not occurred against the background of general commodity-price inflation and global excess demand. A sizable portion of the world is only just emerging from economic decline. The Economist's commodity price index is broadly unchanging from a year ago. In 1973 commodity prices jumped by 70%, and in 1979 by almost 30%.

  51. The main reason for the latest rise of oil price is ________.

  (A)global inflation

  (B)reduction in supply

  (C)fast growth in economy

  (D)Iraq's suspension of exports

  52. It can be inferred from the text that the retail price of petrol will go up dramatically if ________.

  (A)price of crude rises

  (B)commodity prices rise

  (C)consumption rises

  (D)oil taxes rise

  53. The estimates in Economic Outlook show that in rich countries ________.

  (A)heavy industry becomes more energy-intensive

  (B)income loss mainly results from fluctuating crude oil prices

  (C)manufacturing industry has been seriously squeezed

  (D)oil price changes have no significant impact on GDP

  54. We can draw a conclusion from the text that ________.

  (A)oil-price shocks are less shocking now

  (B)inflation seems irrelevant to oil-price shocks

  (C)energy conservation can keep down the oil prices

  (D)the price rise of crude leads to the shrinking of heavy industry

  55. From the text we can see that the writer seems ________.

  (A)optimistic

  (B)sensitive

  (C)gloomy

  (D)scared

  答案及试题解析

  BDDAA

  51.(B)

  此题的难度合适,区分度好。

  本题的答题依据是第一段的第二句话,“Since OPEC agreed to supply-cuts in March,  the price of crude oil has jumped to almost $26 a barrel, up from less than  $10 last December.”看懂了这句话,这道题就很容易了。

  52.(D)

  此题的难度合适,区分度好。

  本题的关键信息在第三段的第三句话“In Europe, taxes account for up to four- fifths of the retail price, so even quite big changes in the price of crude have a more muted effect on pump prices than in the past.” 意思是说:在欧洲,汽油的零售价中税占到五分之四,因此税的增加会导致汽油价格的(成比例)猛涨,而原油价格的变化带来的影响不会很大。

  53.(D)

  此题较易,区分度很好。

  本题的答题依据是第四段中的下面这句话 “The OECD estimates in its latest Economic outlook that, if oil prices averaged  $22 a barrel for a full year, compared with $13 in 1998, this would increase the oil import bill in rich economies by only 0.25% -0.5% of GDP.”这是一道比较容易的题。

  54.(A)

  此题的难度合适,区分度很好。

  本题的答题依据是全文的最后一段,强调这次油价上涨与20世纪70年代的上涨不同,也就是没有70年代的那一次那么可怕。

  55.(A)

  此题比较容易,区分度很好。

  本题是一道比较容易的题。答题依据贯穿全文,尤其是第三段和最后一段的第一句话,强调人们不必担心此次油价上涨,因为这一次的情况与20世纪70年代不同。

  翻译句子

  1、In Europe, taxes account for up to four- fifths of the retail price, so even quite big changes in the price of crude have a more muted effect on pump prices than in the past.

  [参考译文]:在欧洲,税金占到了零售价格的五分之四,因此即便是原油价格有相当大的变化,在今大对油品零售价格的影响都比过去要不显著得多。

  [结构剖析]该句是一个复杂句,由两个单句构成,中间用so来表示前后的因果关系。

  [阅读重点]本句阅读的重点是一些短语和词组。account for占…的部分;muted原意是“沉默的,被弄哑的”,在文章里的意思是“不太显著的”;pump price油品零售价格。

  2、 One more reason not to lose sleep over the rise in oil prices is that, unlike the rises in the 1970s, it has not occurred against the background of general commodity-price inflation and global excess demand.

  [参考译文]另外一个不应因油价上涨而失眠的原因是,这次不像70年代的那些次上涨,它并不是在普遍的商品价格暴涨和全球需求过旺的背景之下发生的。

  [结构剖析]本句的主句是One more reason is that……。比较复杂的是其以that引导的表语从句,它的主语是it,指代的是the rise in oil prices.

  [阅读重点]本句阅读的重点在于了解一些短语的意思:lose sleep over因…而失眠;occur against the background of……发生在…的背景之下。

  补充难句翻译

  1、Strengthening economic growth,  at the same time as winter grips the northern hemisphere, could push the price higher still in the short time. [参考译文]:不断加强的经济增长,同时随着冬天来到北半球,有可能在短期内使价格进一步上升。

  [结构剖析]该句是一个含有插入成分的单句。主语是Strengthening economic growth,谓语是could push,插入成分是一个时间状语。

  [阅读重点]本句阅读的重点是要首先抓住主句的基本结构。

  2、Energy conservation,  a shift to other fuels and a decline in the importance of heavy, energy- intensive industries have reduced oil consumption.[参考译文]:能量储备,转换使用其他燃料,以及重型能量密集型工业重要性的减轻,这些因素都减少了石油的消费。

  [结构剖析]该句是一个简单句,只是主语复杂一点,其谓语部分是have reduced oil consumption.

  [阅读重点]本句阅读的重点在主语,注意它里面有三个并列成分:Energy conservation, a shift to other fuels,第三个是a decline in the importance of heavy, energy- intensive industries.

  3、The OECD estimates in its latest Economic Outlook that,  if oil prices averaged $22 a barrel for a full year, compared with $13 in 1998,  this would increase the oil import bill in rich economies by only 0.25-0.5%  of GDP.[参考译文]OECD在其最近的《经济隙望》中估计,如果石油价格与1998年的每桶13美元相比在一年中平均为每桶22美元,这也只会给富裕的经济体的石油进口账单上增加GDP的O.25%到0.5%.

  [结构剖析]本句的主句是The OECD estimates…… that,本句复杂的地方在其宾语部分,里面有一个条件状语 if oil prices averaged $22 a barrel for a full year, compared with $13 in 1998,而主句是后面的部分,其中的主语this指代的是if条件句。

  [阅读重点]本句阅读的重点在于抓住句子的主干。

  语言点详解

  1.economic decline经济衰退[大纲词汇]economic adj.经济的;经济学的decline n.衰退;衰败[经典例句]After the 911 incident,the US came into a slight economic decline.

  2.crude粗糙的,未经加工的[大纲词汇]crude adj.天然的;未加工的;粗制的;粗鲁的;粗野的[词义辨析]cruel a. 心残忍的;冷酷的[经典例句] Crude Oil is the raw material of many chemical industries.

  3 .barrel桶[大纲词汇]barrel n.桶[经典例句]wine is usually stored in oak barrels in the West.

  4.quadruple四倍的[记忆方法]记住quadra是表示“四”的词缀[词义辨析]quarter四分之一

  5.gloom and doom黑暗与死亡[大纲词汇] gloom n.黑暗;阴暗doom n.毁灭;死亡[词义辨析]注意这两个压韵的词组成了一个很好的词组。

  [经典例句] One failure in an exam certainly does not mean gloom and doom of your academic. life.6.hemisphere 心半球[大纲词汇]hemisphere n.半球;半球体[记忆方法]这个词是个典型的复合词,hemi-表示“半”;而sphere表示“球体”。

  7.conservation保护;保存[大纲词汇]conservation n.保护;保存;保护区[联想记忆]conserve v. 保存conservative adj.保守的,守旧的; n.保守派[经典例句] Conservation of natural resource is of great important for the sustainable development.

  8.swing摇摆不定[大纲词汇]swing v.摇摆,摆动,回转,旋转; n.秋千,摇摆,摆动[经典例句]swings in the oil price have great impact on transportation industry.

  9.emerging intensive能源密集型的[记忆方法]energy:能源;intensive:集中的;密集的[联想记忆]labor-intensive劳动密集型的capital-intensive资金密集型

  10.emerging economy新兴经济[大纲词汇]emerge vi.显现,浮现,暴露,形成[经典例句]China now is considered as one of the major emerging economies.

  11.squeeze压榨,挤,挤榨[大纲词汇]squeeze v.压榨,挤,挤榨[经典例句]You can easily squeeze water from the sponge.

  12. excess过剩的[大纲词汇]excess n.过度,剩余,无节制,超过;adj.过剩的,过分的[联想记忆] excessive adj.过多的,过分的surplus n.剩余,过剩[经典例句] His excess behavior leads to the break up of his marriage.

  全文翻译

  过去经济衰落的日子会不会重来?自从石油输出国组织在3月决定减少原油供应,原油的价格便从去年12月的不到10美元一桶上升到约26美元一桶。这次近3倍的涨价令人想起了1973年和1979~1980年两次可怕的石油恐慌,当时的油价分别涨了4倍和近3倍。前两次的油价暴涨都导致了两位数的通货膨胀和全球性的经济衰退。那么这次警告人们厄运来临的头版新闻都到哪里去了呢?

  本周伊拉克暂停石油出口,这使油价又一次上扬。强劲的经济增长势头,随着北半球冬季的到来,有可能在短期内使石油价格涨得更高。

  然而,我们有充分的理由预期这次油价暴涨给经济带来的影响不会像20世纪70年代那么严重。与70年代相比,现在多数国家的原油价格占汽油价格的份额要小很多。在欧洲,税金在汽油零售价的比例高达4/5,因此,即使原油价格发生很大的波动,汽油价格所受的影响也不会像过去那么显著。

  发达国家对石油的依赖性也不如从前,因此对油价的波动也就不会那么敏感。能源储备、燃料替代以及能源密集型重工业的重要性的降低,都减少了石油消耗量。软件、咨询及移动通讯消耗的石油,比钢铁、汽车行业少得多。发达国家国民生产总值中每一个美元所消耗的石油量比1973年少了近一半。国际经合组织在最近一期的《经济展望》中估计,如果油价持续一年维持在22美元左右,与1998年的13美元一桶相比,这也只会使发达国家的石油进口在支出上增加 GDP的0.25%~0.5%。这还不到1974年或1980年收入减少部分的1/4.另一方面,进口石油的新兴国家由于转向了重工业,消耗能量更大,因此可能会受到石油危机的强烈影响。

  另外一个不应因油价上升而失眠的原因是,与20世纪70年代不同,这次油价上升不是发生在普遍的物价暴涨及全球需求过旺背景之下。世界上很多地区才刚刚走出经济衰落。《经济学家》的商品价格指数与一年前相比总的来说也没有什么变化。1973年的商品价格跃升了70%,而1979年也上升了近30%。

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